Science Education for Public Understanding Program




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Science Sustainability

Science Education for Public Understanding Program SEPUP

University of California at Berkeley Lawrence Hall of Science

LKS

This project was supported, in part, by the

National Science Foundation

Opinions expressed are those of the authors

"C'wdV^0 and not necessarily those of the Foundation. ROIllCOIllCOIIId NfiW YOflC

SEPUP Staff

Contributors / Developers_

Daniel Seaver Barbara Nagle

Herbert D. Thier Manisha Hariani

Laura Baumgartner Mike Reeske

2005 update: Asher Davison

Teacher contributors_

Victoria Deneroff Mark Klawiter

Nancy Dibble Angela Olivares

Dan Jeung Veronica Peterson

Production_

Book design and layout: Miriam Shein Cover design: Maryann Ohki

Developmental editing: Devi Mathieu Copyediting and permissions: Naomi Leite Index: Laura Baumgartner

Content and scientific review

Dr. Mark Christensen, Professor Emeritus, Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley Dr. Carolyn Cover-Griffith, Postdoctoral Fellow, Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley Dr. Robert E. Horvat, Professor of Science Education, Buffalo State College

Research assistance

Marcelle Siegel, Dieter Wilk

Cover photographs © Material World. All are from Material World: A Global Family Portrait (Sierra Club Books) unless otherwise noted. Reproduced with permission. Top left (Mali): Peter Menzel. Top right (Great Britain): David Reed. Market scene (India): Peter Ginter. Children running (Japan): Peter Menzel. Bottom left (India): Peter Menzel. Bottom center (Albania, from Women in the Material World [Sierra Club Books]): Catherine Karnow. Bottom right (Mexico): Peter Ginter. Flask sphere, top left (Mongolia): Leong Ka Tai. Flask sphere, bottom left (Iceland): Miguel Fairbanks.

Material World appears in this course by special arrangement with Sierra Club Books and Material World, Inc. SEPUP is grateful to both for their assistance throughout this project. Special thanks to Peter Menzel for his encouragement.

4 5 6 7 8 9 09 08 07 06

©2005 The Regents of the University of California ISBN: 1-887725-20-2

The preferred citation format for this book is:

SEPUP. (2005). Science and Sustainability. Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley. Published by Lab-Aids®, Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY.

SEPUP

Lawrence Hall of Science University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-5200 e-mail: sepup@berkeley.edu Website: www.sepuplhs.org

Published by:

Lae-atDS

17 Colt Court Ronkonkoma, NY 11779 Website: www.lab-aids.com

Dr. Barbara Nagle, Director Manisha Hariani, Associate Director Lee Amosslee, Instructional Materials Developer Janet Bellantoni, Instructional Materials Developer Asher Davison, Instructional Materials Developer Kate Haber, Instructional Materials Developer Daniel Seaver, Instructional Materials Developer Miriam Shein, Publications Coordinator Roberta Smith, Administrative Coordinator Ezequiel Gonzalez, Administrative Assistant

Dr. Herbert D. Thier, Founding Director

Field Test Centers

The classroom is SEPUP's laboratory for development. We are extremely appreciative of the following center directors and teachers who taught the program during the 1997-98 and 1998-99 school years. These teachers and their students contributed significantly to improving the course.

Anchorage, AK

Donna L. York, Center Director

Jocelyn Friedman, Andy Holleman, Shannon Keegan, Mark Lyke, Tim Pritchett, Gail Raymond, Lori Sheppard-Gillam, Deborah J. Soltis, Leesa Wingo

Brooklyn, NY

Veronica Peterson, Center Director

Bonnie L. Boateng, Regina Chimici, Jennifer Cordova, Geraldine Curulli, Sherry Delias, Ian Harding, Edward Kosarin, Jeff Levinson, Len Monchick, Howard Paul, Lisa Piccarillo, Juan Urena, Kathy Wingate

