Université du Québec à Rimouski




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Marion RICHARD

Oceanography PhD

marionrichard_fr@yahoo.fr

http://membres.lycos.fr/marionrichard/


EDUCATION:


  • 2002 to 2006: Oceanography PhD (co-working with Université du Québec à Rimouski (CA) and Université de Bretagne Occidentale (Brest, FR).

Influence of aquaculture on biogeochemical fluxes in benthic-pelagic coupling: Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada)

Codirectors: Philippe Archambault (IML, Mont Joli, Qc, CA), Gaston Desrosiers (ISMER, Rimouski, Qc, CA), Gérard Thouzeau (CNRS 6539, Plouzané, FR).

Jury members: Bjørn Sundby (President), Guy Boucher, Jacques Clavier and Barry Hargrave.


  • 2001: DEA (Master II): Oceanology, Biology and marine environment

Option: Dynamic of marine populations (grade AB).

(Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FR)

Influence of Crepidula fornicata on the biogeochemical fluxes at the water-sediment interface in the Bay of Brest (France)

Supervisor: Thouzeau Gérard (CNRS 6539, Plouzané, FR).


  • 2000: Master (I): Populations and ecosystems

Option Marine ecology (grade AB)

(Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FR)


  1. 1999: Licence (Last year of Bachelor): Organism biology

Option Environment (grade AB)

(Science faculty, Lille, FR)


  • 1998: DEUG (Two first years of Bachelor): Biology (grade AB).

(Science faculty, Lille, FR)


  • 1995: Baccalauréat (end of collegial study): Science (grade AB).

(Saint Vincent College, Senlis, FR)


PhD THESIS TOPICS


Shellfish production by aquaculture is increasing significantly throughout the world. In Canada, the bivalve aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly over the last two decades. Since the 1980’s, shellfish industry has developed in Îles de la Madeleine (47° 35’ N, 61° 31’ W, Quebec, Canada). Excessive bivalve production could induce serious ecological and economical consequences. Assessing the potential impact of shellfish farming is thus important for developing an eco-sustainable management of aquaculture. In that scope, a work team composed of DFO, ISMER, MAPAQ and Dalhousie University has been working to create a model that will predict the carrying capacity of a marine ecosystem for an aquaculture production. My PhD studies integrated this model.

Since, excessive bivalve production can induce critical nutrient releases and oxygen consumption in environment and cause eutrophication and anoxia phenomena, I focused my research on the influence of mussel (Mytilus edulis) and scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) cultures on the biogeochemical (BGC) fluxes in benthic pelagic coupling.

My PhD thesis is composed of three parts: (i) influence of suspended mussel lines on the BGC fluxes at the water-sediment interface, (ii) influence of suspended mussel lines on the BGC fluxes in the adjacent water, and (iii) influence of suspended mussel lines and scallop pens on the BGC fluxes in benthic-pelagic coupling.

The field work of the two first approaches was carried out in the Grande-Entrée lagoon during the summer 2003. The first study was carried out in situ, whereas the second was performed in tanks. The third research was carried out in Havre-aux-Maisons lagoon during the summer 2004. During the three studies, I was head of the project. A team of 5 persons helped me in the field. To measure biogeochemical fluxes, we used benthic, pelagic and metabolic chambers which I designed. Lab analyses are now completed, and the thesis and three articles are now in the writing and/or editing stages.

The originality of this thesis is first that it investigates the influence of two ages of suspended mussel lines on biogeochemical fluxes; thus, several bivalve cohorts are present in the lagoon and our results showed that the two ages of suspended mussel lines had different influences on the BGC fluxes. Second, we studied the influence of scallop pens on the BGC fluxes which had never been done before. Third, many authors focused their study on the indirect influence of aquaculture devices (by biodeposition) on the benthic BGC fluxes and neglected the direct influence of these aquaculture devices on the adjacent water. Many authors reduce the direct influence of aquaculture devices to respiration and excretion of cultivated bivalves, whereas aquaculture devices are composed also of associated fauna and organic matter mats. Our results showed that the latter two contribute significantly to BGC fluxes enhancing in the water column. Finally, our in situ measurements showed that the suspended mussel lines as well as the scallop pens induced an increase of the BGC fluxes in the benthic-pelagic coupling. The introduction of these aquaculture devices in the cultivated ecosystems changes the biogeochemical cycles from a benthic-pelagic system to a benthic-pelagic-aquaculture structure system and should be considered in environmental carrying capacity models.


