A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875




НазваниеA comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875
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Hodge, 1:152; Somerville, Whistler, p. 33; Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 344; Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 7.

5 525my emphasis, Young, A Six Weeks Tour Through the Southern Counties of England and Wales, 2d ed. (London: W. Strahan, W. Nicoll, etc., 1769), pp. 324-325; Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, p. 47.

6 526Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, Industrial Capitalism," 60-61, 90-97. Curiously, when he waxes philosophical on the nature of task-orientation towards the end of this article, he largely forgets this crucial insight. Necessarily, if it is the division of labor that creates time discipline through having the managers and the managed in a central workplace--the essence of the factory system--then who owns the means of production, whether it be the state or private individuals, becomes irrelevant to the switch over from task-orientation to time-orientation, as the Soviet experience in the 1930s demonstrates.

7 527Committee on the New Poor Law, BPP, 1837, as found in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 88.

8 528Such policies backfired then, as they do today, for the basic reason Caird saw: "No labour is more unprofitable than that which is underpaid." English Agriculture, p. 73.

9 529Jeffries, Hodge, 2:60; Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 340; Young, General Report, p. 105; Morgan, Harvesters, pp. 110-14; see also pp. 53, 95, 98, 106-7 for more on piecework's extensive use during harvest; Caird, English Agriculture, p. 248; Royal Commission on Labour, 1893, as found in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 32.

0 530

Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, Industrial Capitalism," 76-79.

1 531Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 164; see also pp. 153-54; Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, p. 14; Hudson, Shepherd's Life, pp. 229-30; Jeffries, Hodge, 1:141. Since in this work he is generally sympathetic to the rural elite, this description gains weight.

2 532Hammond and Hammond, Town Labourer, p. 62. For more on this general theme, see Thompson, Making, pp. 107-77, 219, 222; Hammond and Hammond, Town Labourer, pp. 80, 94.

3 533John Styles, "Crime in 18th-Century England," History Today 38 (Mar. 1988):41; Jeffries, Hodge, 2:13-17; Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 152.

4 534Ibid., pp. 167-68.

5 535Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 151-152. For the ignorance of the law among the Swing Rioters, see Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, p. 276.

6 536Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 152-53.

7 537For some of these specific laws and cases, see Hudson, Shepherd's Life, pp. 227-30; Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, pp. 272-75.

8 538For example, see the Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, pp. 200-202.

9 539Ibid., p. 280.

0 540Morgan, Harvesters, pp. 124-26.

1 541Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, pp. 198-200.

2 542Hammond and Hammond, Town Labourer, p. 63.

3 543On Scottish bailiffs, see Hammond and Hammond, Village Labourer, pp. 211-12; For Arch's ideas on the relationship between the laborers and farmers, see Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 35-37, 128-30, 175-76, 314; Hudson, Shepherd's Life, pp. 216-17.

4 544I believe that while Clark's thesis is perfectly sustainable for most of the eighteenth century, its full credibility is seriously undermined after c. 1795 by the aftereffects of the French Revolution and the wars with France, including the growth of artisanal radicalism.

5 545Brundage, "English Poor Law," 406-7, 416-17.

6 546Mandler, "Making of the New Poor Law Redivivus," 194-201.

7 547Evans, Forging of the Modern State, p. 146; as cited in Rule, Labouring Classes, p. 360; Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, pp. 17, 52; see also p. 47; On the opposition of the poor, see Snell, Annals, pp. 133-37; Brundage, "English Poor Law," 408-9.

8 548Committee on New Poor Law, BPP, 1837, p. 48.

9 549Jeffries, Hodge, 2:61; Snell, Annals, p. 260.

0 550Snell, Annals, pp. 67-69, 101-103, 321-322. While dealing with an urban, industrial context, Engels made the same point. Condition, p. 138; Howard Newby, "The Deferential Dialectic," Comparative Studies in Society and History 17 (April 1975):155-57; Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 249; Jeffries, Hodge, 1:135; Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, p. 38.

1 551Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, p. 25; Somerville, Whistler, pp. 121-22; Hudson, Shepherd's Life, pp. 293-94; Eastwood, "Making of the New Poor Law Redivivus," 192.

2 552Hammond and Hammond,
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