Fresno, CA

Jerry D. Valadez and Bill C. Von Felten, Center Co-Directors

Staci Black, Nancy Dibble, Phyllis R. Emparan, Deborah L. Henell, Joel Janzen, Daniel Jeung, Scott Kruse, Dave Peters, Steve Wilson

Jefferson County, KY

Pamela T. Boykin, Center Director

Shannon Conlon, Craig A. DaRif, Nancy J. Esarey, Sherry Fox, Scott Schneider, Kevin Sharon, Melissa Spaulding, Megan Williams

Los Angeles, CA

Irene C. Swanson, Center Director

Justin Albert, Tammy Bird, Tom Canny, Will Carney, Roberto Corea, Victoria K. Deneroff, Elizabeth Garcia, Gaby Glatzer, Ray A. Hamer, Barbara Hougardy, Finis Irvin, Eric Jackson, Karen Jin, Ronald Kimura, Christine Lee, William Mocnik, Ephran Moreira, Evelyn Okafor, Glenda Pepin, Jonathon Perez, Dennis Popp, Brian Smith, Tamara Spivak, Keith Sy, Lisa Trebasky, Muriel Waugh, Cynthia Williams

Riverside, CA

Dr. Karen Johnson, Center Director

Trish Digenan, Russell Ellis, Bonnie Ice-Williams, Patrick A. McCarthy, Deanna Smith-Turnage, Jay Van Meter

Winston-Salem, NC

Dr. Stan Hill, Center Director

Alison Cotarelo, Janet Crigler, Aubry Felder, Shelley Johnson, Cindy Kleinlein, Claire Kull, Pamela Lindner, Elizabeth Morgan, Vicki Nicholson, Jane Richards, Valerie Snell, Beverly Triebert

Wisconsin

Julie Stafford, Center Director Mark Klawiter, Marian Schraufnagel

Independent

Angie Olivares, Irvine, CA; Mike Reeske, San Diego, CA; John L. Roeder, Princeton, NJ

