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Romance as a fairy tale


We may now conclude that the structure of a romance story is, indeed, very similar, if not equal, to that of a fairy tale. Propp´s scheme of functions is provenly applicable to the story of Sea Fever. The story line of Weave´s book follows Propp´s conception and can be fitted on the pivot defined by Propp without any complications. We may thus deduce there is no marked difference between the functions of romance stories such as Sea Fever and the ones valid for fairy tales as defined by Propp.

However, if we admit that both romances and fairy tales are so similar, if they even seem to be following the same story line and fit into the same structure, how are we as readers then able to tell these two apart? How do we recognise whether we are dealing with a fairy tale or a romance when it comes to a particular case? Fairy tales are conspicuous by their use of beautiful princesses and brave princes, dragons and evil witches or wizards, whereas romances tend to contain heroines with sexy bodies and equally attractive partners who usually prove to be exceptionally good when it comes to love making, needless to say that they posses incredibly large amount of money. That, of course, does not mean fairy tale princesses are less attractive or worse lovers or that the princes are less wealthy; all the above mentioned examples are just a proof that fairy tale stresses different values than those appreciated in romances. It evidently seems that the fairy tale stresses different properties and therefore it assigns its heroes and heroines different set of attributes than a romance story would. These characteristic features are what Propp calls the attributes of dramatis personae and although they are apparently different for fairy tales and different for romances, there nevertheless seems to be a great deal of stereotypical approach and repetitiveness involved in both of the cases.

Propp briefly comments on the problem of characters of a folktale in general in the chapter called “On the attributes of dramatis personae and their meaning.” He specifies the attributes as “the totality of all the exterior qualities of folktale characters: their age, sex, status, external appearance (...) and so forth, and adds that these attributes” provide the folktale with its brilliance, charm and beauty."94 He claims that "the nomenclature and attributes of characters are the folktale's variables,”95 yet he also observes that even these varying elements exhibit a noticeable repetitiveness. He regards the attributes as significant fairy tale elements, however he does not deal with the question of attributes profoundly and does not create any comprehensive classification.

Both fairy tales and romances include a startlingly great number of various examples of clichés, banalities and stereotypes. One of the aspects that romance stories share with fairy tales is this stereotypical pattern and the excessive usage of various types of clichés. As Angela Carter in her preface to The Virago Book of Fairy Tales points out: “Although the content of the fairy tale may record the real lives of the anonymous poor with sometimes uncomfortable fidelity (…) the form of fairy tale is not usually constructed so as to invite the audience to share a sense of lived experience.”96 In other words, according to Carter, fairy tales do not pretend to be real, instead they enjoy to ”parade their lack of verisimilitude”97

She compares fairy tales to “informal dreams dreamed in public” as they portray all the glamour and wealth of the unreachable world of princes and princesses, the splendour of the fantastic world one may dream of, all of which being, according to Carter, in fact a pure “creation of fantasy and wish-fulfilment.”98 She points out that this kind of dreaming and wish-fulfilment is particularly characteristic of the modern popular art including horror movies or soap operas, as well as the various female romance stories. It is perhaps in the female romances where it is most significantly present and clearly detectable. She claims that the fairy tale, as narrative, has a strong connection to “contemporary demotic forms, especially those “female” forms of romance.”99 And it is in connection with this that she points out the overwhelming occurrence of extreme qualities present both in fairy tales and in female romances. Heroes are usually either extremely ugly or extremely beautiful, extremely wealthy or extremely poor, there does not seem to be any medial option. There also tends to be abnormal occurrence of extreme cases of cleverness on the one hand and stupidity on the other. Both fairy tales and romances adopt noticeable stereotypical approach towards the description of the characters and setting of the story, they both rely on a detectably repetitive pattern.

Let us now compare and contrast the depiction of time and space settings and the portrayal of the individual characters the way they appear in fairy tales and the way they appear in romances. Fairy tale space settings tend to be rather generalized and universalized. They may be generalized to such an extent that they sometimes seem almost vague. Fairy tale space settings do have some connection to reality, this reality, however, is somewhat blurred. Fairy tales usually take place in a village, a town, a castle or a country, yet rarely do we learn where exactly are these located. In fairy tales the setting is not of exaggerated importance, it is usually enough to know it is a kingdom, a house or a village, be it set anywhere in the world. Fairy tales are valid universally, it is the story, the plot and not the setting that matters most.

