Mayor of london

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3.23 Information for transport infrastructure is largely drawn from the Mayor’s Transport Strategy (MTS) 2010, the five Sub-regional Transport Plans prepared by TfL, the boroughs and sub regional partnerships, the TfL Business Plan 2011/12-2014/15, National Rail (NR) High Level Output Specification (HLOS)12 for Control Period 4 2009 to 2014 and TfL’s recent submission to Government for National Rail Control Period 5 2014 to 2019.

a) Strategic transport infrastructure

3.24 This includes routes and hubs of international, national, regional and sub-regional importance for passenger and freight transport. Improvements to rail13 services, bus services, river services, cycling and walking, interchange, road improvements and demand management measures are considered in numerous programmes being undertaken by TfL, Network Rail and other organisations.

b) Transport infrastructure need

3.25 Population and employment growth projections that underpin the London Plan would result in at least three million more trips each day by 2031, from 24 million trips per day in 2007 to 27 million trips per day in 2031.

3.26 To ensure this growth is accommodated sustainably, the MTS14 aims to increase the mode share for public transport from 31 per cent to 24 per cent, cycling from 2 per cent to 5 per cent and walking from 24 per cent to 25 per cent, from 2006 levels by 2031. Conversely, it aims to reduce the mode share of private motorised transport from 43 per cent to 37 per cent over the same period. This will require sustained investment in public transport, walking and cycling, to increase connectivity and capacity and to improve attractiveness of these modes of travel.

3.27 In spite of committed improvements set out in the TfL Business Plan (to 2014/15) and HLOS to 2014, crowding will remain on certain LU and NR lines 15 and on certain radial corridors into London16 (Figures 1 and 2). Vehicle delay on the road network, particularly in Inner London and Outer London town centres, is also forecast to increase17 (Figure 3). This has the potential to constrain growth and hinder delivery of the London Plan.

[Figure 1: Tube and DLR crowding, 2031]

[Figure 2: Rail crowding, 2031]

[Figure 3: Highway congestion, average vehicle delay, 2031]

c) Transport infrastructure provision

3.28 Table 6.1 of the London Plan18 gives an indicative list of transport schemes that are needed to deliver growth forecasts whilst meeting the Mayor’s wider environmental, safety, quality of life and accessibility objectives. Each scheme includes categories for costs (‘high’ category for schemes over £1 bn, medium for schemes between £100m and £1bn and low for schemes under £100m) and phasing (short term, before 2012, medium term, between 2013 and 2020 and longer term, beyond 2020 to 2031).

3.29 The indicative list of schemes includes those that have funding committed in the TfL Business Plan and NR HLOS. These schemes include Crossrail and Thameslink upgrade (both due for completion 2018-19) and the LU line upgrades. These form the bulk of the MTS ‘reference case’ and will provide a substantial increase in rail capacity that is essential to accommodate short to medium term growth in London.

3.30 Additional investment over and above committed schemes will be required. Key schemes in the medium-longer term include delivering a new north east to south west rail link, also known as Crossrail 2, along an alignment similar to the safeguarded Chelsea-Hackney line route, four tracking of the Lee Valley mainline, further train capacity increases on key NR routes, development of key Strategic Interchanges, extensions to the Bakerloo and Northern lines, potential extensions to the DLR and Tramlink networks, enhanced river crossings in east London and continuation of the ‘smoothing traffic’ programme, electric vehicle infrastructure provision, better streets, a programme of public transport physical accessibility improvements, cycling and smarter travel programmes. The prioritisation of key schemes and programmes for the longer term will be subject to planning processes and investigations of funding mechanisms and will be reflected in future updates of this Implementation Plan.

3.31 A new high speed line between London and major cities in the Midlands and the North is currently planned to be open fully in the early 2030s; meeting increasing passenger demand to and from its London terminus and any intermediate stations is a challenge which will need to be met by provision of more public transport capacity.

3.32 Sub-regional transport plans provide a forum for discussing sub-regional transport challenges and requirements. They are updated regularly. As an example the following list sets out transport requirements of particular importance to the London Thames Gateway:

  • Maximising the benefits of Crossrail including improving interchanges and access modes, e.g. to opportunity areas, as well as consideration of different options for Crossrail 2

  • Stratford International – interchange between European and domestic services. As the plans for HS2 progress, the proposed HS2-HS1 connection should be designed to facilitate orbital high speed services allowing connections between Stratford and Old Oak Common, as well as the regions

  • Potential enhancements to the DLR network

  • Additional river crossings in East London, to both enhance capacity and improve connectivity

Requirements identified as being of importance to other specific parts of London will also be set out in the final document.

