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Disease Smallpox Site(s) of Infection; Transmission Mode RT Inhalation of droplet or, rarely, aerosols; and skin lesions (contact with virus). Comment: If used as a biological weapon, natural disease, which has not occurred since 1977, will likely result. Incubation Period 7 to 19 days (mean 12 days) Clinical Features Fever, malaise, backache, headache, and often vomiting for 2-3 days; then generalized papular or maculopapular rash (more on face and extremities), which becomes vesicular (on day 4 or 5) and then pustular; lesions all in same stage. Diagnosis Electron microscopy of vesicular fluid or culture of vesicular fluid by WHO approved laboratory (CDC); detection by PCR available only in select LRN labs, CDC and USAMRID Infectivity Secondary attack rates up to 50% in unvaccinated persons; infected persons may transmit disease from time rash appears until all lesions have crusted over (about 3 weeks); greatest infectivity during first 10 days of rash. Recommended Precautions Combined use of Standard, Contact, and Airborne Precautionsb until all scabs have separated (3-4 weeks). Only immune HCWs to care for pts; post-exposure vaccine within 4 days. Vaccinia: HCWs cover vaccination site with gauze and semi-permeable dressing until scab separates (>21 days). Observe hand hygiene. Adverse events with virus-containing lesions: Standard plus Contact Precautions until all lesions crusted
b Transmission by the airborne route is a rare event; Airborne Precautions is recommended when possible, but in the event of mass exposures, barrier precautions and containment within a designated area are most important 204, 212.
Vaccinia adverse events with lesions containing infectious virus include inadvertent autoinoculation, ocular lesions (blepharitis, conjunctivitis), generalized vaccinia, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum; bacterial superinfection also requires addition of contact precautions if exudates cannot be contained 216, 217.
Disease Tularemia Site(s) of Infection; Transmission Mode RT: Inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. GIT: Ingestion of food or drink contaminated with aerosolized bacteria. Comment: Pneumonic or typhoidal disease likely to occur after bioterrorist event using aerosol delivery. Infective dose 10-50 bacteria Incubation Period 2 to 10 days, usually 3 to 5 days Clinical Features Pneumonic: malaise, cough, sputum production, dyspnea; Typhoidal: fever, prostration, weight loss and frequently an associated pneumonia. Diagnosis Diagnosis usually made with serology on acute and convalescent serum specimens; bacterium can be detected by PCR (LRN) or isolated from blood and other body fluids on cysteine-enriched media or mouse inoculation. Infectivity Person-to-person spread is rare. Laboratory workers who encounter/handle cultures of this organism are at high risk for disease if exposed. Recommended Precautions Standard Precautions
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPLICATION OF STANDARD PRECAUTIONS FOR THE CARE OF ALL PATIENTS IN ALL
(See Sections II.D.-II.J. and III.A.1)
COMPONENT RECOMMENDATIONS Hand hygiene After touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items; immediately after removing gloves; between patient contacts. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Gloves For touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items; for touching mucous membranes and nonintact skin Gown During procedures and patient-care activities when contact of clothing/exposed skin with blood/body fluids, secretions, and excretions is anticipated.. Mask, eye protection (goggles), face shield* During procedures and patient-care activities likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, especially suctioning, endotracheal intubation Soiled patient-care equipment Handle in a manner that prevents transfer of microorganisms to others and to the environment; wear gloves if visibly contaminated; perform hand hygiene. Environmental control Develop procedures for routine care, cleaning, and disinfection of environmental surfaces, especially frequently touched surfaces in patient-care areas. Textiles and laundry Handle in a manner that prevents transfer of microorganisms to others and to the environment
COMPONENT RECOMMENDATIONS Needles and other sharps Do not recap, bend, break, or hand-manipulate used needles; if recapping is required, use a one-handed scoop technique only; use safety features when available; place used sharps in puncture-resistant container Patient resuscitation Use mouthpiece, resuscitation bag, other ventilation devices to prevent contact with mouth and oral secretions Patient placement Prioritize for single-patient room if patient is at increased risk of transmission, is likely to contaminate the environment, does not maintain appropriate hygiene, or is at increased risk of acquiring infection or developing adverse outcome following infection. Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette (source containment of infectious respiratory secretions in symptomatic patients, beginning at initial point of encounter e.g., triage and reception areas in emergency departments and physician offices) Instruct symptomatic persons to cover mouth/nose when sneezing/coughing; use tissues and dispose in no-touch receptacle; observe hand hygiene after soiling of hands with respiratory secretions; wear surgical mask if tolerated or maintain spatial separation, >3 feet if possible.