The romance stories of the Mills& Boon type on the other hand tend to be set in exclusive, original and exotic countries; these countries, nevertheless, are real. Unlike fairy tales, where the space settings tend to be generalized, romances choose settings in quite exotic locations, the settings, however, are related to reality as closely as possible, doing their best to be credible and to contain features from real life. In Sea Fever, for instance, we are given exact information about the wherabouts of the heroes, be it in Bali or Europe, the reader is always presented with all the geographical names, even if it is the smallest village in the world.

When it comes to the representation of time, fairy tales are again rather vague. Expressions like “once upon a time”, “there was a time and no time” or possibly “long time ago” indeed only lead the reader to speculations. The fairy tale time remains mysterious; fairy tales usually take place in a kind of unreal time as if to stress their timeless and spaceless validity. Mills&Boon romances, on the other hand, usually include precise dates, hours and sometimes even year or decade to stress they are happening in present, that they are part of everyday life.

Let us now briefly return to the characters and their attributes. Carter in her The Virago Book of Fairy Tales poses an interesting question. The question is why are fairy tales dealing so often with princes and princesses? She admits that many of them deal with dysfunctional families or poverty etc., stories with kings, queens, princes and princesses, however, seem to be the most popular of all. And so the question arises: “Why does royalty feature so prominently in the recreational fiction of the ordinary people?”100 To which she readily replies: “For the same reason that the British royal family features so prominently in the pages of tabloid press, I suppose-glamour.”101 And indeed, if we apply Carter´s reply on the romances, we may observe that romance stories, just like fairy tales, deal predominantly with members of upper social class.

The most common scheme involves a beautiful but not unintelligent girl coming from a very poor background and a male hero, usually an extremely rich and powerful man with obvious charm and wits. The whole story is then based on their getting together and on the young, innocent girl entering the high society successfully. This is, in fact, the case in the story of Sea Fever as well. Angel is a sweet, innocent girl who meets Charles, a rich bachelor, and they finally get married, prior to which Angel becomes a famous super model, which in a way may be regarded as equal to becoming a princess in a fairy tale.

Connected to the fact that, as Carter suggested, both fairy tales and romances feature royalty, luxury and glamour, is the occurrence of the many unneccessary details that are usually being described in the romances. Romances are picturing their heroes with surprising precision. Female romances portray their heroes in a way that makes the reader believe he/ or rather she may really see them as if she was watching her favourite soap opera. Romances are focusing on such details as the material, colour and style of the heroes clothing, on the way their hair are done, the kind of makeup they wear etc. The description of their exterior is as vivid as if they were indeed on TV or celebrity picture magazine rather than in a book.

Even Weale in her Sea Fever stresses unimportant details when creating the images of her heroes. It is perhaps noteworthy that she concentrates not only on the female heroines but also goes into rather surprising details when it comes to describing the main male hero Charles, as for example in the following extract: “Charles was wearing white denim trousers and loafers with a short-sleeved navy blue shirt with the collar button undone.”102 She is also stressing when Angel wears and when she does not wear a make up, moreover she often includes a detailed description of the clothes Angel is wearing at a particular moment, as for example: ”she was wearing pale blue jeans, white loafers and plain white T-shirt and her long hair was plaited for coolness.”103

Apart from the question of fairy tale characters and their attributes, Propp also deals with some other characteristic aspects of fairy tales, one of them being trebling.

Propp mentions instances when what he calls auxiliary elements are trebled. According to his concept, folktales often present instances of various forms of trebling. He says that "trebling may occur among the individual details of an individual character (the three heads of a serpent), as well as among individual functions, pairs of functions (persecution-rescue), groups of functions and entire moves."104 Such repetition may appear in the form of even distribution, or gradation; as for example when the third task is the crucial one or the third and last try is the successful one. Trebling can, in fact, be found even in the story of Sea Fever.

