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TEMPUS IV JOINT PROJECT

№ 159173 –TEMPUS-I-DE – TEMPUS – JPCR


ODESSA STATE ENVIRONMENTAL

UNIVERSITY - ODESSA


ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE


2.2.2 MONITORING OF SOIL-AND-PLANT COVER POLLUTION


Field of Science: Natural Sciences

Professional Area: 8.070801 «Ecology and Environmental Protection»

Speciality - Agroecology

Degree: Master Degree

Form of Study: Full-Time

Duration of the Studies: 1.5 year

Lecturer of the Discipline: Professor A.M. Polovyi,

Associate Professor O.L. Zhygailo


Odessa – 2010

I. PREFACE


The course is an important constituent of the general monitoring system and is the national system of observation and control of the agricultural land state and pollution level through intensive agricultural activity.

The discipline forms theoretical and methodological apparatus, summarizes agroecological scientific and practical activity data. The syllabus is developed pursuant to the typical «Statute of Organization of Educational Process at Higher Educational Establishments».

The course aims to introduce students to the issues of observation and control of soil and plant pollution and provide subsequent use of this background at writing term papers (case studies) and graduation theses in the field of agroecology. It forms a theoretical basis for ecological optimization of agricultural landscapes and modeling, assessment and forecast of plant product pollution.

The study of the discipline is based on theoretical and practical background, acquired by master degree students during the study of general fundamental disciplines (Mathematics, Physics, General Inorganic an Colloid Chemistry, General Ecology, Soil Science) and normative disciplines for specific purposes (Agricultural Meteorology, Atmosphere Physics, Land-Reclamation and other).

The discipline of «Monitoring of Soil-and-Plant Cover Pollution» is aimed at teaching how to observe and control the state of soil and plants under conditions of anthropogenous load, work with normative documents, assess agroecosystem pollution in accordance with the classification of the state of the environment and human health. The study of the discipline presupposes lectures and practical studies and self-studies of the master degree students.

On the basis of the acquired background a master degree student shall be able to monitor soil-and-plant cover, process, analyze and assess the received observation data.

In order to control the current and the sustained background tests have been developed, modular control of students’ knowledge of theoretical and skills in practical material, as well as an examination, are carried out.

Methods of control of the master degree students’ background are based on division of the discipline syllabus into individual logically associated module units which include estimation of the students’ gaining the knowledge and mastering the skills upon completion of these modules. The discipline syllabus is divided into 4 units.


II. DIVISION OF THE DISCIPLINE INTO UNITS


MODULE 2.2.2.1

MODULE 2.2.2.2

MODULE 2.2.2.3

MODULE 2.2.2.4

Functioning of the «Soil - Plant» System under the Technogenesis Conditions

1. Subject, Tasks and Principles for Organization of Monitoring of Soil-Vegetation Cover Pollution

2. Technogenesis

3. Environmental Pollution

4. Control of Technogenous Pollution in Soil and Plant

Environmental Monitoring of the State of Agricultural Land Subject to Land-Reclamation

1. Monitoring of Mineral Fertilizer Usage

2. Monitoring of the Usage of Chemical Means of Plant Protection

3. Observation of Soil Liming

Observation of the Irrigated Land

Monitoring of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soil and Plants

1. Observation of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution

2. Normative Content of Chemical Elements in the Soil

3. Control of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution

4. Observation of Heavy Metal Content in Plants

5. Control of Heavy Metal Plant Pollution

Radiation Monitoring of Soil-Vegetation Cover

1. Sources of Radionuclides in Soil

2. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Plants and Agrocoenoses

3. Observation of Radionuclide Mode in Soil

4. Accumulation of Radionuclides in Plants


125 hours of academic work – 5 credits


III. DISTRIBUTION OF ACADEMIC TIME




Code



Lecturer



Exam

(form)

Training Time



Hours Total



Credits



Lectures

Practical Studies (Seminars)



Self Studies

2.2.2

O.L. Zhygailo, PhD (Geogr.), Associate Professor

Test

32

32

61

125

5



IV. TABLE OF THE DISCIPLINE CONTENTS


Theme #

Description

Academic Hours

2.2.2.1

Functioning of the «Soil - Plant» System under the Technogenesis Conditions




1

Subject, Tasks and Principles for Organization of Monitoring of Soil-Vegetation Cover Pollution

1

2

Technogenesis

1

3

Environmental Pollution

1

4

Control of technogenous pollution in soil and plant

1

2.2.2.2

Environmental Monitoring of the State of Agricultural Land Subject to Land-Reclamation




1

Monitoring of Mineral Fertilizer Usage

2

2

Monitoring of the Usage of Chemical Means of Plant Protection

2

3

Observation of Soil Liming

2

4

Observation of the Irrigated Land

2

2.2.2.3

Monitoring of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soil and Plants




1

Observation of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution

2

2

Normative Content of Chemical Elements in the Soil

2

3

Control of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution

3

4

Observation of Heavy Metal Content in Plants

2

5

Control of Heavy Metal Plant Pollution

3

2.2.2.4

Radiation Monitoring of Soil-Vegetation Cover




1

Sources of Radionuclides in Soil

2

2

Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Plants and Agrocoenoses

2

3

Observation of Radionuclide Mode in Soil

2

4

Accumulation of Radionuclides in Plants

2


V. Practical and Seminar Studies


Theme #

Description

Academic Hours

1

Evaluation of Ecological and Reclamation State of the Irrigated Lands

6

2

Calculation of Cadmium Balance in Soil

4

3

Assessment of Total Index of Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals

4

4

Evaluation of Soil Toxicity

4

5

Assessment of Nitrate Content in Plant Products

4

6

Calculation of Basic Radiological Exponents

4

7

Seminar. The Influence of Air Pollution on Vegetation

2

8

Seminar. The Role of Microorganisms in the Circulation of Substances

2

9

Seminar. The Movement of Pesticides in the Biosphere

2


VI. FORMS OF EXTRA-CURRICULA STUDIES


1. Methods – 30 hours


1. Study of methods for assessment of soil and plant pollution – 25 hours

2. Preparation and fulfillment of home tasks on a topic of choice – 5 hours


2. Preparation for and writing library-research papers – 16 hours


To consolidate the background acquired at a lecture, practical and seminar studies, students fulfill independent scientific and library-research paper on a topic, selected from the ones offered by a teacher. A student uses the recommended literature and the information obtained through the Internet. A paper must be submitted as a printed version of 7 – 10 sheets (A-4 format). The submitted work is to be defended by a student during his seminar studies.


3. Student self-preparation for current

control of the studied topics – 15 hours


Current control is carried out in the form of a written test on each of the modules. In accordance with the normative documents, 5 hours are assigned for preparation to each of the tests.


VII. STUDY techniques



Study of the discipline presupposes lectures, laboratory-and-practical and seminar studies. Seminars take place in the form of discussions between a lecturer and master degree students on the topics which were delivered at lectures, cosidered at laboratory and practical studies and dealt with during the self study of the discipline units.

During a semester current control of the knowledge in the form of written tests is exercised.

The study of the discipline ends with a written examination. Evaluation is carried out using the seven-point system. The results of the examination are announced no later than 2 days upon sitting the examination.


LITERATURE


  1. Chernikov, V. A., Chekeres, A.I., ed., 2000: Agroecology. Kolos, Moscow, 536 pp. (In Russian)

Агроэкология / Под ред. В.А.Черникова, А.И.Чекереса. – М.: Колос, 2000. – 536 с.


  1. Heinisch, E., Paucke, H., Nagel, H.-D., Hansen, D., 1979: Agrochemicals in the Environment. Trans. from German; Kolos, Moscow. (In Russian)

Агрохимикаты в окружающей среде/ Пер. с нем.; Э. Хайниш, Х. Пауке, Г.-Д. Нагель, Д. Ханзен. М.: Колос, 1979.


  1. Alekseev, Yu.V., 1987: Heavy Metals in Soils and Plants. Agroindustrial Publishing House, Leningrad, 142 pp. (In Russian)

Алексеев Ю.В. Тяжелые металлы в почвах и растениях. – Л.: Агропромиздат, 1987. - 142 с.


  1. Becker, A. A., Agayev, T.B., 1989: Environmental Protection and Pollution Control. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, Leningrad, 288 pp. (In Russian)

Беккер А.А., Агаев Т.Б. Охрана и контроль загрязнения природной среды. – Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1989. – 288 с.


  1. Sobotovich, E. V., Bondarenko, G.N., ed., 2002: Geochemistry of Induced Radionuclides. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 332 pp. (In Russian)

Геохимия техногенных радионуклидов. / под. ред. Э.В. Соботович, Г.Н.Бондаренко. К.: Наукова думка, 2002.- 332с.


  1. Zhovinskij, E. Ya., Kuraeva, I.V., 2002: Geochemistry of Heavy Metals in Ukrainian Soils. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 213 pp. (In Russian)

Жовинский Э.Я., Кураева И.В. Геохимия тяжелых металлов в почвах Украины. - К.: Наукова думка, 2002, 213с.


  1. Izrael, Yu.A., 1984: Ecology and Control of the Natural Environment. 2nd ed. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, Moscow, 560 pp. (In Russian)

Израэль Ю.А. Экология и контроль состояния природной среды. 2-е изд. – М.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1984. – 560 с.


  1. Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H., 1989: Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. Mir, Moscow, 379 pp. (In Russian)

Кабата-Пендиас А., Пендиас Х. Микроэлементы в почвах и растениях. – М.: Мир, 1989. - 379 с.


  1. Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine, 1992: Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of Chemical Substances in Soils and Permissible Levels of their Content by the Hazard Indices (as of 01 January 1991). (In Russian)

Предельно-допустимые концентрации (ПДК) химических веществ в почвах и допустимые уровни их содержания по показателям вредности (по состоянию на 1.01.1991 г.). – Мин. Охраны окружающей среды Украины. – 1992.


  1. Mir, 1990: Radiation (Doses, Effects, Risk). Moscow, 78 pp. (In Russian)

Радиация (дозы, эффекты, риск). – М.: Мир, 1990. – 78 с.


  1. Safranov, T. A., Polevoy, A. N., Konіkov, E. G., Rotar, M. F., Іljina, V. G., Paevska, L. A., Suchkov, I.O., 2003: Anthropogenic Pollution of Geological Environment and Soil-Vegetable Cover. A Tutorial. "TES" Publishing House, Odessa, 260 pp. (In Ukrainian)

Сафранов Т.А., Польовий А.М., Коніков Є.Г., Ротар М.Ф., Ільїна В.Г., Паєвська Л.А., Сучков І.О. Антропогенне забруднення геологічного середовища та грунтово-рослинного покриву: Навчальний посібник. – Одеса, Вид-во “ТЭС”, 2003. – 260 с.


  1. Chernikov, V. A., Popov, V.G., Mosina, L.V., 1995: Detection of Toxicants in Water, Air, Soil, Plants and Plant Products. Moscow Agricultural Academy Publishing House, Moscow, 90 pp. (In Russian)

Черников В.А., Попов В.Г., Мосина Л.В. Определение экотоксикантов в воде, воздухе, почве, растениях и продукции растениеводства. М.: Издательство МСХА, 1995. - 90 с.

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