Mayor of london




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d) Telecommunications infra- structure funding and delivery

3.116 The Government will establish a new £100 million urban broadband fund that will create up to 10 ‘super-connected cities’ across the UK including London ensuring super-fast broadband deployment. The cities will receive support from the fund over the next three years.


3.117 Investment and funding of telecommunications infrastructure are regulated by Ofcom. In the light of the focus on responding flexibly to individual customer needs and the fast pace of innovation in this sector the rolling investment program only covers six months into the future. It is possible that already within a few years new bandwidth technologies will be available. This is likely to also require very regular reviews of this section of the Implementation Plan.


3.118 In terms of any current supply gaps identified there are mainly economic but few technical barriers for filling these gaps. Residential development is the economic driver for telecommunications investment.


3.119 A technical constraint to provision is the complexity of underground works in the light of underground infrastructure for other types of infrastructure (gas, electricity, transport, water) and potential conflicts of required construction works with surface transport. A coordinated approach is necessary to address these complexities and to identify potential synergies.


3.120 Finally, the provision of data centres and street cabinets may be constraint by the availability of electricity as potentially in the centre of London (see section on electricity infrastructure).




WASTE

3.121 Information for waste infrastructure is largely drawn from the Mayor’s Municipal Waste Management Strategy (MWMS) and supporting documents, and the Mayor’s Business Waste Strategy for London (BWS), all published in November 201166. Work undertaken by the London Waste and Recycling Partnership Board (LWARB)67 is also reflected.


3.122 For the purposes of this Implementation Plan, London’s waste arisings (ie waste generated in London) is categorised into three streams:

  • municipal solid waste (MSW – but now known as local authority collected waste (LACW), and referred thus in the MWMS and BWS) – waste collected by London’s waste authorities, principally from households, but also an element from commercial organisations

  • commercial and industrial (C/I) waste

  • construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste

The London Plan focuses mostly on MSW and C/I waste, as these are the waste streams which national planning policy requires planning authorities to address through their plans, identifying appropriate waste management capacity.


a) Strategic waste infrastructure

3.123 The strategic waste infrastructure addressed in this section of the Implementation Plan is that which is required to manage London’s waste arisings within London by 2031 in line with London Plan waste policies– chiefly, material reclamation facilities (MRFs), composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, pre-treatment facilities and thermal treatment facilities.


b) Waste infrastructure need

3.124 In 2008, London generated a total of 20 million tonnes (mt) of waste, comprising approximately 4 mt of MSW/LACW, 6.5 mt of C/I waste and 9.5mt of CDE waste68. The London Plan estimates London’s MSW and C/I waste arisings (the key waste streams for planning purposes) at 10.7 mt for 2011, rising to 11.7 mt in 2031; and that 62% of MSW and 72% of C/I waste is currently managed in London, with the remainder exported, chiefly to landfill.


3.125 Figure 13 shows the waste management methods used in London for each of the three main waste streams69. Overall, 61% of London’s waste is reused, recycled or composted, but it has to be said that this figure is skewed by the very large proportion (82%) of CDE waste which is managed in this way. Reuse, recycling and composting accounts for 52% of C/I waste, and only 27% of MSW/LACW, although this waste makes up the lowest proportion of waste arising overall.


[Figure 13: Breakdown of London’s waste management methods]


[Figure 14: Estimated additional waste infrastructure capacity required to manage London’s municipal waste to 2031]


3.126 The Mayor’s key London Plan policy objectives for waste, as set out in Policy 5.16 Waste Self-Sufficiency, are to:


  • minimise waste

  • increase reuse, recycling and composting, and to

  • maximise London’s waste self-sufficiency – ie. to reduce waste exported to landfill outside London, by managing over the plan period (to 2031) as much of London’s waste within London as is practicable.

To make sure this happens, Policy 5.17 Waste Capacity requires boroughs to allocate land for waste to provide enough capacity to deal with the amounts of waste allocated to them through a spatial redistribution process known as waste apportionment.


