Скачать 4.29 Mb.
3 503Quoted by Dunkley, "The 'Hungry Forties,'" 340; letter to E. Chadwick, 1836, as found in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 131; see also pp. 78-79.
4 504Rushton, "The Poor Law," pp. 147-148. On the early advocacy and application of this test, see David Eastwood, "Debate: The Making of the New Poor Law Redivivus," Past & Present, no. 127 (May 1990), p. 191.
5 505Peter Mandler, "Making of the New Poor Law Redivivus," p. 192, footnote 27; For more on the workhouse/prison analogy, see James Turner's exchanges with James Fielden, M.P., in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, pp. 92-94. Admittedly, while the authors of the 1834 Poor Law Report wanted the inmates of the workhouses continually confined, local exceptions existed, such as in Peterborough union, Northampton. Its guardians voted to allow the infirm and aged to walk outside for four hours daily in certain areas. Anthony Brundage, "The English Poor Law of 1834 and the Cohesion of Agricultural Society," Agricultural History 48 (July 1974):416.
6 506Somerville, Whistler, pp. 353-54; Committee on New Poor Law, BPP, 1837, first report, p. 70. Interestingly, he noted if elderly couples "wished to live together, the Commissioners have, in some cases relaxed the rule." The Northampton guardians in 1837 received such permission, for they had partitioned off a room for elderly couples who wished to sleep together. Brundage, "English Poor Law," 416.
7 507Arch, Joseph Arch, p. 35; cf. the debate over taking in part of a family in Committee on New Poor Law, BPP, 1837, first report, pp. 16, 32.
8 508For more on this general theme, see Snell, Annals, pp. 133-35. Engels mentions that pauperized families were divided within a workhouse. Condition, pp. 324-25.
9 509See Crabbe's poem in Hammonds, Village Labourer, p. 144.
0 510Somerville's fictitious dialog, based on solid facts, said the workhouse made "the diet as low as will possibly sustain life" in order to deter applicants. Whistler, p. 47.
1 511For more on the deliberately bad conditions in workhouses and their deterrent purposes, see Engels, Condition, pp. 324, 326-29; Dunkley, "The 'Hungry Forties,'" 335-37; Snell, Annals, pp. 127, 132-37; Eastwood, "Making of the New Poor Law Redivivus," 190-92
2 512Morgan, Harvesters, p. 192, n. 10; Overman as in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 75; see also Gery on p. 52.
3 513Arthur Young, An Inquiry into the Propriety of Applying Wastes to the Better Maintenance and Support of the Poor (Bury St. Edmunds, 1801), cited by Snell, Annals, p. 214, footnote 144; Hugh Wade Gery, testifying before Select Committee of the House of Lords on the Poor Laws, BPP, 1818, vol. V as in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 50; see also Cirket, "1830 Riots in Bedfordshire," 75-76.
4 514Batchelor for Lidlington, Commission on Poor Law, BPP, 1834 as in Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, p. 74; Committee on New Poor Law, BPP, 1837, first report, p. 56; Hobsbawm and Rude, Captain Swing, p. 51.
5 515Committee on New Poor Law, BPP, 1838, first report, pp. 7, 38, 46; Brundage, "English Poor Law," 412.
6 516Snell, Annals, pp. 128-31. These are money wages only, but Snell maintains prices were similar for 1833 and 1837, and that for 1850 prices were only "marginally lower;" Committee on New Poor Law, BPP, 1837, first report, p. 24; Caird, English Agriculture, p. 85; Somerville, Whistler, p. 128.
7 517Commission on Employment in Agriculture, BPP, 1867-68, p. xl.
8 518Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, p. v; see also pp. iv, 6, 22, 40, 49, 84, 110, 137; Commission on Employment in Agriculture, BPP, 1867-1868, pp. xxxi, xxiv.
9 519Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, pp. 12, 24, 40, 84; Agar, Bedfordshire Farm Worker, pp. 7, 22; Young, Six Months Tour, 2:261-64.
0 520Young, General Report, pp. 14-15, 164-66; Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, pp. 11, 15, 17, 22; see also pp. v, 12, 32, 113; Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 342-43.
1 521Cirket, "1830 Riots in Bedfordshire," 109-10; Hammonds, Village Labourer, pp. 156-57; Committee on Allotments, 1843, BPP, p. iii. For an example of how at-will tenancies or insecure tenure could intimidate farmers when public voting was done, see Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 59-60; cf. Somerville, Whistler, p. 129. As for allotments still not being especially extensive even mid-century, see Commission on Employment in Agriculture, BPP, 1867-68, first report, p. xxxii.
2 522Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, pp. 2, 16, 39, 47, 106, 108; Somerville, Whistler, pp. 33-34; Morgan, Harvesters, pp. 139-40, 148.
3 523Arch, Joseph Arch, pp. 344-45, 360. Actually the administrative costs and the loss of rent may not have been much greater, other than agents spending more time while collecting from more people, because laborers with allotments reliably paid their rent in at least some cases. In one case, the landlord had lost only one-quarter of 1 percent of rent charged. See Committee on Allotments, BPP, 1843, pp. 17, 112, 119.
Commission on Allotments, BPP, 1843, p. 47; Jeffries,
|Firms that are able to attract and retain talented workers from overseas may be able to be more competitive and expand more domestically, thus creating even more demand for American high-skilled technology workers||African-American Postal Workers in the 19th Century|
|101 American Idiom: Understanding and Speaking English Like an American by Harry Collis and Mario Russo published by Mc Graw Hill||Wy, it's just ez clear ez Aggers, Clear ez one an' one make two, Chaps thet make black slaves o' niggers, Want to make wite slaves o' you|
|Department of English and American Studies||Department of English and American Studies|
|Department of English and American Studies||Masaryk university in brno faculty of Arts Department of English and American Studies|
|American Literature Association a coalition of Societies Devoted to the Study of American Authors 18th Annual Conference on American Literature May 24-27, 2007||Милютин Д. А дневник. 1873-1875/Д. А. Милютин; Под ред. Л. Г. Захаровой. 2-е изд|
Милютин Д. А дневник. 1873-1875/Д. А. Милютин; Под ред. Л. Г. Захаровой. 2-е изд., доп и испр. М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия...