Пособие на английском языке Для студентов юридического факультета




НазваниеПособие на английском языке Для студентов юридического факультета
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The Problem of Waste


1.

Developed societies produce vast amounts of waste (around 390 kg per person per year in Europe) and the amount produced is rising steadily.

Waste is acknowledged to be an environmental problem worthy of legal regulation because it presents a risk of causing environmental harm. The kind of risk posed by waste is peculiar to that class of objects or sub­stances: it is a risk of harm due to the likelihood of escape or abandonment. The risk of escape or abandonment is much higher for things which are waste because these things are not valued by the persons who control them.

'Abandonment' is used here to mean a deliberate severing of the link between controller and object without any attempt to control the sub­sequent use of that object. To abandon an object is to discard it. Aban­doning or discarding could include consigning an object to a chain of events which would lead to eventual landfill disposal, aquatic or gaseous emissions, incineration or recovery. Abandonment can also take less well-managed routes, especially direct abandonmentdumping or fly-tipping.


'Escape' implies negligent rather than deliberate behaviour. In the absence of ethical attitudes towards the environment, a person is likely to fail to take precautions to prevent the escape of any substance under his care which he does not perceive to be of value. A substance which is regarded as having positive value, on the other hand, is likely to be subject to protective action to preserve its 'attached' value.


'Environmental harm' has many contested meanings. One of the most commonly cited 'problems' of waste is that of aesthetic displeasure (i.e. unsightly waste mounds, litter, objects carelessly deposited or blowing around, unpleasant smells) but it may be difficult to explain why, from a non-anthropocentric perspective, loss of human aesthetic quality should count as 'harm' at all. Waste can cause environmental harm through pollution (harmful interaction of contamination with living organisms) and by other mechanisms.


Notes

  1. vast amounts of waste – огромное количество отходов

  2. Waste is acknowledged to be an environmental problem worthy of legal regulation – проблема отходов признана вопросом, требующим правового регулирования

  3. peculiar – здесь: имеет особенный характер

  4. likelihood of escape – вероятность беспечного выброса

  5. abandonment – преднамеренное оставление

  6. deliberate severing of the link – намеренное разрывание связи

  7. sub­sequent use – последующее использование

  8. discard – выбрасывать (за ненадобностью), избавиться

  9. Aban­doning or discarding could include consigning an object to a chain of events – выбросить или отказаться от чего-то утратившего свои потребительские свойства – значит обречь этот предмет на цепь событий

  10. eventual landfill disposal – объект возможного размещения отходов

  11. aquatic – водный

  12. incineration – сожжение, сжигание

  13. recovery – извлечение [из отходов некоторых компонентов, пригодных для повторного использования]

  14. well-managed routes – менее контролируемые пути

  15. direct abandonment: dumping or fly-tipping – в прямом смысле выбросить: сбросить в реку или свалить в мусорную кучу

  16. … implies negligent – …подразумевает безответственное [поведение]

  17. to fail to take precautions – не принимать меры предосторожности

  18. perceive – здесь: считать

  19. regarded as having positive value – считающееся имеющим положительную ценность

  20. likely to be subject to protective action to preserve its 'attached' value – вероятно, будет защищено с целью сохранения его субъективной ценности

  21. displeasure – неудовольствие

  22. unsightly waste mounds – безобразные горы свалок

  23. litter – разбросанные вещи, бумаги; сор, мусор

  24. carelessly deposited – неряшливо сваленные

  25. blow – раздувать ветром

  26. contamination – загрязнение, заражение (почвы)

Сomprehension

  1. How much waste do Europeans produce?

  2. Why is the problem of waste worthy of legal regulation?

  3. What risks do vast amounts of wastes pose?

  4. What do you usually do with the things you discard?

  5. What environmental harm can wastes cause?


2.

Different types of waste present differing magnitudes of pollution risks. Some substances are intrinsically likely to pollute if released into the environment (e.g. radioactive waste or toxic chemicals). Some sub­stances pose only context-specific risks of pollution, e.g. milk is generally harmless but if spilt into a river presents a serious risk to aquatic life due to its tendency to rob the water of available oxygen. Some substances almost never pollute (e.g. water vapour).