* * During aerosol-generating procedures on patients with suspected or proven infections transmitted by respiratory aerosols (e.g., SARS), wear a fit-tested N95 or higher respirator in addition to gloves, gown,and face/eye protection
COMPONENTS OF A PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENT
(Adapted from MMWR 2003; 52 [RR-10])
I. Patients: allogeneic hematopoeitic stem cell transplant (HSCT) only
II. Standard and Expanded Precautions
o Pressure differential of >2.5 Pa [0.01” water gauge]
Example of Safe Donning and Removal of Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE)
GOWN . Fully cover torso from
neck to knees, arms to
end of wrist, and wrap
around the back
. Fasten in back at neck and
MASK OR RESPIRATOR . Secure ties or elastic band
at middle of head and
. Fit flexible band to nose
. Fit snug to face and below
. Fit-check respirator
GOGGLES/FACE SHIELD. Put on face and adjust to
GLOVES . Use non-sterile for
. Select according to hand
. Extend to cover wrist of
SAFE WORK PRACTICES
. Keep hands away from face. Work from clean to dirty. Limit surfaces touched . Change when torn or heavily contaminated . Perform hand hygiene
GLOVES . Outside of gloves are
. Grasp outside of glove with opposite gloved hand; peel off . Hold removed glove in gloved hand . Slide fingers of ungloved hand under remaining glove at wrist
. Outside of goggles or face shield are contaminated! . To remove, handle by “clean” head band or ear pieces
. Place in designated receptacle for reprocessing or in waste container
. Gown front and sleeves are
contaminated! . Unfasten neck, then waist ties . Remove gown using a peeling
motion; pull gown from each shoulder toward the same hand
. Gown will turn inside out
. Hold removed gown away
from body, roll into a bundle
and discard into waste or
MASK OR RESPIRATOR . Front of mask/respirator is contaminated – DO NOT TOUCH! . Grasp ONLY bottom then top ties/elastics and remove . Discard in waste container
Perform hand hygiene immediately after removing all PPE!
Airborne infection isolation room (AIIR). Formerly, negative pressure isolation room, an AIIR is a single-occupancy patient-care room used to isolate persons with a suspected or confirmed airborne infectious disease. Environmental factors are controlled in AIIRs to minimize the transmission of infectious agents that are usually transmitted from person to person by droplet nuclei associated with coughing or aerosolization of contaminated fluids. AIIRs should provide negative pressure in the room (so that air flows under the door gap into the room); and an air flow rate of 6-12 ACH ( 6 ACH for existing structures, 12 ACH for new construction or renovation); and direct exhaust of air from the room to the outside of the building or recirculation of air through a HEPA filter before retruning to circulation (MMWR 2005; 54 [RR-17]).
American Institute of Architects (AIA). A professional organization that develops standards for building ventilation, The “2001Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Health Care Facilities”, the development of which was supported by the AIA, Academy of Architecture for Health, Facilities Guideline Institute, with assistance from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health, is the primary source of guidance for creating airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) and protective environments (www.aia.org/aah).
Ambulatory care settings. Facilities that provide health care to patients who do not remain overnight (e.g., hospital-based outpatient clinics, nonhospital-based clinics and physician offices, urgent care centers, surgicenters, free-standing dialysis centers, public health clinics, imaging centers, ambulatory behavioral health and substance abuse clinics, physical therapy and rehabilitation centers, and dental practices.