It is for example in one of the kissing scenes, when Angel remarks: "Charles that's the third time you've kissed me,”105 stressing a detail that would otherwise be unimportant except for its trebling function. Also when they make love with Charles, it is not only once but three times in a row: "Hours later, when the tide was on the turn and they had made love three times, they put on while towel robes(...) and went to the galley"106 Again, the trebling here has only symbolic value.

And as if there was not enough trebling already, the story closes with three perfect weddings. It is the wedding of Charles´ aunt and her doctor , about which we only learn from the reassuring Angel receives from Charles´ aunt: "don't worry that doesn't mean that you''ll have nowhere to live, said Miss Therford. We're going to be married almost immediately, but I shan't be moving to Ralph's house."107 Another wedding follows shortly afterwards, it is the wedding of Angel´s friends Bill and Josie: "They're married! Why didn't they tell me? -I asked them not to. I wanted to surprise you."108Finally, the story then ends with the third and most important wedding of Charles and Angel. The trebling of weddings could therefore be regarded as trebling in the form of gradation.

Another important element that plays a crucial role in the romance plot construction is motivation. Propp also touches upon the subject of motivation of the dramatis personae in folk tales, yet he does no find it vital for the forming of the fairy tale plot. He says that "motivations formulated in words that are alien to the folktale, and that motivations in general may be considered as newly formed phenomena."109 What Propp says about motivations is that "under motivations are grouped all reasons and aims of characters which give rise to their deeds.”110 Although Propp expresses a belief that” motivations often add to a folktale a distinctive, vivid tone”111, he nevertheless points out that most of the characters present in a folk tale are "naturally motivated by the process of narrative,"112 and that very often villainy is not motivated by anything whatsoever.

In romance stories, however, motivation seems to be of far greater importance than it is in the fairy tales. Just to mention the many scenes involving unnecessary teasing and seducing attempt to make the story more exciting and supposedly less predictable. Dagmar Mocná also comments on the romance stories, saying that the works of female romances tend to have a fixed ending in marriage, the heroes and heroines tend to be always the same, they fall in love in the same way, they even declare their love using the same patterns over and over again. Yet, what distinguishes one piece of romance from another, is the peripety of the relationships depicted, the creation of the many hitches and obstacles that are to be overcome in order to gain the love of the object of one´s desire. According to Mocná, a successful piece of romance is marked by the artfully and craftily created set of motivations and the unusualness of the various obstacles.113

According to Propp, the characters of a folk tale are naturally motivated by the process of narrative, in romances, however, that does not seem to be the case. In Sea Fever, for example, the whole story happens within fewer than eighty pages, while to book comprises nearly two hundred. The rest of the book is filled with various forms of trickery, different minor conflicts and unnecessary disputes, love peripety and erotic teasing; simply, it is filled up with the descriptions of inner feelings of the heroes and heroines and of the events that provide an explanation of their motivation, which is something the fairy tale never does.

To end up the analysis, let us now conclude that romances have, indeed, proved to have a structure very similar to that of a fairytale as defined by Propp. Although there are some romance pecularities (such as the role of motivation or the different way of depicting characters, time and space settings), there is one thing that the fairy tale and the romance truly share. It is the conclusion of the story with the wedding act. Both fairy tales and romances inevitably lead their characters towards marriage. Angela Carter adds that ”most fairy tales and folk tales are structured around the relations between men and women, whether in terms of magical romance or of coarse domestic realism.”114 She then goes on to say that “ if many stories end with wedding, don´t forget how many of them start with a death- of a father, or a mother, or both; events that plunge the survivors directly into catastrophe,”115 which is, in fact, in complete accordance with Propp´s theory116 that folk tale is a chain functions that begins with misfortune or lack and ends with marriage. We may now conclude that the same may be said of the many romance stories, as they indubitably fit Propp´s scheme, that being a final proof that they employ the same functions as fairy tales.