Waste can cause both direct and indirect pollution. Direct pollution occurs when waste itself becomes a contaminant which inflicts environ­mental harm. Landfill, for example, creates a risk of direct environ­mental harm through the leaching of pesticides, organic compounds, cyanide and heavy metals into substrata. These contaminants can infil­trate and contaminate groundwater. Landfill sites also give off methane gas which has a powerful greenhouse effect and emits noxious odours. Incineration creates air pollution in the form of sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, organic compounds, dioxins and heavy metals. These may pre­sent public health risks and 'fall out' onto nearby land or water. Incin­eration produces its own forms of waste – toxic ash which ultimately has to be disposed of to landfill. Fly tipping of waste creates an obvious hazard for organisms coming into contact with the tipped substances.


Notes

  1. magnitude – величина

  2. intrinsically likely to pollute – по своей сущности склонны к созданию зоны загрязнения

  3. pose only context-specific risks – представляют источники риска в определенном контексте

  4. spill (spilt, spilt) – здесь: проливать

  5. contaminant which inflicts environ­mental harm – заражающее (отравляющее) вещество, причиняющее вред окружающей среде

  6. vapour – пар

  7. occur – случаться

  8. landfill – специально оборудованный для свалки объект (полигон)

  9. leaching of pesticides – пропитывание пестицидами

  10. organic compounds – органические соединения

  11. cyanide – цианид, соль сернистоводородная

  12. substratum (pl substrata) – нижний слой; субстрат

  13. infil­trate – проникать

  14. give off methane – выделяют метан

  15. noxious odour – зловоние

  16. incineration – сжигание

  17. sulphur dioxide – сернистый газ

  18. nitrous oxides – веселящий газ, закись азота

  19. dioxins – диоксины

  20. ash – пепел

  21. ultimately – в конце концов


Comprehension

  1. What is direct pollution?

  2. How does incineration affect public health?

  3. Why is fly-tipping dangerous?

  4. How does landfill pollute the environment?


3.

Indirect pollution occurs when waste substances are not themselves the contaminant. It is taken for granted in capitalist economies that things that are abandoned as waste can and should be replaced. Accessing resources and the production of new substances or objects creates a risk of pollution: often in excess of the risk associated with re-use of the original object or regeneration of the original substance. Waste also causes indirect pollution through transportation to disposal or recovery sites.

Waste can cause harm by processes other than pollution. In the case of non-renewable resources, the very act of drawing on resources to replace waste items leads to the diminution of the resource stock which may be classed as 'harm' if viewed from the perspective of future generations. This is recognised by the preamble to Directive 75/442/EEC which notes that 'the recovery of waste and the use of recovered materials should be encouraged in order to conserve natural resources.'

Waste can also cause harm through loss of habitat, ecosystems or species due to the proliferation of waste sites.

Does that mean that creating or disposing of waste is ethically unacceptable? The answer to this question will depend upon (a) the type of ethic that we adopt;

(b) the type of waste involved and

(c) the context of disposal concerned.

If, for example, we adopt a biocentric or ecocentric ethical approach then waste which affects humans may be of relatively little importance, except to the extent that it also affects these organisms. From an ecocentric perspec­tive leachate from a waste disposal site which contaminates an aquifer, thereby rendering it unusable as a source of potable supply would be of relatively little concern.


Notes

  1. indirect pollution – загрязнение косвенным путем

  2. taken for granted – считается само собой разумеющимся

  3. should be replaced – подлежат удалению (обезвреживанию)

  4. аccessing resources – добыча сырья

  5. in excess of the risk associated with re-use of the original object or regeneration of the original substance – часто риск больший, чем тот риск, который ассоциируется с повторным использованием первоначального предмета или с регенерацией исходного вещества

  6. disposal or recovery sites – объекты размещения отходов или объекты для регенерации отходов

  7. non-renewable resources – невозобновляемые ресурсы

  8. the very act of drawing on resources to replace waste items leads to the diminution of the resource stock – само применение ресурсов для замены выбрасываемых изделий ведет к сокращению остающихся ресурсов

  9. proliferation – распространение

  10. the type of waste involved – тип отходов, о которых идет речь

  11. the context of disposal concerned – контекст конкретного типа избавления от мусора

  12. approach – подход

  13. leachate – фильтрат

  14. aquifer – водоносный пласт, водоносный горизонт

  15. rendering it unusable as a source of potable supply – сделает источник питъевой воды непригодным для использования

Comprehension

  1. When does indirect pollution occur?

  2. What does Directive 75/442/EEC say about the recovery of waste?


4.

