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Entire male and female pork Longissimus dorsi cutlets were assessed visually by a sensory panel after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days of storage. Meat from male animals fed a combination of silage, and chicory (Cichorium intybus L) for 4 weeks were more red and less brown (P < 0.05) compared to controls on successive storage days followed by pigs fed chicory for 9 weeks or silage alone. In contrast meat from female pigs fed a control diet had the most positive effect on meat colour. For male animals the effect on colour as due to the naturally high α-tocopherol levels in the silage in combination with an antioxidant effect of chicory. Whereas, in female pigs the effects were due to the higher inherent oxidative stability of the female porcine muscle.
As one of the most important quality traits of fresh pork in the decision to purchase by the consumer is the appearance or colour of the meat1. Boar taint has come to the fore again as for welfare reasons it is most likely that castration of male piglets without analgesia will most likely be prohibited in the future in the European Union2. Legislation prohibiting castration of pigs is already scheduled to take effect in Norway in 2009 and in Switzerland in 2009. Chicory feeding has been reported to have a positive effect on the sensory properties of cooked pork meat in relation to boar taint The aim of the present study was to determine colour effects in pork meat held under retail display, to give a retail context to a parallel studies findings that silage and chicory roots/bioactive feeding for 4 and 9 weeks (Cichorium intybus L) had positive effects in boar taint reduction in cooked meat3.
Methods and Materials
All experimental animals were Danish crossbred pigs of Duroc sire × zigzag crossbred dam of Danish Landrace × Large White (D× (L×Y) produced at Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tejle, University of Aarhus. M. longissimus dorsi muscles were obtained from pigs given one of 4 dietary treatments, organic concentrate (control), (ConCtrl), organic concentrate + silage (OrgCtrl), and organic concentrate + crude chicory, 4 and 9 weeks (CC4 and CC9). Water was provided ad libitum throughout the study.
Sensory and instrumental (Minolta colorimeter and digital camera) colour readings were taken at days 0, 1, 3 and 5. Sensory analysis was performed with assessors not having any knowledge of sample history. Colour references (treated and displayed in a similar manner to experimental samples) were prepared from samples of M. longissimus dorsi, a day 0 and day 5 refrigerated storage time was determined from a preliminary trial to provide panellists with a reference variation in colour within which all test samples would be scored. These references were presented to the test subjects when profiling. During sensory profiling four replicates of randomised, coded samples from each of the four treatment groups were presented to the test subjects in succession. An unstructured 15-cm line scales anchored on the left by the term ‘none’ and on the right by the term ‘extreme’ were used for the red and brown, colour descriptors
Results and Discussion
All treatments appeared initially red but became less red and browner the greater the duration of time in the refrigerated display cabinet, with samples on day 5 appearing the brownest. In general the order of acceptable quality of the 4 treatments tested for male animals was in the order treatment CC4, CC9, OrgCtrl and ConCtrl. Therefore, meat from male pigs fed a diet supplemented with chicory (Cichorium intybus L) and with silage had the most positive effect on meat colour, which was probably due to a cumulative antioxidant effect from these combined materials. However, the order of acceptability of treatments for female pigs appears to be in the order treatments ConCtrl, CC4, OrgCtrl, CC9. This was postulated as most likely due to the higher oxidative stability of organically reared female porcine muscle compared to similar male porcine muscle.
The feeding chicory root as a counter-measure in reducing the incidence of boar taint also has a positive effect on meat colour stability, particularly for male animals. This is paramount considering that the primary purchase decisions by consumers are based on colour quality.
Financial support from the Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF) for the project PROSBIO is greatly acknowledged.
1Risvik, E. (1994). Meat Sci. 36 :67–77.
2Gunn, M., Allen, P., Bonneau, M., Byrne, D. V., Cinotti, S., Fredriksen, B., Hansen, L.L., Karlsson, A. H., Linder, M. G., Lundström, K., Morton D. B., Prunier, A., Squires, J., Tuyttens, F., Calvo, A. V., von Borell E. H., and Wood, J. (2004). Question No EFSA-Q-2003-091. Eur. Food Saf. Auth. J., 91.