MSc THESIS TOPICS


The ecological impact of aquatic invasive species is a growing concern for coastal zone management and conservation. At the ecosystem level, invasive species influence the nutrient cycling. The American slipper limpet, Crepidula fornicata, was introduced in Europe in the 1950s and has rapidly invaded coastal waters from the Mediterranean to the Baltic Sea. Nowadays, C. fornicata proliferates in bays and estuaries, reaching several thousands of individuals per m². Today, C. fornicata colonizes more than half of the benthic surface area in the Bay of Brest where it induces both economic and ecological consequences through disturbance of mollusk cultures and fisheries, and shifts in benthic community species composition and trophic structure.

My Master thesis focused on the influence of Crepidula fornicata on the biogeochemical fluxes in the Bay of Brest. The hypothesis of this study was that, by its biodeposition and metabolic activities, Crepidula fornicata induces sediment organic matter enrichment and BGC flux increases at the water-sediment interface. During this master, we have done two field surveys in the Bay of Brest, one in May 2000 and another one in May 2001. I organized the second survey for which I was the head of lab and equipment. I performed all the lab analyses and wrote two reports on it.

My thesis showed that Crepidula fornicata increases the biogeochemical fluxes at the water sediment interface by their metabolism but also by degradation of organic matter trapped between shells. Crepidula fornicata mats could play an important role in nutrient cycling in the Bay of Brest where eutrophication phenomenon was induced by excessive nitrogen release originated from agriculture.

A PhD student (Sophie Martin) has purchased my research and two research articles, for which I am coauthor, will soon be submitted to a peer-reviewed scientific journal.


PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS


  • Publications

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Thouzeau, G., Desrosiers, G. 2006. Influence of suspended mussel lines on the biogeochemical fluxes in adjacent water in the Îles-de-la-Madeleine (Québec, Canada). Canadian Journal of fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63: 1198-1213.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Thouzeau, G., Desrosiers, G. In press. Summer influence of 1- and 2-yr-old mussel cultures on benthic fluxes in Grande-Entrée lagoon, Îles-de-la-Madeleine (Québec, Canada). Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Martin, S., Thouzeau, G., Richard, M., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Clavier, J. In press. Benthic community metabolism in areas impacted by the invasive species Crepidula fornicata L. Marine Ecology Progress Series.



  • Conferences

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2006) Influence de la conchyliculture sur les flux biogéochimiques dans le couplage pelagos-benthos: Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Québec, Canada. Midi-Aquatique, UQÀM, Montréal, Canada, 20 octobre.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2006) Influence of bivalve aquaculture on the biogeochemical fluxes in benthic-pelagic coupling: Havre-aux-Maisons lagoon, Magdalen Islands, Quebec, Canada. AQUA2006, Firenze, Italia, 9-13 May.

Martin, S., Thouzeau, G., Richard, M., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Clavier, J. (2006) Effects of the invasive gastropod, Crepidula fornicate L., on the benthic carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the Bay of Brest (France), European Geoscience Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 02 -07 April.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2006) Influence of suspended mussel lines on the biogeochemical fluxes in water-sediment: Great-Entry lagoon, Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada). Benthic Ecology Meeting, Québec, Canada, 9-11 March.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2004) Influence of bivalve aquaculture on biogeochemical fluxes: the case of Havre-aux-Maisons, Magdalen Islands. Aquaculture Canada, Château Frontenac, Québec, Canada, 17-19 October.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2004) Influence de la mariculture sur les flux biogéochimiques dans le couplage pelagos-benthos, Cas des lagunes des Îles de la Madeleine (Québec, Canada). Environmental Carrying Capacity Studies for Mussel Aquaculture Workshop, ISMER, Rimouski, Québec, 27 September.

Richard, M., Archambault, P. Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2004) Influence of mussel line culture on pelagos-benthos coupling: a case study of the Great-Entry lagoon, Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada), Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, 4 May.

  • Poster presentations

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Thouzeau G., Desrosiers, G. (2005) Influence de la mytiliculture sur les flux biogéochimiques à l’interface eau-sédiment, Lagune de Grande-Entrée, Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, Canada. Réunion annuelle de Québec-Océan, Rivière du Loup, Québec, Canada, 16-17 November.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Thouzeau G., Desrosiers, G. (2005) Influence de la mytiliculture sur les flux biogéochimiques à l’interface eau-sédiment, Lagune de Grande-Entrée, Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, Canada. Rencontre technologique organisée par le CQVB et le RAQ, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 12 septembre.

Richard M., Archambault P., McKindsey C.W., Desrosiers G., Thouzeau G. (2005) Quels types d’influences peuvent avoir les cultures de pétoncles et de moules sur l’environnement marin? Comment évaluer ces influences? Exemple d’étude aux Îles de la Madeleine. 2ième Colloque de biologie dans tous ses états (colloque de vulgarisation de la biologie), Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, Canada, 10-11 March.

Callier M.D., Richard M., McKindsey C.W., Archambault P., Desrosiers G. (2004) Level of biodeposition supportable by a sandy benthic community: an in situ benthocosm experiment. Aquaculture Canada, Château Frontenac, Québec, Canada, 17-19 October.