If we adopt an anthropocentric approach to waste then waste which affects only animals and plants will be of relatively little importance, except to the extent that harm to animals and plants indi­rectly impacts on humans. Enlightened anthropocentric positions would require careful waste management because waste tends to diminish and demean the environmental conditions for humankind. This kind of reasoning is quite non-specific about actual waste policies because a variety of different approaches might lead to the least diminution in human welfare/satisfaction.

Any anthropocentric ethic concerning waste will have to take into account the need for equity between various parties affected by the overall waste cycle. This can be problematic. Difficult question of equity can arise, for example, in the law and policy concerning the siting of waste disposal sites. Welfare can be maximised in many cases if waste disposal sites are constructed in relatively accessible places in the vicinity of, or near by, large urban areas. But the aesthetic disamenity which accom­panies the waste disposal site will impact differentially: being very sig­nificant for neighbouring residents and insignificant for those living further away. The response to the proposals for waste disposal sites is often “Not In My Back Yard” (NIMBY). If equity in the matter of siting waste disposal sites is to be construed via utilitarian principles, then the wishes of a local minority cannot be presumed to outweigh the greater good of those living in a larger area. At present decisions about the acceptability of waste sites are taken by county councils as local planning authorities under the Town and Coun­try Planning Act (TCPA) 1990.


Notes

  1. anthropocentric approach – антропоцентрический подход

  2. enlightened anthropocentric positions – взгляд на проблему с точки зрения просвещенного антропоцентризма

  3. demean environmental conditions for humankind – ухудшить экологические условия для существования человечества

  4. equity – здесь: справедливое равновесие

  5. parties – здесь: стороны

  6. in the vicinity of – вблизи от

  7. aesthetic disamenity – неэстетичность

  8. neighbouring residents – живущих по-соседству

  9. “Not In My Back Yard” (NIMBY) principle – принцип «только не у меня во дворе»

  10. equity in the matter of siting waste disposal – справедливость в вопросах выбора площадок для размещения полигонов

  11. construed via utilitarian principles – истолковывается исходя из утилитарных принципов (то есть с точки зрения практической пользы)

  12. the wishes of a local minority cannot be presumed to outweigh the greater good of those living in a larger area – трудно предположить, что мнение местного меньшинства возобладает над более важными интересами населения более крупного района

  13. decisions about the acceptability of waste sites – решения о целесообразности размещения мусорных полигонов

  14. as local planning authorities – как органами власти, осуществляющими планирование


Comprehension

  1. What does NIMBY principle imply?

  2. Who takes decisions about waste sites in England?

  3. What document regulates acceptability of waste sites in England?


5.

According to Council resolution of 7 May 1990 on waste policy in Britain 'the production of waste should, where possible, be prevented or reduced at source, particularly by the use of clean or low waste technologies and products; ... waste that cannot be recycled or reused has to be disposed of in the most environmentally safe manner; ... it is important for the Community as a whole to become self-sufficient in waste disposal and it is desirable for Member States individually to aim at such self-suffi­ciency'.

In the UK recycling is carried out by the waste institutions, by industry and on a voluntary basis by individuals. Three principal institutions for waste management created by the EPA 1990 were the Waste Regulation Authority (WRA), the Waste Disposal Authority (WDA) and the Waste Collection Authority (WCA). Waste disposal without a licence is a criminal offence contrary to s.33 EPA 1990 and that are stringent conditions imposed on the operators of waste disposal sites including the requirement that the holder of the licence be a 'fit and proper person' and have sufficient financial resources to carry out their obligations in relation to the disposal operation.

Waste is only subject to legal control because, in some cases, it presents an environmental hazard so in a sense any attempt to classify waste into two simple groups – hazardous and non-hazardous – is futile and mis­leading: waste varies in hazardousness along a continuum from benign to extremely hazardous. RCEP (1985) comment that:

'"hazardous waste" as a term on its own has little meaning since hazard is related to the situation and circumstances rather than just to the properties of the materials ... Most materials have the potential to be hazardous if incorrectly handled.'