3Byrne, D.V., Thamsborg, S.M and Hansen, L.L., (2008). Meat Sci. 79 : 252-269.
EFFECT OF PRODUCTION AND CONVEYING VARIABLES ON GRANOLA BREAKAGE IN DENSE PHASE PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEMS
K.J. Hanley1, P. B. Pathare1, N. Baş1 and E.P. Byrne1,
1Department of Process and Chemical Engineering, University College Cork
Granola is an aggregated baked food product containing oats, rice and honey which has a high friability. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of four parameters on granola breakage: (i) aggregate mixing speed, (ii) mixing time, (iii) conveying pressure and (iv) pipeline geometry. Granola was manufactured in a food processor, employing 3 mixing speeds and 3 mixing times. Each permutation was made in triplicate to ensure reproducibility. Five different compressed air driven rigs were designed and constructed for testing the granola samples. The samples were conveyed through one particular rig and particle size distributions were measured before and after conveying to quantify the amount of breakage which occurred. Particle size distributions were measured optically using a Camsizer. A mathematical model was developed to relate the amount of breakage which occurs to pressure and rig configuration. The results showed that increased mixing speeds and mixing times reduced the amount of breakage. Increased pressure resulted in higher levels of breakage, and certain pipeline secondary features greatly increased the level of breakage, particularly 90° bends and T-pieces. The straight pipe geometry causes least breakage of the five geometries tested.
Granola is a breakfast and snack food consisting of rolled oats, nuts and honey which is baked until crispy, and is quite a friable material. Parameters affecting the attrition rate can be divided practically into three categories: the particle strength, operation parameters, and pipe line and bend structure1. A study was performed in which 5 different bend types were evaluated (a long radius bend, a short radius elbow, a blinded tee and two turbulence drums of different diameters)2. This study found that increasing the air velocity (and consequently the particle velocity) significantly increased the attrition rate across a range of median particle sizes. This corresponds to results of other studies described in literature3, 4. Another study5 assessed the influence of agitation rate on particle breakage using α-lactalbumin aggregates. It was found that aggregates formed at low agitation intensities remain larger than those particles formed at higher agitation rates, even after prolonged exposure to turbulent conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Initially, the influences of aggregate mixing speed and mixing time were tested. 27 batches of granola of 188 g each were produced at 3 mixing speeds and mixing times of 3, 6 and 10 minutes. Each permutation was made in triplicate to ensure reproducibility. The particle size distribution of each batch was measured optically before and after passage through a rig at 3 bar gauge with a 90° bend configuration. For these tests, conveying pressure and pipeline geometry were not varied. Aggregate mixing speed and mixing time were then held constant at the values which resulted in least breakage (defined as difference in D50). 38 batches of 188 g were made at these conditions, and pipeline geometry and upstream pressure were varied. 5 configurations (Straight pipe, 45° bend, 90° bend, T-piece & sharp contraction) and 5 pressures (1-5 bar g in 1 bar increments) were tested, with three runs at each set of conditions. 94 g samples were used, again measuring particle size distributions optically before and after each run. A second order polynomial model was fitted to the data to predict the breakage of a granola sample, given the upstream pressure and pipeline geometry.
Results and Discussion
It was found that the amount of granola breakage which occurs is reduced significantly by increasing the mixing speed and mixing time. This is contrary to results available in literature for whey protein precipitates, where it was found that higher agitation intensities leads to increased breakage. This disparity is indicative of a different aggregation mechanism. Increasing the upstream pressure results in higher levels of breakage, as was found in other studies. Certain secondary features, particularly 90° bends and T-pieces, cause large amounts of breakage, while the straight pipe geometry causes least breakage of all those examined in this study. Fitting a second order polynomial model of the form gave R2 value of 0.47, where R is change in D50 in mm, P is upstream pressure in bar, and α, β, a, b and c are constants.