Bioaerosols. An airborne dispersion of particles containing whole or parts of biological entities, such as bacteria, viruses, dust mites, fungal hyphae, or fungal spores. Such aerosols usually consist of a mixture of mono-dispersed and aggregate cells, spores or viruses, carried by other materials, such as respiratory secretions and/or inert particles. Infectious bioaerosols (i.e., those that contain biological agents capable of causing an infectious disease) can be generated from human sources (e.g., expulsion from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing, talking or singing; during suctioning or wound irrigation), wet environmental sources (e.g. HVAC and cooling tower water with Legionella) or dry sources (e.g.,constuction dust with spores produced by Aspergillus spp.). Bioaerosols include large respiratory droplets and small droplet nuclei (Cole EC. AJIC 1998;26: 453-64).
Caregivers.. All persons who are not employees of an organization, are not paid, and provide or assist in providing healthcare to a patient (e.g., family member, friend) and acquire technical training as needed based on the tasks that must be performed.
Cohorting. In the context of this guideline, this term applies to the practice of grouping patients infected or colonized with the same infectious agent together to confine their care to one area and prevent contact with susceptible patients (cohorting patients). During outbreaks, healthcare personnel may be assigned to a cohort of patients to further limit opportunities for transmission (cohorting staff).
Colonization. Proliferation of microorganisms on or within body sites without detectable host immune response, cellular damage, or clinical expression. The presence of a microorganism within a host may occur with varying duration, but may become a source of potential transmission. In many instances, colonization and carriage are synonymous.
Droplet nuclei. Microscopic particles < 5 µm in size that are the residue of evaporated droplets and are produced when a person coughs, sneezes, shouts, or sings. These particles can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods of time and can be carried on normal air currents in a room or beyond, to adjacent spaces or areas receiving exhaust air.
Engineering controls. Removal or isolation of a workplace hazard through technology. AIIRs, a Protective Environment, engineered sharps injury prevention devices and sharps containers are examples of engineering controls.
Epidemiologically important pathogens . Infectious agents that have one or more of the following characteristics: 1) are readily transmissible; 2) have a proclivity toward causing outbreaks; 3) may be associated with a severe outcome; or 4) are difficult to treat. Examples include Acinetobacter sp., Aspergillus sp., Burkholderia cepacia, Clostridium difficile, Klebsiella or Enterobacter sp., extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing gram negative bacilli [ESBLs], methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE], methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [VRSA] influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], rotavirus, SARS-CoV, noroviruses and the hemorrhagic fever viruses).
Hand hygiene. A general term that applies to any one of the following: 1) handwashing with plain (nonantimicrobial) soap and water); 2) antiseptic handwash (soap containing antiseptic agents and water); 3) antiseptic handrub (waterless antiseptic product, most often alcohol-based, rubbed on all surfaces of hands); or 4) surgical hand antisepsis (antiseptic handwash or antiseptic handrub performed preoperatively by surgical personnel to eliminate transient hand flora and reduce resident hand flora) 559.
Healthcare-associated infection (HAI). An infection that develops in a patient who is cared for in any setting where healthcare is delivered (e.g., acute care hospital, chronic care facility, ambulatory clinic, dialysis center, surgicenter, home) and is related to receiving health care (i.e., was not incubating or present at the time healthcare was provided). In ambulatory and home settings, HAI would apply to any infection that is associated with a medical or surgical intervention. Since the geographic location of infection acquisition is often uncertain, the preferred term is considered to be healthcare-associated rather than healthcare-acquired.
Healthcare epidemiologist. A person whose primary training is medical (M.D., D.O.) and/or masters or doctorate-level epidemiology who has received advanced training in healthcare epidemiology. Typically these professionals direct or provide consultation to an infection control program in a hospital, long term care facility (LTCF), or healthcare delivery system (also see infection control professional).
