Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D




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THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chirf

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chirf

of

Supplementary Volumes

LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN





THE NEW


SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

0R

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EMBRACING

BIBLICAL, HISTORICAL, DOCTRINAL, AND PRACTICAL THEOLOGY

AND BIBLICAL, THEOLOGICAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL

BIOGRAPHY FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES

TO THE PRESENT DAY

Based on the Third Edition of the Realencyldopadie

Founded by J. J. Herzog, and Edited by Albert Hauck

PREPARED BY MORE THAN SIX HUNDRED SCHOLARS AND SPECIALISTS

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor in  Chief )

WITH THE ABSISTANC9 0R

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN


GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Associate Editortr)

AND THE f0LLOWIRG DEPARTMENT CDITDRB

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology )

HENRY KING CAR ROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations)

JOHN THOMAS CR,EAGH, D.D.

(Department of Liturgics and RelViow Orders)

(v0i. L)

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgice and Aetigioua Orders)

(VOLE. II. TO %H.)

JAMES FREDERIC M.CURDY, PH.D., LL.D.

(Department of ae Old Testament)


HENRY SYLVESTER ,HASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN. D.D., LL.D.

(Departtnent of Church History)

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME I

AACHEN BASILIANS

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1951





EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

1949

LITHOPRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

CUSHING MALLOY, INC., ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN





EDITORS

SAMUEL B;ACAQLEY JACKSON,.D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR nq CHIEF. )

Professor of Church History, New York University.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS


CHARLES COLEBROOK BHERMAN GEORGE WILLLA G)ILMORE, H.A.

Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on "The New Inter  New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer

national Encyclopedia," New York. on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.


DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME I


CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D. JdaIES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D.,

(Department of Systematic Theology.)
LL.D.

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological (Department of the Old Testament.)

Seminary. Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament.)


Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Tes­


tament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)


One of the Corresponding Secretaries of the Board of Foreign

Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.

JOHN THOMAS CREAGH, D.D.

(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders.)


Professor of Canon Law, Catholic University of America,

Washington, D. C.

HQBERT EVANS, Ph.D.

(Office Editor.)

Member of the Editorial Stag of the Enayalopa3dls Britanniaa

Company, New York City.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMbN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Warn, Tex.


FRANK HORACE VIZZTZLLY, F.S.A­


(Dafoartmcnt
of Pronunciation and 7ytpographH.)

fanaqlng Editor of the SrsxnAnn DicrioxAax, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME I

HANG ACHELIS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halls.


SAMUEL JAMES ANDREWS
(t),

Late Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church, Hartford, Conn.


CARL IPB,wwrxr.rN SOLD, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, EvsngeVCal Theological Faculty,

University of Breslau.


OI A R NOE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,

Professor Of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Semi­


nary.

KARL BENRe,TH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.


IMNANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BENZIN

(iER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Formerly Priva4docent in Old Testament Theology, University

of Berlin. Member of the Executive Committee of the

German Society for the. Exploration of

Palestine, Jerusalem.

CARL BERTHEAQ, Th.D.,

Pastor of St. Michael's Church and President of the Society

for the Inner Mission, Hamburg.


EDWIN MBNSELL BLISS, D.D.,

Editor of the Encyclopedia of Mieaiona, etc., Washington, D. C.


EDUARD 80EH~CER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Formerly Professor of Romance Languages. Universities of Ti ells

and Strasburg.


A8Y GASTON BONET 1CAURY, D.D., LL.D,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity,

Par)9.


GOTTLIEB NaTHSNdEL BoNmETSaH,

Th.D.,

Protector of Church History, University of Gottingen.


FRIEDRICH BOSSE, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of the New Testament and Church History, University

of (ireitewaid.

GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Formerly Pastor at Nabern near Hlmhheim, Wtirttemberg.





JOHANN FRANZ WILHELM BOUSSET,

Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of GBttlngen.


JOHANNES FRIEDRICH THEODOR

BB,IEGER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsio.


OITA B.LES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

DLitt. (Oxon.),

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symboltm, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.


CARL VON BUCHRQCSEB, (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistoriai Councilor, Munich.


FRANTS PEDER WILLIAM
BUHL, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.


WALTER CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

Pedagogics, and Didactics, University of Erlangen.


ALEXIS E DU FONT COLEMAN,

Bi..Ar.,

Instructor of English. College of the City of New York.


JOHN THOMAS OREAGH, D.D.,

Professor of Canon Law, Catholic University of America,

Washington. D. C.


AUGUST HERXANN CREHER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Systematic Theology,University of Greftewald.


GUSTAF HERMAN DALHAN, Ph.D.,Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis. University of Lelpda,

and President of the German Evangelical Arebeo­


logical Institute, Jerusalem.


SAMUEL XARTIN DEUTSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.


FRANZ WILHELH DIBELIQS, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

sup me Conslstorial Councilor, City Superintendent, and Pastor

of the Church of the Cross, Dresden.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWS, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Gfessen.


WILHELIC DRESLER, Ph.D.,

Librarian, University of Greifswald.


HEINRICH DUNOKER (t), Th.D.,

Late Coneistorlal Councilor. Dessau.


HENRY OTIS DWIGHT, LL.D.,

BAoording Secretary of the American Bible Society, New York.