By increasing the mixing speed and mixing time used, the amount of breakage of granola which occurs is reduced significantly. Increasing the upstream conveying pressure results in higher levels of breakage, confirming results from literature. Certain secondary features, particularly 90° bends and T-pieces, cause large amounts of breakage of granola. The straight pipe geometry causes least breakage of the five geometries tested.
The authors would like to thank the technical staff of the Process and Chemical Engineering Department at U.C.C. and to acknowledge financial support from the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food through the FIRM Initiative.
1 Kalman, H. (1999). Powder Technol. 104(3): 214–220.
2 Kalman, H. (2000). Powder Technol. 112(3): 244–250.
3 Zumaeta, N., Cartland-Glover, G., Heffernan, S., Byrne, E.P. and Fitzpatrick, J.J. (2005). Chem. Eng. Sci. 60(13): 3443–3452.
4 Taylor, T. (1998). Powder Technol. 95(1):1–6.
5 Zumaeta, N., Byrne, E.P. and Fitzpatrick, J.J. (2006). Chem. Eng. Sci. 61(24):7991–8003.
Influence of increasing cell biomass and coagulant levels on ripening of cheese
H.K. Patel and P.L.H. McSweeney
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland.
Various strategies have been adopted to accelerate the complex and time-consuming process of cheese ripening. Increasing the enzyme pool is one of the preferred methods for accelerating cheese ripening. The objective of this study was to increase the pool of bacterial enzymes in cheese curd, without altering the primary starter and the cheesemaking procedure together with increasing coagulant levels. Whole lactic acid bacteria, unable to grow and to produce significant levels of lactic acid, but still delivering active ripening enzymes during cheese ageing, were added to cheese milk. Cheeses were subjected to microbiological analysis to enumerate the starter and the non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) and compositional analyses. Texture profile analysis (TPA) was also conducted and cheese texture was found to soften with course of ripening time. Progressive degradation of αs1- and β-caseins during ripening was monitored by urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (urea-PAGE) electrograms. Proteolysis was accelerated in the experimental cheeses with added coagulant, added adjunct cultures, and with added adjunct cultures and added coagulant to different extents as compared to the control cheese (with no added coagulant and adjunct cultures).
Cheese ripening is a process which is slow and very complex in nature. It mainly involves glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis, metabolism of lactate and citrate, and catabolism of free amino acids and free fatty acids (1). Cheddar cheese ripening is largely considered as a series of enzymatic events. Factors such as maturation time, pH and salt concentration also affect the rate of cheese ripening. Proteolysis in cheese during ripening is a very important multi-step biochemical process (1). Several strategies have been adopted to speed up this process including elevating ripening temperatures, addition of microencapsulated enzymes, addition of attenuated adjunct cultures (2) and some others. Acceleration in maturation rates in cheese have been achieved to a certain extent in studies involving the use of highly autolytic strains used as adjunct cultures (3). A similar strategy was used in this study to increase the enzyme pool, and thereby accelerating the rate of reactions, with an objective to reduce the ripening time.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Lc. lactis L57157 was obtained from Dept of Microbiology, University College Cork which was later analysed and scrutinized for its proteolytic activity and more importantly, its ability to ferment lactose. After testing the culture for purity, it was grown in M-17 Broth (Oxoid Ltd., Hampshire, England) for 22 h at 30º C from a stock of Lc. lactis L57157, which were further scaled up and grown for 17 h at 37ºC. Cells were harvested using a Sorvall RC 5C Plus Superspeed Centrifuge at 9000g at 4ºC and were washed using Ringers solution adjusted to pH 7.0 and suspended in this solution. Four cheeses were made in triplicate on a pilot scale (20L) Control (K) cheese, cheese with added lactase negative adjunct L57157 (L), with added increased levels of coagulant (R), and the cheese with added adjunct cells and higher levels of added coagulant (LR). Cells were