Healthcare personnel, healthcare worker (HCW). All paid and unpaid persons who work in a healthcare setting (e.g. any person who has professional or technical training in a healthcare-related field and provides patient care in a healthcare setting or any person who provides services that support the delivery of healthcare such as dietary, housekeeping, engineering, maintenance personnel).
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Any transplantation of blood-or bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, regardless of donor type (e.g., allogeneic or autologous) or cell source (e.g., bone marrow, peripheral blood, or placental/umbilical cord blood); associated with periods of severe immunosuppression that vary with the source of the cells, the intensity of chemotherapy required, and the presence of graft versus host disease (MMWR 2000; 49: RR-10).
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. An air filter that removes >99.97% of particles > 0.3µm (the most penetrating particle size) at a specified flow rate of air. HEPA filters may be integrated into the central air handling systems, installed at the point of use above the ceiling of a room, or used as portable units (MMWR 2003; 52: RR-10).
Home care. A wide-range of medical, nursing, rehabilitation, hospice and social services delivered to patients in their place of residence (e.g., private residence, senior living center, assisted living facility). Home health-care services include care provided by home health aides and skilled nurses, respiratory therapists, dieticians, physicians, chaplains, and volunteers; provision of durable medical equipment; home infusion therapy; and physical, speech, and occupational therapy.
Immunocompromised patients. Those patients whose immune mechanisms are deficient because of congenital or acquired immunologic disorders (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, congenital immune deficiency syndromes), chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, emphysema, or cardiac failure, ICU care, malnutrition, and immunosuppressive therapy of another disease process [e.g., radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, anti-graftrejection medication, corticosteroids, monoclonal antibodies directed against a specific component of the immune system]). The type of infections for which an immunocompromised patient has increased susceptibility is determined by the severity of immunosuppression and the specific component(s) of the immune system that is affected. Patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT and those with chronic graft versus host disease are considered the most vulnerable to HAIs. Immunocompromised states also make it more difficult to diagnose certain infections (e.g., tuberculosis) and are associated with more severe clinical disease states than persons with the same infection and a normal immune system.
Infection. The transmission of microorganisms into a host after evading or overcoming defense mechanisms, resulting in the organism’s proliferation and invasion within host tissue(s). Host responses to infection may include clinical symptoms or may be subclinical, with manifestations of disease mediated by direct organisms pathogenesis and/or a function of cell-mediated or antibody responses that result in the destruction of host tissues.
Infection control and prevention professional (ICP). A person whose primary training is in either nursing, medical technology, microbiology, or epidemiology and who has acquired special training in infection control. Responsibilities may include collection, analysis, and feedback of infection data and trends to healthcare providers; consultation on infection risk assessment, prevention and control strategies; performance of education and training activities; implementation of evidence-based infection control practices or those mandated by regulatory and licensing agencies; application of epidemiologic principles to improve patient outcomes; participation in planning renovation and construction projects (e.g., to ensure appropriate containment of construction dust); evaluation of new products or procedures on patient outcomes; oversight of employee health services related to infection prevention; implementation of preparedness plans; communication within the healthcare setting, with local and state health departments, and with the community at large concerning infection control issues; and participation in research. Certification in infection control (CIC) is available through the Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology.
Infection control and prevention program. A multidisciplinary program that includes a group of activities to ensure that recommended practices for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections are implemented and followed by HCWs, making the healthcare setting safe from infection for patients and healthcare personnel. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requires the following five components of an infection control program for accreditation: 1) surveillance: monitoring patients and healthcare personnel for acquisition of infection and/or colonization; 2) investigation: identification and analysis of infection problems or undesirable trends; 3) prevention: implementation of measures to prevent transmission of infectious agents and to reduce risks for device- and procedure-related infections; 4) control: evaluation and management of outbreaks; and 5) reporting: provision of information to external agencies as required by state and federal law and regulation (www.jcaho.org). The infection control program staff has the ultimate authority to determine infection control policies for a healthcare organization with the approval of the organization’s governing body.