III. Analysis of Indigo


Introduction

Marina Warner´s Indigo, published in 1992, is a story inspired by Shakespeare´s The Tempest. “Within the novel, Warner adapts Shakespeare's original plot and characters to fit a dual reality, spanning the 17th and 20th centuries, and the colonial sphere of the Caribbean alongside post-colonial London.” Although, when depicting the conflict of an imaginary island and the Everard family, Indigo explores the themes of discovery of the new land, the themes of conquery, slavery and colonialism; it also includes various references to ancient myths and fairy tales. As Milada Franková points out,117 Marina Warner is interested in fairy tales and myths studies and she herself, has published several theoretical works concerning this particular subject. Her interest in mythology and fairy tale theory is then reflected in her fictional work as well. According to Franková,118 all Warner´s novels include either myth or fairy tale elements of some kind. ”Fairy stories are told in them; the novel characters remember their favourite childhood tales;(…) the novels are plotted to evoke fairy-tale patterns or at least individual episodes or characters recall well-known and well-loved fairy stories whether of European or wider-world heritage.”119

These fairy tale and myth elements will be the subject of the following analysis. Indigo´s obvious connection to The Tempest by William Shakespeare and its post-colonial interpretations will not be discussed and interpreted in this work.


1. Postmodernist elements in Indigo

Before analysing the fairy tale and myth aspects themselves, let us take a short digression and focus on the postmodern fiction and its characteristic features first. Perhaps a brief look into the techniques employed by postmodernist writers might also prove helpful to the analysis that is to follow. For, as Milada Frankova in the preface to her Britské spisovatelky na přelomu tisiciletí (British Woman Writers at the Turn of the Millennium) says,among the good-quality novels of the last decade, there is hardly any that does not have at least some postmodernist traces or interconnections. She also points out that it is highly questionable whether there should at all be any strict distinction between what is and what is not postmodernist, as the term postmodernist itself is rather disputable. She claims that the term postmodern is chronically vague, congruently with the paradoxical pillars it stands on. She says that the controversy of the term lies in the fact that the idea of postmodernism stems from two contradictory concepts. Postmodernism, on the one hand, tends towards inclusiveness, on the other hand, it defines itself against the traditional centre and rejects the traditional canon. She also stresses the explicit postmodernist distrust of totalitarian and universal structures as such, and points out that the term postmodern is now being used as a name for a wide variety of experimental features.

Similarly, Barry Lewis in his essay called “Postmodernism and Literature” quotes Raymond Federman, 120 who claims that postmodernism cannot be defined as “a unified movement for which a coherent theory could be formulated.”121 Lewis then agrees, saying that, indeed, the novels and short stories marked as postmodernist tend to vary a great deal; there are, nevertheless, certain characteristic features that these postmodernist works seem to share. According to Lewis, these dominant features are: ” temporal disorder; the erosion of the sense of time; a pervasive and pointless use of pastiche; a foregrounding of words as fragmenting material signs; the loose association of ideas; paranoia; and vicious circles.”122

Although the novel Indigo could be analysed from the point of view of most of the aspects listed above, I will, nevertheless, focus only on those that are relevant to the subject of my thesis. That is on those that help to incorporate fairy tale and myth elements into the story.


1.1 Temporal disorder

According to Lewis, most of the postmodernist writings employ a special strategy when dealing with the representation of time. Quoting Linda Hutcheon, Lewis123 says that postmodernism is a contradictory enterprise, he says that it uses and abuses, installs and then destabilizes convention in its “critical or ironic re-reading of the art of the past.”124 When dealing with the past, postmodernist authors tend to blur the distinction between history and fantasy, reality and imagination. They deliberately blend the real and unreal, their aim being the distortion of history. Yet it is not only the history they juggle with, they also tackle the present. Corruption and transformation of present time seems to be quite frequent in postmodernist fiction. The typical way to accomplish such distortion is to disorder the linear coherence of the narrative.

The story of Indigo, in fact, consists of two interwoven narrative lines that have several conjunctures and points of contacts. Warner tells a story that crosses the frontiers of time and space, as her novel is told across three centuries and two continents. The story, however, is not narrated linearly, instead Warner disrupts the thread of the narrative and shifts from the past to the present and back again. The story begins in the twentieth century with the birth of Xanthe and is interrupted by the story of Sycorax, Dulé, Ariel and Kit Everard (the ancestor of the modern Everards); which takes place at the turn of the seventeenth century and which is, in fact, inserted into the original story line. From the seventeenth century, Warner moves back to the twentieth and skipping several years continues to tell the story of the present Everard family. The end of the book is then a kind of blend or intersection of the two time lines as the story follows the present Everards, yet it also includes ancient Sycorax and thus offers interconnection of the present and the past crossing the borders of time and history.