inoculated at ~1.52x108 cfu ml-1 of cheese milk of L and LR cheeses. In the other experimental cheeses R and LR, three times of the level of coagulant (Chymax Chr. Hansen, Hoersholm, Denmark) was added as compared to control and cheese with added adjunct L57157 (L). All the cheeses (K, L, R, and LR) were cut at the same gel strength. Cheeses were made following the standard cheesemaking protocol (1). pH was closely monitored during cheesemaking. At 3 days of cheese ripening, all of the cheeses were assessed for the residual coagulant retained (4). Cheeses then were sampled for microbiological analysis at 3, 30, 75, 90, and 120 d and starter growing on glucose and lactose (10% w/v), as carbohydrate source in LM17 Agar (Terzaghi, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and (Oxoid Ltd., Hampshire, England) NSLAB (Rogosa agar, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). Cheeses were also sampled for compositional analyses to determine the percentage moisture, fat, salt, and protein and pH at 28 d days of cheese ripening. TPA of the cheeses was performed using a TA-XT2i texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems, Godalming, Surrey, UK) at 28, 42, and 56 d (5). Urea-PAGE was done at all sampling points on freeze-dried pH 4.6 insoluble fractions of cheeses to study the differences in peptide hydrolysis amongst cheeses and sampling points.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It was observed during cheesemaking that the pH values of all the cheeses (K, L, R & LR) were within acceptable limits. No significant difference (p>0.05) were seen amongst the compositions of cheeses (percentage moisture, fat, protein, and salt and pH). Starter counts on LM-17 agar were found to decline from 6.26 x 109 to 5.5 x 106 cfu g-1 at 120d of cheese ripening in Trials 1, 2 and 3. Starter enumerated on M17 agar were found to be decline from 4.1 x 109 to 2.03 x 106 cfu g-1 at 120 d of cheese ripening. NSLAB counts were <100 cfu g-1 at 3d of ripening, but were later found to increase to 7.6 x 108 cfu g-1. TPA of the cheeses showed the weakening of cheese protein matrix, principally owing to the increased hydrolysis of the caseins by added coagulant (i.e. in R & LR cheeses). Hardness, defined as the force required to compress the cheese sample to 25% of its original height during the first compression cycle had values of 119.44, 101.32, 81.50, and 79.77 N at 56 d for Trial 3 of cheese ripening for cheeses K, L, R, and LR cheeses. Hardness values of R and LR cheeses are suggestive of the weakening of protein cheese protein matrix, as compared to the K and L cheeses. Urea-PAGE showed an increased breakdown of αs1- CN to its fractions αs1- CN (f 102-199) and αs1- CN (f 24-199) in the cheeses R & LR. Retention of residual coagulant was found to be higher in the R & LR cheeses as compared to the K & L cheeses, which had approximately the same residual coagulant level.
From patterns of proteolysis in this study, it can be inferred that accelerated ripening was observed in all the experimental cheeses (L, R, and LR), but to different extents. Higher proteolysis was seen in the cheeses with added Lac- adjuncts and coagulant simultaneously (LR), and in general, proteolysis was more pronounced in cheeses with added coagulant (R & LR) than the with added Lac- adjunct (L) only. This suggest that increased levels of coagulant would bring about increased proteolysis and hence accelerate the ripening process, but its effect on, sensory properties was not assessed.
This study was supported by the Food Institutional Research Measure (FIRM) administered by the Department of Agriculture and Food under the National Development Plan.
(1) Fox, P.F., Guniee, T.P., Cogan, T.M., & McSweeney, P.L.H. (2000). Fundamentals of Cheese Science, Aspen Publishers Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland.
(2) Madkor, S.A., Tong, P.S., & El Soda, M. (2000). Ripening of cheddar cheese with added
attenuated adjunct culture of lactobacilli. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1684-1691.
(3) Hannon, J.A., Wilkinson, M.G., Delahunty, C.M., Wallace, J.M., Morrissey, & P.A., Beresford, T.P. (2003). Use of autolytic starter systems to accelerate the ripening of Cheddar cheese. International Dairy Journal. 13, 313-323.
(4) Hurley, M.J., O'Driscoll, B.M., Kelly, A.L., & McSweeney, P.L.H. (1999). Novel assay for the determination of residual coagulant activity in cheese. International Dairy Journal, 9, 553-558.