Contents

Parti Living on Earth i

Activity 1 Sustainable Living

1.1 What Do We Want to Sustain?.......................................4

1.2 Survival Needs...................................................8

1.3 Burn a Nut.....................................................10

1.4 Lessons From a Small Island.......................................13

Activity 2 Survival Needs: Food

2.1 Observing Producers and Consumers................................16

2.2 The Web of Life.................................................20

2.3 Population Estimation............................................23

2.4 Where Have All the Otters Gone?...................................26

2.5 Maintaining a Sustainable Environment..............................28

Activity 3 Survival Needs: Temperature

3.1 Bubble-Blowing Fungi............................................30

3.2 Some Like It Hot................................................33

3.3 Heat and the Laws of Thermodynamics..............................38

3.4 Energy on the Move..............................................42

Activity 4 Energy Transfer

4.1 Are You in Hot Water?............................................44

4.2 Holding Heat...................................................47

4.3 Competing Theories..............................................50

4.4 Shaking the Shot................................................53

4.5 Count Rumford's "Boring" Experiment................................57

Activity 5 Designing an Insulation System

5.1 Conducting Experiments on Insulation...............................60

5.2 The Can Challenge...............................................63

Activity 6 Living in Today's World

6.1 Life in Other Countries............................................66

6.2 Energy Use and the Atmosphere....................................70

6.3 Materials, Energy, and Sustainability.................................73

Activity 7 Modeling Human Population Growth

7.1 Oodles of Models................................................76

7.2 Deer Mel......................................................79

7.3 World Population Growth.........................................83

7.4 Plants and People...............................................85

Activity 8 Population Dynamics

8.1 Population Curves . . .............................................88

8.2 A Population of Fruit Flies.........................................92

8.3 Sharing an Environment..........................................95

8.4 Deer Me, Deer Me!..............................................98

Activity 9 Changing Populations

9.1 Population Projections...........................................104

9.2 Comparing Countries............................................108

9.3 Evaluating a Theory.............................................110

9.4 Population Size, Standard of Living, and Ecological Impact..............112

Activity 10 Providing for the Population

10.1 What Is Sustainable Development?.................................116

10.2 Taking a Closer Look From Far Away...............................119

10.3 Development Decisions..........................................122

Part 2 Feeding the World 129

Activity 11 Food Production

11.1 Growing Plants................................................132

11.2 Will There Be Food Enough?......................................135

11.3 Can Satellites Help Feed the World?................................139

11.4 Eating Patterns Around the World..................................144

Activity 12 Necessary Nutrients

12.1 Soil Nutrients and Fertilizer.......................................148

12.2 Dirty Differences...............................................152

12.3 Soil Components and Properties...................................155

12.4 Mineral Mania.................................................158

Activity 13 Cell Structure and Function

13.1 In and Out Nutrients............................................162

13.2 Inside the Membrane............................................166

13.3 Moving Through Membranes......................................169

13.4 Nature's Crossing Guards.........................................173

Activity 14 Earth's Components

14.1 What's It Made Of?..............................................176

14.2 Exploring the Physical Properties of Elements.........................179

14.3 The Origins of the Periodic Table...................................182

14.4 Specific Heat and Atomic Structure.................................186

Activity 15 Classifying Elements

15.1 Modeling Molecules.............................................188

15.2 Trends in the Periodic Table......................................190

15.3 Patterns in the Properties.........................................193

15.4 Building Blocks of Chemical Change................................196

Activity 16 Photosynthesis

16.1 Do Plants Pass Gas?.............................................198

16.2 Highlights From the History of Botany...............................202

16.3 Where's It Happening?...........................................206

Activity 17 Plant Genetics and the Green Revolution

17.1 Modeling Inheritance............................................208

17.2 Genes and Traits...............................................210

17.3 Rearranging Rice Genes..........................................212

17.4 Generation Next: Crossing the Offspring.............................214

Activity 18 Breeding Improved Crops

18.1 Double Crossing Corn...........................................218

18.2 Breeding Rice..................................................221

18.3 Breeding Crops With Desirable Traits...............................225

18.4 Cattle Calls....................................................228

Activity 19 Genetically Engineering Food

19.1 Genes, Chromosomes, and DNA...................................230

19.2 Modeling DNA Structure.........................................233

19.3 Fight the Blight.................................................238

Activity 20 The Role of Cloning in Food Production

20.1 The Clone Zone................................................242

Part 3 Using Earth's Resources 247

Activity 21 Identifying and Separating Hydrocarbons

21.1 Differentiating Liquids...........................................250

21.2 Origins and Uses of Petroleum....................................253

21.3 Distillation of Simulated Crude Oil.................................257

Activity 22 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons

22.1 The Role of Carbon.............................................262

22.2 Constructing Models of Hydrocarbons...............................266

22.3 Molecular Mysteries.............................................268

Activity 23 Clothing Materials

23.1 Polymers for Clothing...........................................270

23.2 Modeling a Simple Polymer.......................................274

23.3 Researching Oil Production and Use................................276

23.4 Modeling Cross-Linked Polymers...................................279

23.5 Creating a Cool Cross-Linked Polymer..............................283

Activity 24 Material Resources: Metals

24.1 Extracting Metal From a Rock.....................................286

24.2 The Changing Technology of Materials Science.......................291

24.3 Material Use Around the World....................................295

Activity 25 By-Products of Materials Production

25.1 Disposing of Toxic Heavy Metals...................................298

25.2 Who Wants Waste?.............................................305

25.3 Chemical Production Poster Presentation............................308

Activity 26 Catalysts, Enzymes, and Reaction Rates

26.1 Exploring a Catalyst.............................................310

26.2 Comparing Catalysts............................................313

26.3 Catalysts and Food Production....................................319

26.4 Catalysis Paralysis..............................................322

Activity 27 Breakdown!

