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sandwich: two slices of buttered bread with meat, egg, cheese or tomato, etc. between them (cf. the Russian бутерброд). The word has one more meaning: a sandwich (or a sandwich-man, a sandwich-boy) is a man walking along the street with two advertisement-boards hung one in front of him and one behind.


35 the Continent (remember the capital letter and the article): the mainland of Europe, as distinct from the British Isles (the name is used by the British)

36 Compare Essential Vocabulary given in this lesson with the first-year vocabulary on the same topic.

37 One of the students may ask questions, another correct the mistakes after each question and answer

38 college: a place of higher education both in the USA and in Great Britain. The oldest universities in Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, respectively; the largest is the University of London. Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are admitted on equal terms with men, but the general proportion of men to women students is three to one, at Oxford it is nearly five to one, and at Cambridge eight to one.

A college is sometimes a part of a university. For instance the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London are composed of groups of largely autonomous colleges. On the other hand a college may be quite independent. There is a great number of such colleges in Great Britain (technical and commercial colleges, colleges of art, etc.),

39 campus: the grounds of a school, college or university

40 Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862-1949): a Belgian poet and dramatist

41 freshman: (for both sexes) the same as the English fresher. First-year students are called freshers only for about a month until they are used to college (university) life.

42 Arnold Matthew (1822-1888): an English critic and poet 6 poor box: a box (usually in a church) in which money may be placed to be given to the poor. Here: things given as chanty (food, clothes, etc.).

43 polysyllables: words of more than two syllables; they usually have two stresses: the secondary (,) and the main (,) stress, е. д.

44 Of the three universities are considered more prestigious and beneficial. Their graduates have better chances of getting a job. Polytechnics are usually formed on the basis of art colleges and colleges of technology. They combine science and technology, the arts, social studies management and business studies, law and other subjects.

45 From 1st August 1975 the system of teacher training in England is being reorganized. All higher and further education outside the universities including teacher training is being assimilated into a common system. A number of the existing colleges of education are to be merged either with each other or with other institutions of further education (polytechnics and others).

46 Other students who work during the day and study in the evening are part-time students.

47 reader a university teacher of a rank immediately below a professor,

lecturer: a person lower in rank than a reader who gives lectures, especially at a college or university.

48 By School-based experience teaching practice is meant (both "observation period" for junior students and block-teaching practice for senior students).

By Subject studies a broad range of subjects is meant of which a student is to choose two cores (the main subjects).

Education studies means essential knowledge of children, the curriculum, the organization of schools and classes.

49 ball of residence: a more modern term than hostel, used only of student hostels (the abbreviated form hall, with no article, is widely used by students in everyday situations). Hostel is a more general word (a nurses' hostel, a factory hostel, ayouth hostel, etc.).

50 P. E = Physical Education.

51 Ph.. D.: Doctor of Philosophy (title given to completion of any research, no matter which subject you study)

52 mortar board: a flat-topped student's cap

53 Don: a college tutor who directs the studies of undergraduates

54 I.Q. Intelligence Quotient — a number indicating the level of a person's mental development obtained by multiplying his mental age by 100, and dividing the result by his chronological age, the latter generally cot exceeding 16.

55 to swim for one's university: to take part in swimming races held between one's university team and some other teams. Practically every school, college and university in Great Britain has its own sports clubs, and there are various outdoor sports competitions held annually within each school, as well as between different schools, colleges, and universities. These are, as a rule, attended by spectators drawn from all sections of the public, and the Oxford and Cambridge boat races, in which crews from these two universities compete every spring on the Thames, arouse national interest.

56 net-ball: an English game, basically the same as basket-ball (played by women)

57 94,250 square miles: this is about the same size as New Zealand or half the size of France.

58 the Fens: low marshy land with lots of waterways (Фенленд)

59 moors (pl), moor: an area of open waste land; moors in England and Scotland are often used for preserving game.