3.127 London Plan Table 5.3 shows the tonnages of apportioned MSW and C/I waste boroughs are expected to manage through the plan period. The amounts rise over time – not because waste generated is expected to increase dramatically, but because an increasing proportion of waste will be managed within London as waste exports to neighbouring regions decline and the capital nears waste self-sufficiency.


c) Waste infrastructure provision

3.128 In order to achieve the Mayor’s objective of waste self-sufficiency, London will need to identify enough land to manage at least an additional 4.3 mt of MSW and C/I waste capacity within its boundaries by 2031. Furthermore, it has been estimated that the total capacity gap, including transfer, pre-treatment, sorting and bulking, recycling, composting and energy recovery for MSW and C/I waste by 2031 is nearer to 8 mt (figure under review).


3.129 The GLA has worked with LWARB to identify ‘capacity gaps’ between the Mayor’s preferred approach for municipal waste management (ie for MSW/ LACW waste) and known projects in development for all waste in London. LWARB estimates that the minimum additional MSW management infrastructure capacity required for London by 2031 is 3.3 mt. Netting off the approximately 1.7 mt that the GLA is aware of that is in procurement or has been granted planning permission within London as at 2011, reveals an MSW infrastructure ‘capacity gap’ of approximately 1.6 million tonnes by 203170. The details are set out in Figure 14 – NB. some caution should be exercised with the size of the ‘expected capacity in procurement’ component, as not all permissions will necessarily be implemented).


3.130 To develop this infrastructure, LWARB’s funds alone will not be sufficient. Given the extent of the capacity gap and the capital cost associated with waste management infrastructure development, LWARB’s fund is only capable of supporting partial fulfilment of the ‘gap’ requirements. LWARB therefore takes a targeted approach to the use of its funding to make sure the identified capacity gaps are narrowed as much as possible, supporting scale projects and thereby reducing the overall capacity gap.


3.131 To date, LWARB has committed to making loans to five infrastructure projects totalling £24 million – see Table 5. These projects will deliver a total of 365,000 tonnes of additional (contracted and merchant) waste management capacity, for local authority collected municipal waste and C/I waste71.


[Table 5 LWARB-funded waste infrastructure projects 2008-11]


d) Waste infrastructure funding and delivery

3.132 It is estimated that the total infrastructure investment required for London’s municipal waste management could have capital costs in the region of £800 - 900 million and annual operational costs of £60 -70 million.


3.133 Funding of this scale will need to be met by a mixture of public and private investment. It is evident through LWARB’s project portfolio that the waste industry is keen to help fill London’s waste management capacity gap, but significant additional investment is necessary from banks and other financial institutions to fill the market. It is essential that LWARB continues to receive funding from the government beyond 2015 to develop projects currently in the pipeline, to give certainty to the market, and to leverage in additional funding for further projects. There are currently a number of funds to leverage investment from, which could contribute to developing waste management infrastructure in London, including the London Green Fund (£114 million).


3.134 These substantial costs could be partially offset, however, by savings achieved through the successful implementation of the full range of Mayoral waste policies – for example:


  • Managing waste materials in the most optimal way through reuse, recycling and renewable energy generation could save London up to £90 million per year.

  • Preparing London to manage all its waste (including C/I and CDE waste) in the most carbon efficient and economically beneficial way could generate approximately 1260 green-collared jobs and contribute £52 million of direct Gross Value Added (GVA) to the economy each year to 2025.

  • Energy generated from London’s municipal waste, after maximising recycling, could contribute £92 million of savings to London’s £4 billion electricity bill and take £24 million off London’s £2.5 billion gas bill72.



SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

3.135 Information for social infrastructure is initially largely based on GLA research to build on relevant London Plan policies and the Housing SPG.


a) Strategic social infrastructure

3.136 This focuses initially on education, health, sport, policing and emergency facilities as strategic social infrastructure but social infrastructure also covers a wide range of other facilities such as community, cultural, play and recreation facilities and places of worship, and many other local uses and activities which contribute to Londoners’ quality of life. Provision for these facilities should be addressed at the local level.


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