27.1 Degradability: Solution or False Promise?............................326

27.2 A Closer Look at Chemical Degradation.............................329

27.3 Give It to Them, They'll Eat It.....................................334

Activity 28 Food Preservation

28.1 Return of the Bubble-Blowing Fungi................................336

28.2 Chilling Choices................................................341

28.3 Frigidly Steamy................................................345

28.4 Keeping Cool..................................................350

Activity 29 Refrigeration Technology

29.1 Wet and Cold..................................................354

29.2 In Search of the "Perfect" Refrigerant...............................358

29.3 Cramped and Hot...............................................360

29.4 Unforeseen Consequences........................................365

Activity 30 Economy of Material Use

30.1 Material Resource Use and Sustainability............................368

30.2 Additional Information on the Production and Use of Metals.............371

30.3 You Can Bank On It.............................................373

Part 4 Moving the World 379

Activity 31 Fueling Trade-offs

31.1 How Much Energy Is There?......................................382

31.2 Fuels for the Future.............................................385

31.3 Combustion...................................................391

Activity 32 Fuel From Food

32.1 Biofuels......................................................394

32.2 The Ethanol Alternative..........................................399

Activity 33 Exothermic and Endothermic Interactions

33.1 Interaction Energy..............................................406

33.2 Quantitative Investigation of an Exothermic Interaction.................409

33.3 Energy As You Like It............................................413

33.4 Investigating the Decomposition of H202 ............................ 417

Activity 34 Energy From the Nucleus

34.1 Cool Light.....................................................420

34.2 Electromagnetic Wave Relationships................................423

34.3 Nuclear Radiation..............................................426

34.4 Using Radioactive Isotopes.......................................430

Activity 35 Mechanical Energy

35.1 Energy to Move Mountains.......................................434

35.2 Inertia.......................................................438

35.3 Rambling Rates and Fumbling Forces...............................439

35.4 A Multitude of Machines.........................................442

35.5 Can I Drop You Off?.............................................444

Activity 36 Trade-offs of Energy Use

36.1 By-Products of Combustion.......................................450

36.2 How Air Quality Affects You......................................453

36.3 Measuring Particulate Pollution....................................457

36.4 Effects of Radiation on DNA......................................460

36.5 Not In My Back Yard............................................463

Activity 37 Global Perspectives on Sustainability

37.1 Energy Use and Sustainability.....................................466

37.2 Global Shuffle!.................................................472

Glossary......................................................475

Index........................................................487

Science and Sustainability

is a different kind of science course. It not only covers many of the scientific concepts usually included in biology, chemistry, and physics classes, but also relates those concepts to issues of sustainability. Most likely, you have already explored many scientific concepts, but you may not be familiar with the term sustainability. Sustainability refers to the ability of populations of living organisms to continue, or sustain, a healthy existence in a healthy environment "forever." Many of the activities of today's human societies are not carried out in ways that promote sustainability. The scientific topics introduced in this course were chosen because they relate to sustainable development—that is, the use of environmental resources in a responsible way to ensure that they will continue to be available for use by future generations.

During this course you will participate in a wide range of activities, including many hands-on labs, current and historical readings, role-plays, and debates. You will also make frequent use of the book Material World, which provides a pictorial view of life in dozens of countries around the world. These activities will help you become more confident, competent, and independent in the design, analysis, and communication of issue-oriented science activities. You will be challenged to connect the various components of the course as you analyze risks, assess trade-offs, and make decisions that are based on scientific data.

Issues of science and sustainability impact your personal life, your local community, and the world as a whole. By considering some of these important issues in this course, you will gain the skills necessary for making decisions critical to your future and to the future of other living things on Earth. Some of the unsustainable practices of today's societies have resulted in overcrowding in urban areas, decreased air and water quality, reduced biodiversity, increased starvation, and other global problems. This course will present you with choices that might help solve some of these problems. After evaluating the scientific evidence, you will determine which options are appropriate for the problem in question. In some cases, you will even be given a chance to develop your own solutions for a problem.

This course is divided into four parts: "Living on Earth," "Feeding the World," "Using Earth's Resources," and "Moving the World." Each part focuses on the nature and implications of one theme related to sustainability.