(5) O'Mahony, J.A., Lucey, J.A., & McSweeney, P.L.H. (2005). Chymosin-mediated proteolysis, calcium solubilization, and texture development during the ripening of Cheddar cheese. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 3101-3114.
Use of flavour enhancers to improve Cheddar flavour
H.K. Patel and P.L.H McSweeney
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland
This study focused on the potential use of flavour enhancers in Cheddar cheese manufacture, and their effect on quality and flavour perception. Cheddar cheeses were made in triplicate with the addition of three different flavour enhancers, Monosodium glutamate (MSG), MaxaromeTM, and Maxarite DeliteTM at the salting stage of cheesemaking. Cheeses were then subjected to microbiological, sensory and compositional analyses. Microbiological analysis showed no difference in numbers of starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria between control and experimental cheeses except for the cheese made with MSG. A sensory study was conducted involving 80 untrained panellists. A Preference ranking test was performed, in which the rankings were forced according to preferences, based on their degree of liking. The results obtained were statistically processed using a non-parametric test using SPSS (Version 15 for Windows). Overall, cheeses made with added MSG were rated significantly higher than other experimental cheeses (with added MaxaromeTM, and with added MaxariteTM, and control (with no added flavour enhancer).
Umami, a Japanese term for delicious, is now well recognized as a fifth basic taste quality distinct from the other primary tastes of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (1). Compounds tasting umami and showing flavour enhancement properties have been identified in savoury foods (2). Among these, inosine 5’-monophosphate disodium salt (IMP) and guanosine 5’-monophosphate disodium salt (GMP) have been found to enhance the glutamate (umami) taste markedly.The flavour enhancing ability of these flavour enhancers was studied in cheese, by adding them during salting of the cheese with the intent to increase the palatability and acceptability of Cheddar cheese.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cheeses were made in three trials on a pilot scale (100 L) scale according to a standard protocol (3), in University College Cork. After milling, the curds were separated into four equal parts by weight. The flavour enhancers (MSG, and MaxaromeTM and Maxarite DeliteTM produced from yeast extracts by DSM Food Specialties, Delft, Netherlands) were added at 0.7%, 0.2% and 0.2% w/w of curd, respectively, during salting, blended with NaCl. All the cheeses were tested for their percentage moisture , salt, protein, and fat and pH. Cheeses were also subjected to microbiological analysis, in which the starter counts (4) and the non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) (5) counts were determined. A sensory study was conducted involving 80 subjects for each trial to rank the cheeses according to their acceptability. Different codes were assigned to the cheeses, and the order of serving the cheese samples was randomized to avoid any bias in the liking of the cheese. Preference ranking was forced. A blind sensory study was conducted owing to the fact that subjects respond differently and their perceptions are affected if the information of MSG is given beforehand to the subjects(6). Data sets obtained therefrom were statistically analysed for the rank sum tests, using the non parametric tests in SPSS (Version 15 for Windows).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
No significant differences (p>0.05) in percentage moisture, protein, salt, and fat were observed between experimental (with added flavour enhancers) and the control (with no added flavour enhancer) cheeses. Significant differences were seen between the pH of the Control cheese and cheese with added MaxariteTM on; However, and no significant differences were seen between control cheese and cheese with added MSG, and cheese with added MaxaromeTM. Results of microbiological analysis suggested that the cheese made with added MSG contained slightly higher numbers of starters and NSLAB than other experimental cheeses or control. This may be related to higher level of free glutamate in the cheese with added MSG compared to the other cheeses. Results of sensory analysis clearly showed that the cheeses of all trials with added MSG were rated as the best followed by other flavour enhancers. Statistical analysis of data from Trials 2 and 3 showed that cheeses made with added MSG were significantly more preferred than other experimental cheeses (with MaxaromeTM and MaxariteTM) or the Control cheese (Table 1). Whereas, statistical analysis of Trial 1 showed no significant difference in the preference between control, and the cheese with added MaxariteTM, but, significant differences in preference were observed between control cheese and cheese with added MSG or cheese with added MaxaromeTM.