3.33 Another aspect of London’s transport infrastructure is its accessibility: Currently, approximately 245 out of 638 rail stations (including all Tram stops and DLR stations) within Greater London offer step-free access between street and platform.  A number of major improvements such as step-free access to platforms at Green Park, Clapham Junction and Kings Cross St. Pancras stations have been completed recently. Approximately a further 50 stations have funding committed for provision of step-free access, including 10 announced in December 2011 through the Access for All programme19.

d) Transport infrastructure funding and delivery

3.34 The 2010 Spending Review settlement for TfL and Network Rail allows for completion of essential short to medium term schemes such as Crossrail, Tube upgrades and Thameslink upgrade. This level of investment is approximately £4.8 billion per year to 2018. The proposed package of schemes beyond this will require continuing annual investment of around £ 3.5bn to £ 4.5bn 20in the period to 2031.21

3.35 The next spending review is due in 2014. The settlement should allow for the confirmation of the TfL Business Plan to 2020 and the NR HLOS for Control Period 5 2014 to 2019. TfL is undertaking analysis of the priority schemes for delivery between 2015 to 2020 and is seeking involvement in discussions surrounding HLOS and train operating company franchise re-letting to ensure that outcomes support the MTS.

3.36 Inevitably, there is uncertainty over funding availability in the medium to long term. Future levels of Government grant will be dependent on the wider economic and political environment. Other main sources of funding, from fares revenue and borrowing are also influenced by wider economic factors. At all stages of funding negotiations with the Government, the Mayor will make the case for continued investment in London’s transport network to drive UK economic growth.

3.37 The Chancellor’s Autumn Statement 2011 included new or accelerated funding for a range of infrastructure schemes. In the short term, Government has committed direct funding for a number of transport projects in London and the South East, notably £80 million to support procurement of 130 new carriages to operate on Southern rail franchise services in South London, and support for new and improved river crossings in East London (e.g. Silvertown crossing and replacement of Woolwich Ferry) as well as a commitment to a new Lower Thames Crossing to relieve congestion at Dartford.

3.38 Authorities are considering the use of innovative funding mechanisms for major transport projects. As per London Plan Policy 6.5, the Mayor will consider bringing forward charging schedules in accordance with the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) Regulations 2010 to enable him to use the CIL to fund strategically important infrastructure and he is initially doing so for Crossrail. Other innovative funding mechanisms will also be considered, such as Tax Incremental Financing (TIF). The Chancellor’s Autumn Statement makes specific reference to new funding and finance mechanisms to help deliver the Northern Line. TfL continues to work closely with Government and boroughs on these proposals. Any extension of the Northern line would need to be funded substantially by the private sector as there is no provision for this in the TfL Business Plan.


3.39 The information for water supply, wastewater treatment and flood risk management infrastructure is based on key documents produced by the water companies’ that serve London and the Environment Agency. Specific sources of information are referenced below.


a) Strategic water supply infrastructure

3.40 The majority of London’s public water supply is abstracted from the rivers Thames and Lee and is stored in reservoirs located in west London and the Lee valley. The rest of London's water is supplied from groundwater sources. Thames Water's desalination plant at Beckton in East London can provide additional water supply to around one million people per day in times of drought. Thames Water supplies approximately 75 per cent of London’s water. The other water companies that supply London include Sutton and East Surrey Water, Veolia Water Central and Essex and Suffolk Water. The water companies have a statutory duty to develop and maintain efficient and economical water supply systems. They are responsible for managing the water supply network including the reservoirs, boreholes, pipes and water treatment works which make up London’s water supply infrastructure.

b) Water supply infrastructure need

3.41 We are facing increasing pressure on water resources. London and the South East have been classified as areas under serious water stress22. High population density combined with limited resources means that we need to carefully manage and plan the water resources in London. Water demand in London is higher than the average for England and Wales. During 2009/10 each Londoner used on average of 167 litres of water a day compared to the national average of 146 litres per person per day23.