Notes

  1. low waste technologies – малоотходные технологии

  2. self-sufficient – самостоятельный, самодостаточный

  3. Member States – страны – члены (Евросоюза)

  4. stringent – строгий, обязательный

  5. requirement – требование

  6. sufficient – достаточный

  7. subject to legal control – подлежит только юридическому регулированию

  8. hazard – опасность

  9. attempt – попытка

  10. futile and mis­leading – тщетная и ложная

  11. waste varies in hazardousness along a continuum from benign to extremely hazardous – по степени опасности отходы можно классифицировать по бесконечной шкале, начиная с представляющих минимальную опасность и кончая крайне опасными

  12. if incorrectly handled – при неправильном обращении


RCEPRoyal Commission on Environmental Pollution – Королевская комиссия по контролю за загрязнением окружающей среда

EPAEnvironment Protection Act – Акт об охране окружающей среды


Comprehension

  1. What does the Council Resolution of 7 May 1990 on waste policy say?

  2. What institutions carry out recycling in England?

  3. When were these institutions created?

  4. What is the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (1995) comment about?


6.

In international law hazardous waste is now subject to strict transpor­tation restrictions. In the 1970s and early 1980s large quantities of hazardous waste were shipped to developing countries which accepted them for disposal or storage in return for badly needed foreign currency earnings. Waste was less expensive to dispose of in developing countries because of the lower environmental standards obtaining in such coun­tries. A series of highly publicised incidents involving rejected waste shipments and very dangerous disposals, led to calls for new controls on international movement of hazardous waste. The principal results were:

The 1986 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal.

The 1989 Lome Convention.

The 1991 Bakamo Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of transboundary

Movement of Hazardous Wastes Within Africa.

The Basel Convention provides a system of 'prior informed consent' whereby the shipper of waste has to inform and obtain the consent of the authorities in the importing state prior to shipment. If it transpires that the recipient of the waste cannot handle the waste in an environmentally sound manner then the exporter is obliged to re-import the waste.


Notes

  1. restriction – ограничение

  2. were shipped – были отгружены

  3. storage in return for badly needed foreign currency earnings – принимали на хранение взамен на поступление крайне нужной им иностранной валюты

  4. less expensive to dispose of in developing countries because of the lower environmental standards adopted in such coun­tries – [отходы] дешевле переместить в развивающиеся страны из-за существующих там низких экологических требований

  5. A series of highly publicised incidents involving rejected waste shipments and very dangerous disposals, led to calls for new controls on international movement of hazardous waste – несколько случаев поставки опасных отходов, от которых пришлось отказаться, и информация об объектах их размещения, получившие широкую огласку, привели к призывам изменить правовое регулирование транспортировки опасных отходов в другие страны

  6. transboundary – трансграничный

  7. 'prior informed consent' – данное заранее информированное согласие

  8. If it transpires that the recipient of the waste cannot handle the waste in an environmentally sound manner then the exporter is obliged to re-import the waste. – Если становится известным, что получатель груза не в состоянии обращаться с ним надлежащим (экологически безопасным) образом, экспортер обязан реимпортировать эти отходы


OECD – Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development – Организация экономического сотрудничества и развития (ОЭСР)


Сomprehension

  1. Why is hazardous waste subject to strict transportation restriction in international law?

  2. What facts led to calls for new controls on international movement of hazardous waste?

  3. What conventions regulate international movement of hazardous wastes in England?


7.

Waste which is moved for recovery is divided into three categories reflecting the OECD's green, amber and red lists.

Since green list waste is waste which should 'not normally present a risk to the environment if properly recovered in the country of destination ....' the Regulation requires merely that it be accompanied by certain basic information (the name and address of the holder; the usual commercial description of the waste; the quantity of the waste; the name and address of the consignee; the operations involving recovery; and the anticipated date of shipment).

Amber list wastes are subject to more elaborate controls: the exporting state competent authority must give prior notification along with de­tailed information including the source, composition and quantity of the waste. The importing state competent authority must ac­knowledge the notification within three working days. The importing state competent authority has 30 days to make a reasoned objection to the planned shipment, in the absence of which the shipment 'tacit consent' which is valid for one year.

Waste on the red list and wastes not yet assigned to one of the three lists are subject to the procedures for amber list waste but, additionally, require the consent in writing of the competent authorities concerned prior to the commencement of shipment.

Exceptionally member states of EC may treat green list wastes as amber or red list wastes if they exhibit any of the hazardous characteristics listed in the Directive on Hazardous Waste. Decisions to treat green list wastes as amber or red list wastes must be determined in accordance with Article 18 of the 1975 Waste Directive (Art 1.3 (c) and (d): the Commission must be notified immediately, other member states must be notified as appropriate, and reasons must be given. The Commission may confirm such decisions.