Table 1: Preference rank sums for the cheeses made with control (with no added flavour enhancers) or the experimental cheeses (with added flavour enhancers) in Trials 1, 2 and 3.
a,b,c values with common superscripts do not differ significantly(p>0.05)
The cheeses with added MSG were rated significantly preferred compared to other experimental cheeses (with added MaxaromeTM or MaxariteTM) and control. Hence, there is a scope for use of flavour enhancers in the future in cheese manufacture.
This study was supported by the Food Institutional Research Measure (FIRM) administered by the Department of Agriculture and Food under the National Development Plan.
(1) Yamaguchi, S. 1998 Basic properties of umami and its effects on food flavour. Food Rev. Int., 14, 139–176.
(2) Kuninaka, A. 1981 Taste and flavour enhancers. In Flavor Research -Recent Advances; Teranishi, R., Flath, R. A., Sugisawa, H., eds.; Marcel Dekker: New York ;pp 305–353.
(3) Fox, P.F., Guniee, T.P., Cogan, T.M., and McSweeney P.L.H. (2000) Fundamentals of Cheese Science, Aspen Publishers Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland.
(4) Terzaghi, B.E. and Sandine, W.E. (1975) Improved medium for lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages. Appl. Microbiol., 29, 807-813.
(5) Rogosa, M., Mitchell, J.A. and Wiseman, R.F. (1951) A selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of oral and faecal lactobacilli. J. Bacteriol. 62, 132-133.
(6) Prescott, J. and A. Young (2002). Does information about MSG (monosodium glutamate) content influence consumer ratings of soups with and without added MSG? Appetite 39, 25-33.
THE EFFECTS OF CASEIN HYDROLYSATES ON THE VIABILITY AND GROWTH OF HUMAN JURKAT T CELLS
M. Phelan1, S.A. Aherne-Bruce1, D. O’ Sullivan2, R.J. FitzGerald2 and N.M. O’Brien1
1Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland and 2Department of Life Sciences, University of Limerick, Ireland
Bioactive peptides derived from casein hydrolysis directly influence numerous biological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight novel casein hydrolysates on the viability and growth of human Jurkat T cells over a 48 h period. The MTT (mitochondrial activity), LDH release (membrane integrity) and Trypan Blue (membrane integrity) assays were used to assess cell viability; and cell growth was monitored using the MTT, Trypan Blue and BrdU incorporation (DNA synthesis) assays. In the MTT assay, casein hydrolysates exerted varying affects on Jurkat T cell viability and growth, where increasing concentrations of each sample resulted in a gradual decline over 48 h. DNA synthesis in Jurkat cells increased after 24 h exposure to casein hydrolysates. In the LDH release and Trypan Blue assays casein hydrolysates did not significantly affect the viability of Jurkat cells at 24 h or 48 h exposure. In conclusion, the casein hydrolysates did not affect the membrane integrity of Jurkat cells. Interestingly, mitochondrial activity and DNA synthesis were negatively affected following 24 h exposure to casein hydrolysates. However, viability increased thereafter, up to 48 h. This shows that the casein hydrolysates had a varied effect on the viability and growth of Jurkat cells.
Milk proteins, which have long been known for their nutritional and technological benefits, have also been shown to possess bioactive properties in addition to their nutritive value1. More recently, cytochemical studies have provided increasing evidence that milk protein-derived peptides can affect the viability and growth of cancer cells2,3. Unravelling the mechanisms through which dietary factors alter the gastrointestinal environment to prevent or promote tumour formation is a formidable task and may never be completely performed in vivo. Therefore, in vitro models may provide clues to help us understand these mechanisms4. However, when assessing the therapeutic potential of any novel sample in vitro, it is important to consider the cell as a whole and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying different modulating activities caused by the sample on individual components within the cell5. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight novel casein hydrolysates on the viability and growth of human Jurkat T cells, by monitoring mitochondrial activity, membrane integrity, cell density and DNA synthesis.
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