Long-term care facilities (LTCFs). An array of residential and outpatient facilities designed to meet the bio-psychosocial needs of persons with sustained self-care deficits. These include skilled nursing facilities, chronic disease hospitals, nursing homes, foster and group homes, institutions for the developmentally disabled, residential care facilities, assisted living facilities, retirement homes, adult day health care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and long-term psychiatric hospitals.
Mask. A term that applies collectively to items used to cover the nose and mouth and includes both procedure masks and surgical masks (www.fda.gov/cdrh/ode/guidance/094.html#4).
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). In general, bacteria that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial agents and usually are resistant to all but one or two commercially available antimicrobial agents (e.g., MRSA, VRE, extended spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]-producing or intrinsically resistant gram-negative bacilli) 176.
Nosocomial infection. A term that is derived from two Greek words “nosos” (disease) and “komeion” (to take care of) and refers to any infection that develops during or as a result of an admission to an acute care facility (hospital) and was not incubating at the time of admission.
Personal protective equipment (PPE). A variety of barriers used alone or in combination to protect mucous membranes, skin, and clothing from contact with infectious agents. PPE includes gloves, masks, respirators, goggles, face shields, and gowns.
Procedure Mask. A covering for the nose and mouth that is intended for use in general patient care situations. These masks generally attach to the face with ear loops rather than ties or elastic. Unlike surgical masks, procedure masks are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.
Protective Environment. A specialized patient-care area, usually in a hospital, that has a positive air flow relative to the corridor (i.e., air flows from the room to the outside adjacent space). The combination of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, high numbers (>12) of air changes per hour (ACH), and minimal leakage of air into the room creates an environment that can safely accommodate patients with a severely compromised immune system (e.g., those who have received allogeneic hemopoietic stem-cell transplant [HSCT]) and decrease the risk of exposure to spores produced by environmental fungi. Other components include use of scrubbable surfaces instead of materials such as upholstery or carpeting, cleaning to prevent dust accumulation, and prohibition of fresh flowers or potted plants.
Quasi-experimental studies. Studies to evaluate interventions but do not use randomization as part of the study design. These studies are also referred to as nonrandomized, pre-post-intervention study designs. These studies aim to demonstrate causality between an intervention and an outcome but cannot achieve the level of confidence concerning attributable benefit obtained through a randomized, controlled trial. In hospitals and public health settings, randomized control trials often cannot be implemented due to ethical, practical and urgency reasons; therefore, quasi-experimental design studies are used commonly. However, even if an intervention appears to be effective statistically, the question can be raised as to the possibility of alternative explanations for the result.. Such study design is used when it is not logistically feasible or ethically possible to conduct a randomized, controlled trial, (e.g., during outbreaks). Within the classification of quasi-experimental study designs, there is a hierarchy of design features that may contribute to validity of results (Harris et al. CID 2004:38: 1586).
Residential care setting. A facility in which people live, minimal medical care is delivered, and the psychosocial needs of the residents are provided for.
Respirator. A personal protective device worn by healthcare personnel to protect them from inhalation exposure to airborne infectious agents that are < 5 μm in size. These include infectious droplet nuclei from patients with M. tuberculosis, variola virus [smallpox], SARS-CoV), and dust particles that contain infectious particles, such as spores of environmental fungi (e.g., Aspergillus sp.). The CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certifies respirators used in healthcare settings (www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/respirators/). The N95 disposable particulate, air purifying, respirator is the type used most commonly by healthcare personnel. Other respirators used include N-99 and N-100 particulate respirators, powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRS) with high efficiency filters; and non-powered full-facepiece elastomeric negative pressure respirators. A listing of NIOSH- approved respirators can be found at www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/respirators/disp_part/particlist.html. Respirators must be used in conjunction with a complete Respiratory Protection Program, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), that includes fit testing, training, proper selection of respirators, medical clearance and respirator maintenance.
