A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875




НазваниеA comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875
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Whistler, p. 95. See also pp. 273, 407-8.

0 640Joanna Innes and John Styles, "The Crime Wave: Recent Writing on Crime and Criminal Justice in Eighteenth-Century England," Journal of British Studies 25 (Oct. 1986):389-95; Styles, "Crime in 18th-Century England," 38-39; Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, p. 189.

1 641For more on this cause of crime, see Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, p. 32; Mark Baker, "Aspects of the Life of the Wiltshire Agricultural Labourer, c. 1850," Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 74/75 (1981):64. Somerville, Whistler, pp. 139-40 ties crimes to the insecurity of work coming from at-will tenancies and the lack of annual hirings.

2 642Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 147.

3 643as quoted in Snell, Annals, pp. 6-7. The town dwellers, rich or middle class, knew little better the mind of the farmworkers. See Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, p. 12. Interestingly, the stereotypes of Sambo and Hodge diverge in several key aspects, although they are inevitably self-serving creations of the dominant class in both societies. Sambo is seen as a perpetual child, as being fun-loving and energetic but irresponsible, while Hodge is seen as slow in gait and talk, as noncommunicative and monosyllabic, but, nevertheless, as an adult, as more steady in his habits, despite his pub frequenting.

4 644Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 11.

5 645Hudson, Shepherd's Life, pp. 94-96; Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, p. 10; Jeffries, Hodge, 1:131, 134; Cirket, "1830 Riots in Bedfordshire," 96.

6 646Committee on the New Poor Law , BPP, 1837, first report, p. 4; for a case of opposition, see Morgan, Harvesters, p. 123; Olmsted, Walks and Talks, p. 273.

7 647Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 96, 106, 108, 174-220.

8 648Ibid., p. 40.

9 649Bogusia Wojciechowska, "Brenchley: A Study of Migratory Movements in a Mid-Nineteenth Century Rural Parish," Local Population Studies, no. 41 (autumn 1988), pp. 32-35.

0 650Jeffries, Hodge,1:122.

1 651Snell, Annals, pp. 338-39.

2 652Factory Commission, Supplementary Report, 1834, part i, p. 169, as cited in the Hammond and Hammond, Town Labourer, p. 12.

3 653Jeffries, Hodge, 1:66; as found in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, pp. 107-8.

4 654Compare Scott, Domination, pp. 213-19.

5 655Thompson, "Moral Economy of the English Crowd," 76-136. See also Harrison, Crowds and History, pp. 12-13; Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, pp. 116-18, 173-74. By extrapolating from the unusual restlessness of Cornish miners, Rule mistakenly sees food riots as common. Labouring Classes, pp. 348-53.

6 656See Rule, Labouring Classes, pp. 351-53.

7 657On the Swing Riots generally, see Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, passim, but especially pp. 170, 173-75, 195-203, 212, 262, 357-58; Hammonds, Village Labourer, pp. 239-326; Rule, Labouring Classes, pp. 357-63; E.P. Thompson, Making, pp. 226-29; Hudson, Shepherd's Life, pp. 195-201, 203, 207, 229-35; Cirket, "1830 Riots in Bedfordshire," 75-112; Barbara Kerr, Bound to the Soil: A social History of Dorset 1750-1918 (London: John Baker, 1968), pp. 100-115; Somerville, Whistler, pp. 261-65.

8 658On laborers' distaste for threshing, see Hudson, Shepherd's Life, p. 207. On the connection between Swing and Reform, and the effects on wages and machine threshing, see Thompson, Making, p. 228; Dyke, "Cobbett and the Radical Rural Platform," p. 199; for a more cautious analysis of the political connections, and for the marginal economic benefits of machine threshing, see Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, pp. 296-99, 359-65; on mask thickening, see Report from Select Committee on Poor Law Amendment Act, BPP, 1837, second report, p. 10; see also first report, pp. 38, 49.

9 659Rule, Labouring Classes, pp. 310-12.

0 660

See the research of Jones and Lowerson cited in Rule, Labouring Classes, p. 362; Hammonds, Village Labourer, pp. 237-38.

1 661

Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, pp. 292-96. Among the leaders of the Agricultural Labourers' Union that began in 1872, most were local Methodist preachers such as Arch sometimes was himself, while none were trained for service as Anglicans. Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. xi-xii.

2 662Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 67-73; Jones is cited in Wojciechowska, "Brenchley," p. 30; Caird, English Agriculture, pp. 512, 514.

3 663Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. xiii, 110-111, 235, 253-54, 275, 281, 288-89, 333, 376, 380-86, 390-91, 401; for the 1875 split, see Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, pp. 8-10, (Long), p. 109.

4 664Rule, Labouring Classes, p. 20.

5 665Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 134-37, 233-34; Somerville, Whistler, pp. 381-382.

6 666

Blassingame,
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