A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875

НазваниеA comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875
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The Standard Comparison of Factory Workers with Slaves 10

Why Do Such a Comparison? 10

What Exactly Is Compared Out of Each Diverse Group 12

Five Broad Areas for Comparison Purposes 12


Some Theoretical Problems in Comparing Slaves and Laborers'

Standard of Living 14

Diet and the Standard of Living for Slaves 17

Fogel and Engerman's Optimistic Reconstructions of the Slave

Diet 18

The Slave Diet as Crude, Coarse, and Boring 21

Differing Diets for Slaves with Different Positions 23

The Slaves' Role in Providing Themselves with Food on Their

Own 25

Variations in What Food Different Slaveowners Provided Their

Own Slaves With 26

The Diet of English Farmworkers: Regional Variations 28

The Southern English Agricultural Workers' Diet Was Poor,

Often Meatless 30

Grains, Especially Wheat, Dominate the Agricultural Workers'

Diet 32

The Role of Potatoes in the Laborers' Diet, Despite

Prejudices Against Them 33

Did Farmworkers Prefer Coarse or Fine Food? 34

The Monotony of the Farmworkers' Diet in the South of England 36

The Superior Conditions of the Northern English Farmworkers 37

Meat as a Near Luxury for Many Farmworkers 39

The Effects of Enclosure and Allotments on Hodge's Diet 40

Comparing Food Received by English Paupers, Slaves, and Their

Nation's Army 42

Better Bread Versus Little Meat? The Slave Versus Farmworker

Diet 43

Clothing for Slaves 44

Bad Clothing Conditions for Slaves 45

Differences in Clothing Provided for Slaves with Different

Position 46

The Factory Versus Homespun: The Master's Decision 48

Slaves and Shoe Shortages 49

Fogel and Engerman's Optimistic Take on Slaves' Clothing

Rations 51

Clothing and English Agricultural Workers 51

The Low Standards for Farmworkers, Especially in Southern

England 52

Homespun More Common in America than England by C. 1830 53

Special Measures Needed to Buy Their Own Clothes 54

Housing For Slaves: Variations around a Low Average Standard 55

Cases of Good Slave Houses 58

Was Poor White Housing Little Better than the Slaves'? 59

Fogel and Engerman's Optimistic View of Slave Housing 59

Genovese's Overly Optimistic Take on Slave Housing 60

The Moral Hazards of Crowded, One-Room Slave Houses 62

Slave Housing--Sanitation and Cleanliness 63

English Farmworkers' Housing--Quality/Size 64

Poor Housing Leads to Sexual Immorality 66

How the Artist's Eye Can Be Self-Deceiving When Evaluating

Cottages' Quality 68

How Rentals and the Poor and Settlement Laws Made for Poor

Quality Housing 69

The Problem of Cottages Being Distant from Work 70

The Aristocracy's Paternalism in Providing Housing, and Its

Limits 71

Little Difference for Slaves and Farmworkers in the Quality of

Their Housing 73

Agricultural Workers--Sanitation/Cleanliness 74

Slaves--Furniture and Personal Effects 76

English Agricultural Workers: Home Furnishings, Utensils,

etc. 78

Fuel--Sambo's Supply Versus Hodge's 79

Sambo's Medical Care 82

The General Backwardness of Antebellum Medical Care 83

Masters Sought Ways to Reduce Medical Expenses 84

Masters and Overseers as Amateur Healers for Slaves 84

Black Medical Self-Help: Conjurors and Midwives 86

Medical Care for English Agricultural Workers 87

Whose Medical Care Was Better? Hodge's? Or Sambo's? 91

The Overall Material Standard of Living: Was Hodge or Sambo

Better Off? 92

Trickle-Down Economics with a Vengeance: How the Slaves

Benefited 93


The Quality of Life as Opposed to the (Material) Standard of

Living 95

Literacy and Education for African-American Slaves 96

Why Slaveholders Sought to Keep Slaves Illiterate 98

English Farmworkers, Literacy and Education 102

A Brief Sketch of the Development of English Public Education 104

What Age Did Child Labor Begin and Schooling End? 105

Ignorance Versus Skewed Knowledge: Different Models for

Controlling a Subordinate Class 106

Slaves--The Treatment of Elderly "Aunts" and "Uncles" 109

Altruism and Self-Interest Did Not Necessarily Conveniently

Coincide to Protect Elderly Slaves' Lives 110

Did Slavery Provide More Security Against Starvation than

Laissez-Faire? 110

Odd Jobs for Elderly Slaves 112

The Senior Hodge: Cared for, or Fends for Himself? 113

The Effects of the New Poor Law on the Elderly, Non-Working

Poor 115

How the Local Authorities Profited from the Workhouse Test 117

Whose Elderly Were Better Off? The Farmworkers' or the

Slaves'? 118

The Slave Childhood: Full of Fun or Full of Fear? 119

Pastimes for Slave Children 120

Plantation Day Care: How Slave Childhood Was Different 123

Is All Work Bad for Children? 124

The Slave Childhood: Good, Bad, or Indifferent? 125

Hodge's Childhood: More Work, But More Worthwhile? 126

Just How Common Was Child Labor, Especially in the

Countryside 128

The Parental Push for Child Labor 130

Day Care Not a Common Experience 131

Young Hodge at Play 132

The Relative Quality of Life for the Children of Slaves and

Laborers 133

Religion--A Site for Enlightenment, Social Unity, and Social

Conflict 134

Slave Religion--The Slaveholders' Options on Christianizing

the Slaves 135

The Earlier Practice of Not Evangelizing the Slaves 137

The Gospel of Obedience Distorts the Christianity Given to

the Slaves 137

The Slaves Add to the Religion Given Them by Their Masters

and Mistresses 139

No Surprise: The Slaves' Lack of Religious Freedom 141

The Slaves Unbend a Bent Christianity 142

Slave Preachers: Their Role and Power 144

Did Slaveholders Achieve Religious and Ideological Hegemony

Over the Slaves? 145

English Agricultural Workers and Christianity 149

Reasons for the Established Church's Unpopularity with the

Laborers 149

How the Local Elite Can Use Charity to Control the Poor 151

The Laborers’ Turn to Nonconformity and Its Mixed Results 153

Christianity: An Instigator of Laborers' Resistance? 154

Similarities in Southern White and English Lower Class

Religion 155

Somehow Seeking Participation in and Control of One's

Destiny: The Consolations of Faith? 156

The Slave Family: How Well Did It Survive Slavery? 157

The Family Bonds of Slaves Made Conditional Upon the

Stability of the Slaveholders 159

The Routine Destruction of Family Relationships under Slavery 161

Fogel and Engerman's Mistakenly Low Figures on Marriage

Breakup 164

How the Slaves' Fears about Family Breakup Could Make For

Continual Anxiety 165

The Process of Being Bought and Sold as Itself Dehumanizing 166

How Slavery Undermined the Families of Slaves 166

How Slavery Weakened the Father's Role 167

Factors Which Encouraged Slaves to Treat Marriage Bonds

Casually 170

How Slavery Encouraged a Casual Approach to Family

Relationships 171

The Ways Slavery Destroyed Family Relationships 173

How the Master Could Routinely Interfere in Slave Family

Relationships 174

Master-Arranged Marriages 175

Just How Common Was Miscegenation? 176

Despite the Pressures, Slaves Still Maintained Some Form of

Family Life 178

The Key Issues Involved in Examining the Quality of Farm-

worker Family Life 179

The "Weber/Gillis" Thesis Summarized: Was Brutish Family

Life the Norm? 180

The Limits to Snell's Rebuttal Against Seeing Lower Class

Family Life as Harsh 182

How Not Being Independent and Self-Sufficient Could Improve

Family Life 184

The Limits to Applying the Gillis-Weber Thesis to the

English Case 186

Some Evidence Bearing on the Quality of Farmworkers' Family

Life 187

Why the Slave Family was Fundamentally Worse Off than the

Laborer Family 189

Why the Laborers Had a Higher Overall Quality of Life than

the Slaves 190

The Problems of Comparing the Slaves' and Laborers' Quality

of Religious Experience 190

How Elderly Slaves Could Have Been Better Off Than the

Elderly Farmworkers 192

How the Slaves' More Carefree Childhood Was Not Necessarily

a Better One 192

The Hazards of Historical Analysis that Uses the Values of

Those in the Past 194


The Sexual Division of Labor: African-American Slaves 196

Kemble on a Stricter Sexual Division of Labor's Advantages 197

Jobs Female Slaves Had 198

Qualifications about the Generally Weak Sexual Division of

Labor among Slaves 201

Plantation Day Care Revisited 202

The Sexual Division of Labor: English Agricultural Workers 203

Women's Work in Arable Areas at Harvest Time Increased

Later in the Century 204

The Female Dominance of Dairy Work Declines 205

How the Separate Spheres' View on Sex Roles Influenced the

1867-68 Report 206

Why Did Laboring Women Increasingly Fall Out of the Field

Labor Force? 207

Allotments Partially Restore the Family Economy 209

Quality of Life Issues and the Sexual Division of Labor 209

The Division of Labor: Blessing or Curse? 211

Who Was Better Off Depends on the Values One Has 213


The Central Reality of Work and the Elite's Needs for

Controlling Its Workers 213

Dawn to Dusk--Work Hours for Slaves 215

Using Force to Get Slaves into the Fields in the Morning 215

Finishing Work for the Day--Some Variations 217

Hours of Work--Agricultural Workers 218

Were Workdays Shorter for the Farmworkers than the Slaves? 219

The Length of the Workweek and Days off--Slaves 221

Slaves Normally Did Not Work on Sundays 221

Holidays the Slaves Did Not Work On 223

Unplanned Days Off Due to Weather or the State of Crops 224

The Days of Work for Agricultural Workers 225

Those Laborers Who Had to Work Sundays, and Those Who Did Not 226

Seasonal and Other Changes in the Workweek, and Their Effects

on Unemployment 228

How "Voluntarily" Did Slaves Work? The Necessity of Coercion

and Supervision 230

Why the Whip Had to Be Used to Impose Work Discipline on the

Slaves 231

How Commonly Were the Slaves Whipped? The
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A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875 iconDepartment of English and American Studies

A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875 iconDepartment of English and American Studies

A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875 iconDepartment of English and American Studies

A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875 iconMasaryk university in brno faculty of Arts Department of English and American Studies

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A comparison of american slaves and english agricultural workers, 1750-1875 iconМилютин Д. А дневник. 1873-1875/Д. А. Милютин; Под ред. Л. Г. Захаровой. 2-е изд
Милютин Д. А дневник. 1873-1875/Д. А. Милютин; Под ред. Л. Г. Захаровой. 2-е изд., доп и испр. М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия...
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