Respiratory Hygiene/ Cough Etiquette. A combination of measures designed to minimize the transmission of respiratory pathogens via droplet or airborne routes in healthcare settings. The components of Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette are 1) covering the mouth and nose during coughing and sneezing, 2) using tissues to contain respiratory secretions with prompt disposal into a no-touch receptacle, 3) offering a surgical mask to persons who are coughing to decrease contamination of the surrounding environment, and 4) turning the head away from others and maintaining spatial separation, ideally >3 feet, when coughing. These measures are targeted to all patients with symptoms of respiratory infection and their accompanying family members or friends beginning at the point of initial encounter with a healthcare setting (e.g., reception/triage in emergency departments, ambulatory clinics, healthcare provider offices) 126 (Srinivasin A ICHE 2004; 25: 1020; www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/resphygiene.htm).
Safety culture/climate. The shared perceptions of workers and management regarding the expectations of safety in the work environment. A hospital safety climate includes the following six organizational components: 1) senior management support for safety programs; 2) absence of workplace barriers to safe work practices; 3) cleanliness and orderliness of the worksite; 4) minimal conflict and good communication among staff members; 5) frequent safety-related feedback/training by supervisors; and 6) availability of PPE and engineering controls 620.
Source Control. The process of containing an infectious agent either at the portal of exit from the body or within a confined space. The term is applied most frequently to containment of infectious agents transmitted by the respiratory route but could apply to other routes of transmission, (e.g., a draining wound, vesicular or bullous skin lesions). Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette that encourages individuals to “cover your cough” and/or wear a mask is a source control measure. The use of enclosing devices for local exhaust ventilation (e.g., booths for sputum induction or administration of aerosolized medication) is another example of source control.
Standard Precautions. A group of infection prevention practices that apply to all patients, regardless of suspected or confirmed diagnosis or presumed infection status. Standard Precautions is a combination and expansion of Universal Precautions 780 and Body Substance Isolation 1102. Standard Precautions is based on the principle that all blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions except sweat, nonintact skin, and mucous membranes may contain transmissible infectious agents. Standard Precautions includes hand hygiene, and depending on the anticipated exposure, use of gloves, gown, mask, eye protection, or face shield. Also, equipment or items in the patient environment likely to have been contaminated with infectious fluids must be handled in a manner to prevent transmission of infectious agents, (e.g. wear gloves for handling, contain heavily soiled equipment, properly clean and disinfect or sterilize reusable equipment before use on another patient).
Surgical mask. A device worn over the mouth and nose by operating room personnel during surgical procedures to protect both surgical patients and operating room personnel from transfer of microorganisms and body fluids. Surgical masks also are used to protect healthcare personnel from contact with large infectious droplets (>5 μm in size). According to draft guidance issued by the Food and Drug Administration on May 15, 2003, surgical masks are evaluated using standardized testing procedures for fluid resistance, bacterial filtration efficiency, differential pressure (air exchange), and flammability in order to mitigate the risks to health associated with the use of surgical masks. These specifications apply to any masks that are labeled surgical, laser, isolation, or dental or medical procedure (www.fda.gov/cdrh/ode/guidance/094.html#4). Surgical masks do not protect against inhalation of small particles or droplet nuclei and should not be confused with particulate respirators that are recommended for protection against selected airborne infectious agents, (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis).
|Advisory committee on immunization practices||Ranch hand advisory committee|
|Veterinary medicine advisory committee||Medical Devices Advisory Committee|
|External Advisory Committee on Cities and Communities||National Vaccine Advisory Committee (nvac)|
|Wildlife Diversity Policy Advisory Committee||Studies on dietary supplements for the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)|
|Peer reviewed by the Arizona Department of Commerce Economic Research Advisory Committee||Food and drug administration national institutes of health advisory Committee on: transmissible spongiform|