Shipments of waste effected in contravention of the Regulation are deemed to be 'illegal traffic' which member states are required to take appropriate legal action to prohibit and punish.


Notes

  1. moved for recovery is divided into three categories reflecting the OECD's green, amber and red lists. – [отходы,] перемещаемые для утилизации, делятся в соответствии с требованиями Организации экономического сотрудничества и развития по уровню риска на три категории: зеленый список [перечень безопасных отходов], желтый список [перечень отходов, подлежащих тщательному контролю] и красный список [перечень опасных отходов].

  2. anticipated date – ожидаемая дата

  3. Amber list wastes are subject to more elaborate controls – виды отходов, перечисленные в желтом списке, подлежат более тщательному контролю

  4. competent authority – компетентные органы власти

  5. must give prior notification along with de­tailed information – обязаны предварительно уведомить и предоставить подробную информацию

  6. acknowledge the notification – принять уведомление

  7. make a reasoned objection – выдвинуть обоснованное возражение

  8. tacit consent – молчаливое согласие

  9. wastes not yet assigned to one of the three lists are subject to the procedures for amber list waste – виды отходов, не вошедшие ни в один из перечней, подлежат прохождению процедур, предусмотренным в желтом списке

  10. prior to the commencement of shipment – перед началом отгрузки

  11. Exceptionally member states of EC may treat green list wastes as amber or red list wastes – странам – членам Евросоюза предоставляется исключительное право квалифицировать виды отходов, входящие в зеленый список, как виды отходов, включенные в желтый или красный список

  12. exhibit any of the hazardous characteristics – если они демонстрируют какие-либо опасные характеристики

  13. Shipments of waste effected in contravention of the Regulation are deemed to be 'illegal traffic' – поставки отходов в нарушение Правил считаются «незаконной торговлей»


Comprehension

  1. What are the three categories of hazardous waste?

  2. Why do you think they are called ‘red’, ‘green’ and ‘amber’ lists according to OECD?

  3. What is the difference between the red list and the amber one?

  4. What document determines the treatment of hazardous waste in England?


8.

A particular form of hazardous waste which raises very challenging ethical issues is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is, in the main, derived from the use of radioactive material in civil nuclear reactors for the production of electricity. The principal environmental benefit of nuclear energy is the production of electricity without the use of fossil fuels. Nuclear energy could contribute significantly to a reduction in global warming. Global warming is likely to have not only human impacts (e.g. crop failures, flooding and desertification) but also impacts on nature – loss of species and ecosystems as the world climates shift. Critics of nuclear waste production point out, however, that these benefits can be replicated by so-called 'soft technologies' (e.g. solar or wind power) without any of the concomitant risks.

The drawbacks of nuclear energy are several – increased amounts of bomb grade nuclear material, potential for nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl, increased death through cancers caused by radioactive emis­sions, etc. – but these principally affect human populations. Due to the long half-lives of many radioactive isotopes, the environmental risks of radioactive waste extend over a considerable period of time and hence number of generations. This sets up a complex ethical framework. The tensions in radioactive waste management extend along three principal axes:

a) equity between humans and non-human nature;

b) equity between human population of this generation;

c) equity between human generations.


Notes

  1. challenging ethical issues – [ставят] очень острые этические вопросы

  2. derived from the use of radioactive material in civil nuclear reactors – являются производными при использовании радиоактивных материалов в ядерных реакторах

  3. benefit – преимущество

  4. fossil fuels – ископаемые виды топлива

  5. contribute significantly – в значительной мере содействовать

  6. reduction – понижение

  7. human impacts – воздействие на людей

  8. crop failure – неурожай

  9. flooding – наводнение

  10. desertification – опустынивание

  11. loss of species – исчезновение биологических видов

  12. climates shift – изменение климата

  13. these benefits can be replicated by so-called 'soft technologies' – равную пользу можно получить с помощью так называемых мягких технологий

  14. concomitant – сопутствующий

  15. drawback – недостаток, отрицательная сторона

  16. bomb grade nuclear material – материал для атомных зарядов (оружейный плутоний)

  17. potential for nuclear accidents – вероятность радиационных аварий

  18. increased death through cancers caused by radioactive emis­sions – высокая смертность от рака, вызванного радиоактивными выбросами

  19. Due to the long half-lives of many radioactive isotopes – из-за длительного периода полураспада многих изотопов

  20. hence – следовательно

  21. This sets up a complex ethical framework – отсюда вытекает целый комплекс проблем

  22. The tensions in radioactive waste management – сложности распоряжения радиоактивными отходами

  23. extend along three principal axes (ед.ч. axis) – здесь: требует решения проблем в трех основных направлениях


Comprehension

  1. What is the main benefit of the use of nuclear energy?

  2. What are the reasons of global warming given in the text?

  3. What are the drawbacks of the use of nuclear energy?

  4. What problems arise from radioactive waste management?


9.