Warner, however, does not disrupt only the chronological succession of the individual parts of the book, she also breaks the linearity of the time within the individual chapters. She deliberately inserts retrospective passages as well as fairy tale and mythical stories, mixing them with the rest of the text. It is for example, when we retrospectively learn of the way Kit´s (meaning the present one) mother died when she had gone for a swim and probably drowned.

The time of the fairy tale stories, as they are told by Serafine, is of a special sort, well outside the past-present-future line. There is a special fairy tale time independent from the time settings of the rest of the story. It is unspecified, everlasting and timeless. Closely connected to the fairy tale time is the perpetual kind of mythical time, which is eternal, cyclic, and like the fairy tale time, it is not specified. This kind of time is present both in the stories of Serafine, as they contain some mythical elements; and in the central story of the Everard family, which could, too, be in some respect be regarded as influenced by myths. This influence can be observed especially in the way the family history is pictured. Some of the crucial events seem to be forming a notional mythical circle - the recurrent death of the Everard women in the sea (taken by the sea monster Manjiku); the return of the modern Everards to the island; the final conjunction of the ancient and the modern through Sycorax, the death of Ariel and her transformation into a pearl. …

Another noticeable feature regarding the time arrangement in the novel is the rewriting of history. Instance of that may be found when Serafine retells the story dated back to the time of the arrival of the first white settlers to her native island. While Serafine tells the story of Ariel (the native young girl that had a love relationship with Kit Everard) in accordance with the tradition that was set by the white colonizers and which claims that Ariel had saved Kit´s life warning him against the upcoming riots her tribe was planning; the readers, however, know that Ariel was not regarding Kit as her true lover and did not wish him to be saved, on the contrary, she wanted to destroy him. Warner is illustrating how powerful storytelling can be in transforming history.


1.2 Fragmentation

According to Lewis, “the postmodernist writer distrusts the wholeness and completion associated with traditional stories, and prefers to deal with other ways of structuring narrative.”125 Postmodernist fiction, as Milada Franková 126says, is noted for its tendency towards fragmentation, discontinuity and contingency. One of the means for obtaining the postmodernist fragmentation is the use of multiple ending, which “resists closure by offering numerous possible outcomes for a plot.”127 Franková also mentions the possibility of open endings, which she explains by the postmodernist distrust of totalitarian and universal structures as such. The story of Indigo is in many respects not finished and its ending may be regarded as open. The book contains narrative lines following several characters and while some of these stories may be seen as complete, others remain open ended, leaving space for readers´ imagination. Thus the story of Ariel, Sycorax or Xanthe may be viewed as complete, while others, such as Miranda´s, Serafine´s or Atrid´s is left open, only perhaps some indications of their future development are sketched.

Lewis also ads that there is yet another obvious way to achieve fragmentation of the text, which is simply “breaking up the text into short fragments or sections.”128 In the case of Indigo, the fragmentation and discontinuity of the text is very much interconnected with the temporal disorder that has already been mentioned above, as well as with the insertion of the fairy tales narrated by Serafine. As I have just suggested, the text is segmented according to its temporal relevance, the author then uses the individual segments and shuffles them, thus distorting the linear narration. Moreover, Warner breaks the text into smaller segments when she inserts Serafine´s fairy tales, as well as various songs sung by Ariel or the letters that Kit Everard sent home from his Caribbean settlement. Warner also attempts to break the unity of the text when she includes an interview Miranda, as a magazine reporter, makes with a famous independent film director; and a rather detailed description of the scene the director is shooting. Inserting the filmmaking is in a way equal to the insertion of the fairy tales and lyrics, as it is just another story that disrupts the thread of the narrative.