Parti

Living on Earth

Sustaining the existence of Earth's inhabitants requires that populations of each species survive long enough to produce and nurture the next generation. To survive, all organisms rely on other organisms and on Earth's non-living resources, including air, water, and soil. In Part 1 of Science and Sustainability, you will begin investigating a wide range of questions about life on Earth:

• What do humans and all other living organisms require to survive?

• Why, scientifically speaking, do organisms have these needs?

• How do organisms, including humans, fulfill those needs?

• How have science and technology contributed to the survival of modern humans?

• How have human attempts to survive and prosper affected the survival of other organisms?

• How have human attempts to survive and prosper affected the quality of the air, water, or soil?

• What effect does population growth have on the ability of humans to survive?

• What is the outlook for human survival in the future?

• What can today's human population do to increase the ability of future generations to survive?

Science and technology will continue to play an extraordinarily important role in our everyday lives. Part 1 of this course will introduce you to some fundamental scientific principles and processes. This information should help you better understand past scientific discoveries and their impact on society and the environment. It will also prepare you to evaluate the potential impact of future discoveries and inventions.

Sustainable Living

What Do We Want to Sustain?

Purpose

Compare the possessions of families in four countries and consider which are essential for survival.

Introduction

Sustainability, at its most basic level, means continued survival. People in different parts

of the world own and use different types of materials and energy. Some of these materi­als are needed for survival; others are not. The book Material World contains photographs, statistics, and written descriptions that provide evidence of what life is like for average families in 30 countries around the world. At the beginning of the section on each coun­try is a "big picture" showing a typical family outside their home, surrounded by all their possessions.

The material goods that belong to an individual or a family serve many purposes. In this activity, you will examine the material possessions of families from four different coun­tries, then decide which possessions are essential for survival and which are not. You will also consider how non-essential possessions affect the sustainability of a society.

Prediction

Work with your partner to come up with an estimate for the percentage of items found in a typical household that are essential for survival.

Activity 1

What Do We Want to Sustain?

1.1

Materials

For each team of two students

1 copy of Material World

Procedure

1. Take a few moments to look through Material World and get a sense of the information it provides.

2. Look at the locator map in Figure 1 and on pages 4-5 in Material World to see where each of the following countries is located: Thailand, Iceland, Ethiopia, and Guatemala. Based only on information from the maps, rank these four countries in order from "easiest to survive in" to "most difficult to survive in."

3. Now, look carefully at the photographs in Material World of the families from Thailand, Iceland, Ethiopia, and Guatemala. Make a data table similar to the one on the next page to record your observations.

4. For each family, predict the purpose of one of the possessions you do not recognize.

5. Typically, essential natural resources are not considered personal possessions, but are instead shared by all members of the community. Describe any evidence in Material World that might indicate whether or not each family has an adequate supply of clean air, water, and soil.

6. Based on the information you now have, again rank the four countries in order from "easiest to survive in" to "most difficult to survive in."

Figure 1 Locator Map

1.1

What Do We Want to Sustain?

Procedure Table 1 Family Possessions

(cont.)

Thailand

Iceland

Ethiopia

Guatemala

Name of family

5 possessions most essential for survival

Estimated % of possessions that are essential

Essential resources not shown in photographs

Family's 5 most valued possessions

5 possessions similar to something in your home

5 possessions you do not recognize

Activity 1

What Do We Want to Sustain?

1.1

Analysis Group Analysis

1. Does your family have possessions that meet the same needs as things owned by the families pictured in Material World? Explain.

2. Which possessions do you recognize as similar to something your family owns? Do these items tend to be essential or non-essential?

3. In general, are a family's most valued possessions the same as those they need for survival? How do you think people determine the value of their possessions? Explain.

Individual Analysis

4. Do you think the estimate you made in the Prediction is still a good one? Explain why or why not.

5. Think about your own family's possessions. List the five you consider to be the most valuable and the! five you consider most essential. Is your list similar to any of the lists you made for families in Material World? Are your family's most valued possessions the same las those you need for survival? Explain.