3.42 Due to climate change and requirements from legislation such as the Water Framework Directive there is currently some uncertainty over the amount of water that will be available to supply London in the future. Where water abstraction may be causing environmental damage it may be necessary to reduce or revoke a water abstraction licence to protect the environment. These cases are known as sustainability reductions. Where investigations have shown sustainability reductions to be definitely necessary, the Environment Agency has informed the water companies and these reductions have been included in the Water Resources Management Plans (WRMPs). There are currently no sustainability reductions for London, however, a number of investigations are still ongoing. Water companies will be given sufficient time to plan for reductions and the need for possible new infrastructure schemes.

3.43 Water companies have a duty to maintain a secure water supply. Every five years water companies produce WRMPs which set out the current water supply-demand balance and proposed measures to address any supply demand deficit. These measures include specific resource development schemes and demand management actions. The WRMPs use population projections to make sure that future proposed growth in London is planned for. These plans are needed because if no action was taken to either increase supply or manage demand, the water companies supplying London would need to manage a potential cumulative deficit of 340 mega litres a day by 203124. This is before any sustainability reductions are taken into account. This compares to a total demand of around 2200 mega litres a day.

3.44 Figure 4 shows the supply-demand balance in 2012 based on information from the WRMPs covering London.3 Currently there is a small deficit in Sutton and East Surrey’s East Surrey Water Resource Zone (WRZ) and a larger deficit in the Essex WRZ of Essex and Suffolk Water. This means that customers face a greater chance of water restrictions in a dry year.

[Figure 4: Water resources surplus – deficit forecasts]

c) Water supply infrastructure provision

3.45 Defra has an aspiration to reduce water consumption to 130 l/h/d by 2030 for existing homes. Thames Water is currently planning to reach a per capita consumption (pcc) of 135l/h/d by 2035. However, this will require a significant change in people’s behaviour and involvement of multiple stakeholders. Water efficient new homes will drive down consumption, as will metering of existing homes and retrofitting of water efficient devices, for example, through the RE:NEW programme.

3.46 Thames Water’s preferred programme of options to ensure security of supply in London includes a variety of both demand management and supply schemes (see Table 3). Following the Public Inquiry into Thames Water’s draft WRMP (2009)25, the Inspector recommended that Thames Water review several aspects of its plan. As part of this the company is looking again at the options it believes are needed to supply London with water. The Draft Final WRMP is due to be published for public consultation in December 2011

3.47 Sutton and East Surrey Water is planning improvements to its Bough Beech Reservoir which, although located outside London, supports south London’s water supply needs in a dry year. The company is set to increase the capacity of the reservoir’s treatment works at peak periods, by 5 Ml/d in 2012-13 and by a further 20 Ml/d in 2017-18 (reflected in Figure 5). No further detail about the company’s preferred programme for London has been provided but can be found at Sutton and East Surrey Water’s final WRMP.26

Table 3: Thames Water’s preferred programme for London


Short term (2010-2015)

Medium term (2015-2020)

Long term (2020-2035)

27Leakage reduction

1,000km of mains replacement

Pressure management

Network reconfiguration

Active leakage control

2,000km of mains replacement

Pressure management

Network reconfiguration

Active leakage control


Compulsory targeted metering to achieve 40% meter penetration

Compulsory targeted metering to achieve 60% meter penetration

Compulsory targeted metering to achieve 77% meter penetration by 2025 for the London Resource Zone

Water efficiency

Enhanced water efficiency programme

Enhanced water efficiency programme

Enhanced water efficiency programme.

Resource development

Northern New River (2020/21)

East London Resource Development (ELReD) (2020/21)

SLARS (South London Artificial Recharge Scheme)

Larger resource yet to be finalised (2026/27) (not located in London)

Source: Thames Water, revised draft WRMP

3.48 Veolia Water Central's Central and Southern WRZs cover part of London. The company has a number of resource development schemes in its preferred options list including source optimisation schemes, treatment schemes and new sources. No further details about the company’s preferred programme for London has been provided but can be found in Veolia Water Central’s final WRMP28.

3.49 Essex and Suffolk Water’s Essex WRZ supplies water to north east London including Dagenham, this zone is currently in deficit. The company is currently addressing this through the Abberton scheme, which is due for completion in 2013 (the additional resources provided will result in a surplus to 2026 and beyond, as shown in Figure 5).

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