Problems of equity between humans and non-human nature may arise because activities which result in radioactive waste may be of net benefit to the non-human aspects of the environment but relatively disadvantageous to humankind. If so, should environmental interests be allowed to outweigh those of human populations? Deep environmentalists may even welcome the risk of human mortality associated with radioactive waste since any lowering of the human population may be seen as ethically advantageous.

Problems of equity within the existing generation of humans arise in at least two ways. First, the concentration of radioactive materials at a number of plants for use or treatment increases the risk to surrounding populations from certain types of cancer while the benefits of such activities accrue to the population fairly evenly. Is it ethically acceptable to subject local populations to disproportionate risks for the benefit of the wider population? This raises, in an acute form, the problems of NIMBYism discussed above in relation to waste sites generally. Is it ethi­cally acceptable to subject global populations to disproportionate risks for the benefit of local populations?


Notes

  1. may be of net benefit – здесь: могут быть в целом полезны

  2. non-human aspects of the environment – здесь: объекты живой природы

  3. relatively disadvantageous to humankind – относительно невыгодны людям

  4. deep environmentalists – здесь: ярые защитники природы

  5. welcome the risk of human mortality associated with radioactive waste – готовы приветствовать риск гибели людей в связи с воздействием радиоактивных отходов

  6. since – здесь: поскольку

  7. may be seen as ethically advantageous – можно считать как этически предпочнительным

  8. treatment – здесь: обработка

  9. surrounding populations – здесь: людям, живущим в близлежащих регионах

  10. benefits of such activities accrue to the population fairly evenly – выгоды от такой деятельности распределяются достаточно равномерно среди всего населения

  11. to subject to disproportionate risks – подвергать повышенному риску


NIMBY – Not In MY Back Yard – по принципу «только не у меня во дворе»


Comprehension

  1. What do you think about the risks of lowering of human population: is advantageous or not?

  2. How can you explain the term “NIMBYism”? Are there any similar expressions in Russian?

  3. What do you think are the possible ethical ways of solving problems concerning energy?


10.

The ethics of radioactive waste may depend upon the chosen disposal option. Deposit in deep geological vaults may protect members of the present generations but critics of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste maintain that leakage from these vaults is likely within a relatively short period of time (only several hundred years) creating permanent health and safety risks for future generations. An alternative solution may be long-term above-ground storage. Above-ground storage creates a greater risk to members of present generation (e.g. from emissions or sabotage) but provides future generations with the greatest range of options. Not cutting off any major disposal option may be the fairest solution for future people.

Government policy in the matter of intergenerational equity in England is that present and future generations should be afforded equivalent environmental protection. Radioactive waste management should be based on the same basic principles as those which apply more generally to environmental policy, and in particular on the principle of sustainable developmentcost implications should be brought home directly to the people responsible – the polluter pays principle.


Notes

  1. chosen disposal option – выбранный способ удаления [отходов]

  2. deep geological vaults – хранилище глубокого залегания

  3. maintain – здесь: утверждать

  4. leakage – течь, утечка

  5. permanent – постоянный

  6. storage – хранение

  7. sabotage – акт(ы) диверсии

  8. provides future generations with the greatest range of options – предоставить будущим поколениям огромный выбор

  9. cut off – здесь: не исключая [из списка]

  10. [Government policy] is that – [государственная политика] заключается в том, чтобы…

  11. sustainable development – устойчивое развитие (то есть удовлетворение потребностей настоящего времени, не ставя под угрозу способность будущих поколений удовлетворять свои собственные потребности)

  12. cost implications should be brought home directly to the people responsible – the polluter pays principleответственные лица должны отдавать себе отчет в необходимости проведения оценки планируемой деятельности и не забывать, что «загрязнитель платит»


Comprehension

  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of storage wastes in deep geological vaults?

  2. What risks does above-ground storage of wastes create?

  3. What do you think of intergenerational equity?
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