1.3 Pastiche

Lewis says that the etymological root of the word pastiche is the Italian word pasticcio meaning “a medley of various ingredients”129Pastiche could then be defined as a piece of writing that is created by deliberately copying the style of something else; or one that consists of a variety of different styles. As Lewis claims, “many contemporary novels borrow the clothes of different forms.”130 That means they borrow the structure, narrative techniques and various other elements from different genres, most frequently from western, science-fiction or from the detective genre. “The impulse behind this cross-dressing is more spasmodic than parodic. These genres provide ready-made forms, ideal for postmodernist miscegenation.”131

Postmodernist fiction, nevertheless, does not borrow its components only from the western, science-fiction or detective genre, it also makes use of myths and fairy tales. Franková, in her Britské spisovatelky na přelomu tisíciletí (British Women Writers at the Turn of the Mllenium), notes that both ancient myths and fairy tale motifs and elements have always been a great inspiration for writers and so it is not surprising that they should be so frequently employed in postmodernist pastiche as well.

Marina Warner´s Indigo evidently benefits from the use of various myth and fairy tale elements. The way she incorporates these into her story will be shown and dealt with in this chapter.


Analysis


1. Serafine

In her theoretical work, namely in her study From the Beast to the Blond, On the Fairy Tales and Their Tellers (1994) Warner is also concerned with the person of the storyteller, whom she believes to be a female one.132 Although she does not deny the importance of the male narrators (such as Aesop), she nevertheless claims that “throughout history women must have been by far the most frequent tellers of tales.”133In her analysis, she also expresses a belief that “the fairy tale ‘opened an opportunity for women to exercise their wit and communicate their ideas’ It empowered the woman, whether young or old, by giving her a voice.”134 In her historical study From the Beast to the Blond, Warner distinguishes several types of the female narrator. These are: the Granny, the Old Nurse, Mother Goose and, most importantly, the Sibyls. While the English Mother Goose is connected exclusively with stories targeted at children and appeared only in the eighteen century; Sibyl was adopted from the Classical cultures and is believed to be possessing timeless wisdom as well as truthfulness, furthermore, Warner suggests that “the Sibyl is a generic name and implies multiple figures.”135

Milada Franková in her “Marina Warner´s Sibyls and their tales” further adds: “Warner believes that ‘the Sibyl, as the figure of a storyteller, bridges divisions in history as well as hierarchies of class. She offers the suggestion that sympathies can cross from different places and languages, different peoples of varied status.”136 Franková then points out that it is in this way Sibyl survived across cultures and it is in this way she is present in all Warner´s novels.

As Indigo is in this respect no exception, the Sibylline voice could be traced there as well. The most obvious Sybilline figure is Serafine, the nanny. She is the typical representative of the old and wise storyteller. Serafine could be regarded as a kind of Mother Goose figure as she is, indeed, the good hearted, caring old nanny, telling her stories first to Miranda, then to Xanthe and at the very end even to Astrid, Miranda´s mother who has fallen ill. Her stories do not function as a Sibylline prophecy, rather they convey the timeless wisdom and advice of Mother Goose fairy tales. According to Wikipedia, the free internet encyclopedia, “Mother Goose is the name given to an archetypical country woman, who is supposedly the originator of the Mother Goose stories and rhymes.” This is in agreement with Angela Carter, who in the preface to her The Virago Book of Fairy Tales claims that most fairy tales are anonymous and genderless, however there exists “a European convention of an archetypal female storyteller. (…)Obviously, it was mother Goose who invented all the ´old wives´ tale´, even if old wives of any sex can participate in this endless recycling process, when anyone can pick up a tale and make it over.”137

Serafine, as a matter of fact, perfectly fits the Mother Goose characteristics as described above. Not only is she a kind of country woman, as she comes from the Caribbean Enfant-Beate island and is brought to Europe to serve as a nanny in the Everards family; she is also involved in the “endless recycling process” as she retells and interconnects various stories, mixing them all together to create a blend of her own. She mixes real events with the mythology of her native island, adding a bit of Classical mythology and European fairy tales, finishing with her own conclusion and subtle advice at the end.

Speaking metaphorically, Serafine could be regarded as the embodiment of a story book and, indeed, it is not a coincidence that the author describes her palms as “dry and hard like the paper in a storybook with visible dark lines that reminded Miranda of a mysterious script she longed to puzzle out.”138
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