6. Does the number of material goods a family owns have any relationship to soil, air, or water quality? Explain.

7. Using your knowledge; of your own community and your observations about the four families from Material World, describe two practices that promote sustainability for future generations and two that do not.

Sustainable Living

1.2



Purpose Identify items that are absolutely necessary for human survival.

Introduction The survival of any organism requires the maintenance of a certain level of activity within its cells. To do so requires access to essential resources that are determined, in part, by the environment in which the organism lives. No matter what the environment may be like, certain resources are needed to meet the basic needs of the human organism.

Scenario

Because of your excellent qualifications, you and your group members have been chosen to go on a 14-day scientific expe­dition to explore a remote area of planet Earth. Prior to this expedition, the area has never been visited by humans. You will be going to one of the following environments;

Equatorial Desert Equatorial Jungle Polar Ice Cap Mountain Forest

Because of the nature of your expedition, no motorized vehi­cles can be used. You and your group members will be hiking about 10 miles a day, carrying all your supplies with you.

Activity 1

Materials

Survival Needs

1.2

For each group of four students

1 large piece of paper 1 marking pen

Procedure

1. List any essential resources that you can assume will be supplied by the natural environment.

2. Prepare a list of items that your group members agree would have to be brought with you on your expedition.

3. Underline those items that you would need no matter what environment you were in.

Analysis Group Analysis

1. Decide upon three cj>r four categories (such as protection) into which the supplies on your list can be classified.

2. What basic human needs do the supplies you underlined provide for?

3. What basic human needs do the supplies you did not underline provide for?

4. What types of scientific knowledge could help you explain why humans have these basic needs?

Individual Analysis

5. Imagine what life mjight have been like for the very first hipQanspn Earth. Describe what you think arei the top five ways in which science has ma4e your life easier than it was for them.

Sustainable Living

1.3

Burn a Nut

Purpose

Weigh the advantages and disadvantages of using different energy

sources.

Introduction

To survive, our bodies need a constant supply of energy, much of which is provided by the

sun. Other commonly used energy sources fall into two categories—food and fuel. The energy in foods and fuels is stored within the chemicals that make up these materials. This stored energy can then be released during chemical reactions. When the energy is released, it is transferred from the energy source to something else. Foods are used by all organisms to supply the energy and nutrients needed for life. Fuels are used by people and their soci­eties to provide energy for tasks they consider important, such as staying warm, cooking food, or generating electricity. Fuels can be classified as renewable or non-renewable resources. Renewable fuels, such as firewood and other plant products, can be replenished within a single human lifetime. Non-renewable fuels, like coal and gasoline, cannot be replenished^ring a single fiuman lifetime.

Why does our society tend to use non-renewable fuels rather than renewable ones? Whenever you make a choice, there are trade-offs that must be considered. What are the advantages of using non-renewable fuels? What are^he disadvantages?

Nuts are an example of a renewable resource that can be used as a food or a fuel. In this activity, you will actually burn a nut and measure the amount of energy stored in it. During the combustion process, the energy stored in the nut will be transferred from the nut to some water. The amount of energy transfer can be evaluated by measuring the change in the temperature' of the water. You will also compare the amount of energy stored in a nut to the amount stored in kerosene, which is a non-renewable, non-edible fuel.

Activity 1

Burn a Nut

Materials

■■■■

■■■■ For the class

1 balance

supply of heavy-duty matches supply of mixed nuts supply of water

For each group of four students

1 glass fuel burner 1 50-mL graduated cylinder 1 nut holder 1 drip catcher

For each team of two students

ring stand ring clamp aluminum soda can immersion thermometer paper clip access to a clock with a second hand

For each student

1 pair of safety glasses

Safety Note

^ You will be working with open flame, so be very careful. Wear safety glasses and be 4^5^ sure t0 Protect your hands and clothes from hot laboratory equipment. If you have ^ long hair, it should be pulled back to avoid exposure to the flame. You will also be working with glassware, including a glass thermometer. If any glass breaks, notify your teacher immediately. Do not clean it up without your teacher's approval.

Procedure

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