60 The Channel Tunnel, which links England and France, is a little over 50 km (31 miles) long, of which nearly 38 km (24 miles) are actually under the English Channel.

61 "the Scott country": a hilly country in the south-east of Scotland where Sir Walter Scott (1777-1832), the famous British poet and novelist, lived.

62 the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills): a wool-producing country in Britain. The Cheviot breed of sheep has given its name to a woollen cloth of high quality.

63 the Lake District: a beautiful place that has become famous thanks to a distinguished trio of poets — William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834) and Robert Southey (1774-1843) - who made their homes therе. ("Lake poets" is the name that was given to them.)

64 There are several rivers in Britain that bear the name of Avon. The longest is the Bristol Avon flowing into the Bristol Channel, but best known throughout the world is the one flowing into the Severn. On its banks, in Stradford-on-Avon, the greatest English poet William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) was born and spent his youth.

65 Nowadays there is little industry in London as heavy engineering plants have been moved to the nearest manufacturing towns.

66 hedge: a row of bushes or low trees which are forming a kind of barrier.

67 Trinidad; an island in the Atlantic, to the north-east of South America

68 Tahiti: an island in the Pacific

69 Max Beerbohm (1872-1956): an English essayist, critic and caricaturist

70 Euston: a railway-station in London

71 boat-train: the train that takes passengers to a ship

72 coach: a long-distance bus

73 music-hall: a hall or theatre used for variety entertainment: songs, dancing, acrobatic performances, juggling. (Note: "music-hall" must not be confused with "concert-hall".)

74 the doors for the second house were just opening: the second per­formance was about to begin. In music-halls and in circuses two or more performances with the same programme are given every day.

The same term is used with reference to cinemas: the first (second, third) house первый (второй, третий) сеанс.

75 picture theatre (colloq.): a cinema

76 turns: (here) actors taking part in the programme. Turn — a short per­formance on the stage of a music-hall or a variety theatre (номер програм­мы). The programme of a variety perfomance usually consists of various turns.

77 little people: (here) fairies, elves, and gnomes of folklore

78 i. e. buildings meant for the performance of plays by professional com­panies.

79 In England (including London) only a few theatres have their own per­manent company (they are called repertory theatres). Theatrical companies are usually formed for a season, sometimes staging only one play for either a long or a short run, their managements having previously rented a theatre for them to perform in (the so-called non-repertory theatres).

80 The part of the theatre which has a stage and seats for the audience is called auditorium or house (also: theatre-house).

The long rows of chairs situated on the ground floor of the auditorium in. front of the stage are called the stalls (front rows) and the pit (back rows).

The stalls and the pit are surrounded by boxes. There are also some balconies encircling the auditorium on three sides. The lowest of them (coming immediately above the boxes) is called the dress-circle and the highest (somewhere near the ceiling of the house) is known as the gallery.

In most theatres the seats for the audience are separated from the stage by the orchestra-pit. In some theatres, however, there is no orchestra-pit, and the musicians are placed behind the scenes (back-stage). The sides of the stage and the scenery placed there are called wings.

81 It takes quite a number of people to put on a play. The treatment of a play, the style of the production, the training of the performers depend on the director (also called by some people producer in Great Britain). The stage-manager is the person in charge of the technical part of the production of a play. There are also make-up artists, people who make the costumes, those who design the props and scenery, and finally, stage hands.

The actors taking part in the play are called the cast (cf. the Russian «состав исполнителей»).

82 The tests of the stories and dialogues recorded on the tape see on p. 426.

83 The High Rise and the High Head + the High Rise belong to the same pattern since they have no difference in attitudes.

84 Before studying modal verbs the students must learn all the forms of the infinitive.

85 Subordinate clauses with that .„ should can be used as an alternative to the more usual infinitive constructions: They decided that the strike should continue, instead of They decided to continue the strike. See: "A Practical English Grammar for Foreign Students" by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, Lnd., 1964, p. 174-175.

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