Richard, M., Archambault, P., Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau G. (2004) Influence de la mytiliculture et de la pectiniculture sur les flux biogéochimiques : Lagune du Havre-aux-Maisons, Îles de la Madeleine. Québec Ocean Annual meeting, Pohénégamook, Québec, 30 September-1 October.

Richard, M., Archambault, P. Desrosiers, G., Thouzeau, G. (2004) Influence des structures mytilicoles sur les flux biogéochimiques dans la colonne d’eau. Forum québécois en sciences de la mer, Institut Maurice Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada, 15-16 April. Winner of the best poster (500 $)

  • Seminar participations

Annual assembly of Québec Ocean, Pohénégamook, Québec, Canada, December 2003.

PEI Mussel Culture Workshop, Moncton, New-Brunswick, Canada, March 2003.

The Biennial Benthic Workshop, St Andrews, New-Brunswick, Canada, October 2002.


  • Reports

Richard, M. (2006) Influence de l’aquaculture sur les flux biogéochimiques dans le couplage pelagos benthos : Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, Canada. Thèse de Doctorat: Doctorat en Océanographie. Université du Québec à Rimouski - Université de Bretagne Occidentale. pp. 261.

Richard, M. (2001) Rôle de la crépidule sur les flux biogéochimiques à l'interface eau-sédiment en Rade de Brest. Rapport de DEA d’océanologie biologique et environnement marin option Dynamique des populations. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, ParisVI, pp. 30.

Richard, M. (2000) Rôle de la crépidule sur les flux biogéochimiques à l'interface eau-sédiment en Rade de Brest. Rapport de Maîtrise des Populations et des Écosystèmes option Ecologie Marine. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, ParisVI. pp. 25.


WORK HISTORY:


  • October-November 06: Co-Redaction (with M.D. Callier) of an article onLevel of biodeposition supportable by a sandy benthic community: an in situ benthocosm experiment”.




  • September-October 06: Redaction of a Postdoctoral research fellowship program on “optimisation of Solea senegalensis juvenile production by enhancing the productivity of salt marshes”. This program was proposed in October 2006 and was accepted by Jerôme Hussenot’s team (CRELA-L’Houmeau, IFREMER) in late November 2006. The fellowship will start in January 2007.




  • June-August 04: 3-months field work in Îles de la Madeleine: (i) head of a research project on the influence of mussel and scallop cultures on biogeochemical fluxes in benthic-pelagic coupling, (ii) co-head with Myriam Callier of a second research project on the influence of mussel biodeposition on benthic communities and biogeochemical fluxes, (iii) help in the field, logistic and in the lab for three other projects: mussel culture influence on secondary productivity (Frédéric Hartog), on sedimentation rate and benthic community (Myriam Callier), and on mussel drop off (Marina Léonard).




  • June-September 03: 4-months field work in Îles de la Madeleine: (i) head of two research projects on the influence of suspended mussel lines on biogeochemical fluxes a) in adjacent waters, and b) at the water-sediment interface in Grande-Entrée Lagoon, (ii) help in the field and in the lab for two other projects: mussel culture influence on sedimentation rate and benthic communities (Myriam Callier), and characterisation of the water column (Suzanne Roy and Olivier Pitre).




  • October-June 02: 9 months of work as research assistant for Dr Gérard Thouzeau in Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer in Brest (UMR 6539 CNRS, UBO). The research (CREPIRAD) investigated the impact of Crepidula fornicata on biogeochemical fluxes at the water-sediment interface in the Bay of Brest. I organized two field surveys in the Bay of Brest in October 2001 and May 2002. I was head of the lab and equipment on board the R.V. I did all chemical and biological analyses. I analysed data and wrote the scientific report for upcoming publication which I will be co-author.




  • April-May 02: 15-days cruise (GASPROD) in the Biscay Bay on board the R.V. Thalassa (IFREMER). I was the field and lab help to François Le Loch’s thesis work: Dredging impact on benthic populations (IUEM, Brest).




  • February-June 2001: Several survey in the Bay of Brest onboard the R.V. Thalia (IFREMER). I was the field help and lab to Anne Lorrain and Guillemette Joly thesis work: Pecten maximus and Asterias rubens population Dynamics.




  • July-August 2000: 2 months as phone-operator for CANAL + TV at ORTIM IGM: Customer services.




  • September 1999: 1 month industrial assembly line worker at DECOPLAST: plastic bottle manufacture, waterproof verification, screen print (Clarins, Azzaro, Lancôme…).




  1. August 1999: 1 month artisan assembly line worker at SAJEM: manufacture of perfume display units: Ultra violet de Paco Rabanne, Soin de Beauté de Clarins.




