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9 599Drew, Refugee, pp. 299-300. Unquestionably, the mild treatment characteristic of her area was due to the extreme closeness of the Illinois border across the Mississippi. Slaveholders in such areas were encouraged to treat their slaves well to avoid the expenses of recapturing them in the North.
0 600Botkin, Lay My Burden Down, p. 130; Drew, Refugee, pp. 206-7; Davis, Plantation Life, pp. 135, 359; see also p. 163; Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 2:200; and Bassett, Plantation Overseer, p. 154 for more on how inflicting punishment could backfire against slaveholders.
1 601Botkin, Lay My Burden Down, p. 180.
2 602Stampp, Peculiar Institution, p. 115; Douglass, Narrative, p. 80; Kolchin, Unfree Labor, p. 288; Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 2:200; Davis, Plantation Life, p. 288; Drew, Refugee, pp. 204-5; Northrup, Twelve Years a Slave, pp. 97-101, 106-11; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, pp. 655-56.
3 603Botkin, Lay My Burden Down, pp. 85, 95; Drew, Refugee, pp. 56-58, 140, 164; Bassett, Plantation Overseer, pp. 18; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, p. 654.
4 604Drew, Refugee, pp. 288-89; Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 2:161-62 (see also 2:21-22); Davis, Plantation Life, pp. 215, 217, 227, 341; Brent, Incidents, pp. 117, 151, 210; Botkin, Lay My Burden Down, pp. 179-80; Drew, Refugee, p. 145.
5 605Kolchin, Unfree Labor, p. 293.
6 606Bassett, Plantation Overseer, p. 79; William S. Willis, "Divide and Rule: Red, White, and Black in the Southeast," Journal of Negro History 48 (July 1963):163-65; Davis, "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role," 91; Palmer, "Servant into Slave," 367; Watson, "Impulse Toward Independence," 323.
7 607Kenneth Wiggins Porter, "Negroes and the Seminole War, 1835-1842," Journal of Southern History 30 (Nov. 1964):427-50; Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 1:155. The story had been different earlier: see Watson, "Impulse Toward Independence," 322.
8 608Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, pp. 590-91. Palmares, a huge maroon colony, had upwards of 20,000 blacks, and waged wars with the Dutch and Portuguese for over a half century.
9 609Mexico was the favored destination of Texan slaves seeking permanent freedom. Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 1:372; 2:7-8, 20, 91-92, 153.
0 610Barrow had one slave, "nearly white" who ran away from him and another planter in 1835 who successfully reached Canada all the way from Louisiana. In 1841 he wrote, and asked for the funds to return to slavery in Louisiana. This certainly seems a trick, because of the positive portrayal of conditions in Canada found in Drew, not mentioning how most slaves definitely preferred freedom over bondage when given an opportunity for it. Davis, Plantation Life, p. 231; Stampp, Peculiar Institution, pp. 92-94.
1 611Drew, Refugee, p. v; Kolchin, Unfree Labor, pp. 288-90. Kolchin cites quantitative studies of classified ads about runaway slaves. One study found 76.6 percent of the fugitives found in the classified ads of the South Carolina Gazette were male, and 88.3 percent of those listed in the Virginia Gazette during a sixty-seven year period in the eighteen century. Daniel Meader, using eighteenth-century South Carolina newspapers, found 2,001 runaways listed in 1,806 notices, averaging out to 1.11 fugitive per escape. Michael John's study of group flights based on Charleston newspapers between 1799 and 1830 found 70 percent of them consisted of two people only. This evidence undermines Drew's statement that "many of the children" included in this population of 30,000 could have been refugees from slavery, especially when the logistics of flight favored solitary strong unburdened individual adults who could more easily hide, evade, and escape from pursuers.
2 612Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, pp. 648, 652; Kolchin, Unfree Labor, p. 287; Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, p. 194; Stampp, Peculiar Institution, pp. 30-31.
3 613Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 2:153; Kolchin draws a sharp contrast between the individualistic choices of runaway slaves with the collective flight of families and villages among Russian serfs. Unfree Labor, pp. 283-85, 288-90.
4 614Stampp, Peculiar Institution, p. 113; Drew, Refugee, pp. 167-68; Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 1:249, 2:207-8; The testimony of Annie Coley, cited by Michael P. Johnson, "Smothered Slave Infants: Were Slave Mothers at Fault?," Journal of Southern History 47 (Nov. 1981):514; Bassett, Plantation Overseer, pp. 18-19.
5 615Douglass, Narrative, p. 83; Drew, Refugee, pp. 42, 158-59, 163-70, 255-56.
6 616Botkin, Lay My Burden Down, pp. 175-76; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, pp. 139-40, 145-48, 151-52; Olmsted, Cotton Kingdom, 2:13; Watson, "Impulse Toward Independence," 320; Kemble, Journal, pp. 295, 313-14.
Blassingame, Slave Community, p. 233; For more on slaves killing or attacking their owners and their supervisors, see: Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, pp. 361-63; Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, p. 152; Stampp,
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