DAVID ERDXANN (t), Th.D.,

lformerfy General Superintendent and Honorary Professor of

Church History, Evangelical Theological Faaalty,

University of Breslau.

HERHANN AUGUST PAUL EWALD,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, uni.

varsity of Eriangea.


PAUL FEINE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament lxegmls, University of Berlin.

BARR
71.?~.1!71!f

Writer on Art and Architecture, New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME I

JOHANNES FICKER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church HisWry, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

University of Strasburg.


THEODOR FORESTER (t), Th.D.,

late Professor of Church History, University of Halls.


NORMAN FOX (t),
D.D.,

Late Baptist Clergyman and Author, Morristown. N. J.

ALBERT FREYBE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Gymnaetal Professor. Parchim, Mecklenburg.

EHIL A L BART FRIEDBERG, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical. Public. and German Law, Univer­


sity of Lelpsia.


HEINRICH GELZER (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Olaesical Philology and Ancient History, Uni­


versity of Jena.


GEORGE WILLLAIW GILMORE, M.A.,

Formerly Lecturer on comparative Religion, Bangor Theo­

logical Seminary.

WALTER GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Tabiagen.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical School, and Pro­


fessor, Military Academy. Munich.


JOHANNES FRIEDRIOH.GOTTSOHIOS (t),

Th.D.,

Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis.. Ethics, and Prue.

Uca1 Theology, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

University of TQbingen.


HERXANN GUTHE, Th.D., .

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipalo.


HEINRICH HAHN, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History and German in the Luisenstadt

Real Gymnasium, Berlin.


ADOLF HARNACB, Ph.D., M.D., Dr.Jur.,

Th.D.,

PmfAowr of Church History, University of Berlin, and Gen..

eral Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.


ALBERT ~HAUCg, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic; Editor of the P

.adknoyldopdtdia, Founded by J. J. Heraog.


HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor, and Director of the University Library, Gfeseen.

RICHARD HAQSHANN, Hiet.D.,

Formerly Professor of History, Dorpat, Russia.

JOHANNES HAQSSLEITER, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

CondeWrial Councilor, Professor of New Testament Theology

and Exegesis, University of Greffswald.


CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG HEINRIOI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Lefpsic.


XAX HEROLD, Th.D.,

Dean, New*tadt~on tbe Afxh, Bavaria, Editor of 9fonm


PAUL HINSCHIQS, (t),
Dr.Jur.,

Late Professor of Bodesiaetical LBW, University of Berlin.





CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME I

HERMANN WILHELM HEINRICH

HOELSCHER, Th.D.,

Pastor of the Church of St. Nicholas. Leipsfc, Editor of the ARqe­

meine evanpelisch4uthertache girchenzettung and

of the Deoloptac)w LUeraturblatt.



RUDOLF HUGO HOFXANN, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Homiletics and Liturgies, University of Lelpsic.


ALFRED JEREMIAS, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor of the Luther0hurrh and Prlvatrlocent for the History

of Religion and the Old Testament in the

University, Leipsic.


FRIEDRICH WILHELE< FE39DIMAND

EATTENBQSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle.


PETER GUSTAV SAWERAQ, Th.D.,

Consietorial Councilor, University Preacher, and Professor of

Practical Theology, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

University of Breslau.

HANS KESSLER, Th.D.,

Supreme Conaistorlal Councilor, Berlin.

RUDOLF EITTEL, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipelc.


HEINRICH AUGUST BLOSTEBMANN,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel.


AUGUST KOEHLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erian­

gen.

FRIEDRICH EDUARD KOENIG, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Bonn.


THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERXANN

SOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlanm


HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD ERQE­

GER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.


JOHANNES WILHELM EUNZE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of

Orolfawald.


EARL LUDWIG LEIE(t), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Late Provincial Councilor for Schools, Hanover.


LUDWIG LEA, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.


EDUARD LE"P, Ph.D.$

Chief InepWtor of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart.


F$IED$ICH LEZIQS, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of KBDSgeberg.


BRUNO LINDNER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Aryan Languages. University of Lelpelo.

FRIEDRICH LIST Q), Ph.D.,

Late Studfendirektor, Munich.

GEORG LOESCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

Vienna.


FMEDRICH ARMIN LOOPS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.


WILHELM LOTZ, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erlangen.


ANDERS HEREZAN LVNDSTROEM, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Upeala, Sweden.


JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.


GEORGE DUNCAN MATHEWS, D.D.,

Secretary of the Alliance of the Reformed Churches, London.


PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Conetatorlal Councilor, Member of the Royal Conaiatory.

Hanover.

CARL THEOD03EL MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.


ERNST FRIED$ICH EARL MUELLER,

Th.D.,

Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

GE03ELG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Councilor for Schools, Leipaic.


NIKOLAUS SELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Christian Archeology, University of Berlin.


HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological Soirool. Cambridge, Mass.


CHRISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor in the Theological Seminary (Teacher of Hebrew,

New Testament Greek, and Religion), Maulbronn,

WRr#emberg.


CARL NEVXANN, Ph.D.,

Professor of the History of Art, University of Kiel.


ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D.,

LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Waco, Texas.

JULIUS NEY, Th.D.,

Supreme Conststorlal Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria.


FREDERIK CHRISTIAN NIELSEN (t),

Th.D.,

Late Bishop of Aalborg, Denmark.

HANS CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Religion,

University of Basel.

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