  • June-July 99: 1 month of training course in IFREMER Brest, FR under the supervision of Luc Drévès. I wrote a synthesis report on the impacts of the nuclear thermal power station of Penly (Seine Maritime) on the marine environment, established since 1978. I helped on biological analyses of Aline Blancher who worked on the proliferation of Crepidula fornicata in the Bay of St-Brieuc.



FIELD AND LAB EXPERIENCE


  • Field:

  • benthic-pelagic and metabolic chambers deployments

  • water sampling by syringes

  • benthic cores, benthic air flush suction and sieving

  • SMITH grab and sieving

  • sedimentation trap deployments and sampling

  • automatic particle trap sampler deployment and sampling

  • trawling and organism sorting (shrimp and fish) with small-sized equipment (≈ 1.5 m)

  • trawling and organism sorting (scallop and stars) with large-sized equipment ((≈ 5 m)

  • dredging and organisms sorting (fish and shrimp)

  • crab trap deployment and sampling

  • YSI sensor programming, deployment and data download (YSI training)

  • CTD programming, deployment and data download

  • water sampling by free and assembled vertical NISKIN

  • staged-horizontal NISKIN deployment and sampling

  • zooplankton transect and sampling




  • Lab:

  • Water filtrations on Whatman and Nucleopore filters

  • Ammonium analysis (fluorometer)

  • silicate, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite analyses (manual and automatic technicon)

  • Chla analysis (fluorometer)

  • Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate organic matter (POM) dosage in water (ignition loose of Whatman filters)

  • Organic matter content in sediment (ignition loose of samples)

  • Sediment and water sample CHN analyses (elementary analyser)

  • Biogenic and lithogenic silica dosage in sediment

  • Sediment grain size

  • Organism dissection

  • Organism biomass (Dry weight and Ash free dry weight)

  • Macrofauna sorting and taxonomy




  • Supplementary lab courses


- Owenia fusiformis recruitment in the English Channel (Gentil, F. & Thiébaut, E.): I4 segment measure and cohort establishment with software Normsep, Manche 2D hydrographic model use.

- Environmental factors in host pathogen interactions Ruditapes philippinarum – Vibrio tapetis (Ford, S. & Paillard, C.): Vibrio culture, hemolymph collection, fluorescence microscopy and flux cytometer.

- Hybridisation of Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis in North-West French littoral. (Jollivet, D. & Viard, F.): Biometry (shell measure) and genetics (ADN extraction, PCR, electrophoresis, sequensor, data analyses with Genepop and Genetix).


ADDITIONAL SKILLS


  • Languages:

French: native language

English: Scientist knowledge of English written and spoken

Spanish: Basic knowledge


  • Additional training:
    Biostatistic courses:
    grade A+, Yves Prairie, Université du Québec à Montréal
    Harassing:
    What is harassing within a company? How to prevent it and cure it?
    First aid by CSST: Training of first aid to the injured people

Oxygen-therapy by Divers Alert Network DAN: Use of oxygen therapy for injured divers

Dry suit diving: Scuba diving with Dry suit

Survey risks (FUME): Which are the risks at sea? How to react? Easy and helpful hints.

Towing: Driving of heavy-weight vehicles (> 3.5 tonnes) + attachment + towing of a boat


  • Computing sciences:

Systems: WINDOWS XP, DOS.

Languages: TURBO PASCAL (courses 1998), HTML.

Softwares: Word, Excel, Power point, Wingmav5, Systat, Statgraphics, JMP, Surfer, Photoshop, Adobe Premiere Elements, Dreamweaver, Macromedia flash (notions), (Normsep, Genetix, Genepop, bottleneck,Treemaker: courses 2001)


  • Passions:

Ocean: marine biology

Diving: Level I + 30 scientific dives

Trips: Scotland, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Greece, Crete, Turkey, Maldives, India, Nepal, Cuba, United States : New-York, Canada : Quebec, New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario.…

Arts: acrylic painting, photos

Sports: swimming, Ashtanga yoga, Capoeira, cycling, kayak, excursion, ski touring, Alpine skiing, snowboard, snowshoe.

Voluntarism: Santropol Roulant engages and mobilizes youths in community-based volunteerism by addressing food security for Montrealers with a loss of autonomy


REFERENCES


Dr Philippe Archambault

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Institut Maurice Lamontagne

Environmental Sciences Division

850 route de la mer

P.O. Box 1000

Mont Joli (Quebec)

Canada G5H 3Z4

archambaultp@dfo-mpo.gc.ca


Dr Gérard Thouzeau

CNRS-UMR 6539

Institut Universitaire Européen de le Mer

Technopole Brest Iroise

Place Nicolas Copernic

29280 Plouzané

France

gerard.thouzeau@univ-brest.fr


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