Nepad short-term action plan (stap)




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3.2 Cooperative Arrangements



3.2.1 Institutional arrangements for cooperation in management of the transboundary basins vary significantly in the seven river basins under consideration. They range from well established and reasonably resourced river basin organization, sub-basin organizations, bilateral and multi-lateral inter-state arrangements with limited jurisdiction, and, at one extremity, absence of any cooperative arrangements at all. At one end of the scale is the case of the cooperative arrangement in the Senegal River Basin. The Senegal River Development Organisation (OMVS) was established in 1972 by three of the riparian countries (Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) as a basin-wide organisation with a wide mandate for development and management of water resources in the Senegal River Basin. The Kagera Basin Organisation, established in 1977 between Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania to manage water resources on a sub-basin of the Nile, is the only RBO in the Nile Basin; while the Zambezi River Authority is a bilateral institution established by Zambia and Zimbabwe in 1987 to manage the common water resources on the main stem of the Zambezi River for hydropower production at Kariba Dam. On the other hand, presently there is no cooperative arrangement for the management of water resources in the Congo River Basin.


3.2.2 Table 3.2 summarises the existing cooperative arrangements for water resources management in the seven river basins. Some of the treaties or agreements established institutional arrangements to carry out the mandates stipulated in the treaty. This is the case with respect to the establishment of the river basin organisations for the Senegal, Niger, Lake Chad, Kagera, and the shared watercourse between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The treaties on the Nile (between Egypt and Sudan) and on the Okavango (between Angola, Botswana and Namibia) did not establish any organisational structures.


3.2.3 Though the Zambezi Basin does not have a basin-wide organisation for water resources management, there exists a relatively comprehensive umbrella legal and policy framework for IWRM in the SADC region. The SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourses, originally signed in 1995 and revised in 1998, has an overall objective of fostering “closer cooperation for judicious, sustainable and coordinated management, protection and utilisation of shared watercourses……..”. Specific provisions of the protocol elaborate procedures for dealing with infrastructural developments, environmental protection and preservation, management of shared watercourses, prevention and mitigation of harmful conditions, emergency situations, institutional arrangements, and settlement of disputes in shared watercourses in the region. Furthermore, SADC is presently engaged in elaborating a regional water policy and strategy; this is targeted for approval by mid 2004. Therefore there exists a strong foundation for establishing cooperative arrangements for specific river basins in SADC region. Negotiations for the establishment of the basin-wide organisation for water resources development and management of the Zambezi Basin, the Zambezi River Basin Commission (ZAMCOM) were due to be concluded in the first quarter of 2004.


3.2.4 The Nile basin presently lacks a basin-wide legal and institutional framework for development and management of water resources of the basin. The 1959 agreement between Egypt and Sudan is a water sharing agreement between the two countries and does not encompass the rest of the 8 other riparian states. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a transitional institutional arrangement established in 1999 with support from a number of cooperating partners, chief among whom being the World Bank, to assist the Nile basin states establish a cooperative framework for joint water resources management in the Nile Basin. NBI has facilitated the establishment of the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework Negotiating Committee, launched in December 2003, and composed of nine riparian countries (Eritrea has opted to be an observer at this stage) to negotiate a cooperative framework for water resources management in the basin.


3.2.5 Throughout Africa there are number of sub-regional or inter-governmental bodies purposely established under the auspices of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), now AU, to promote economic cooperation and regional integration. Generally called Regional Economic Communities (RECs), because they are constituted by a community of nations in a particular region, their main objectives involve, to one degree or the other, the following:


  • promote deeper economic cooperation and regional integration;

  • promote sustainable economic growth and socio-economic development;

  • promote enabling environment for local and foreign investments, including building partnerships between the public and private sector ;

  • promote inter-regional trade; and

  • promote peace, security and stability.


3.2.6 Table 3.3 presents the list of existing RECs and their respective jurisdictional areas. Information is also shown regarding existence, or otherwise, of dedicated organisational unit or agency responsible for water resources management in each organisation. This is important information with respect to NEPAD since RECs are expected to be the vehicle for implementation of the NEPAD infrastructure programme including the component on transboundary water resources. In addition, it is important to point out that jurisdictional areas of RECs are the political boundaries of the countries constituting the REC and not necessarily the river basin boundaries. Consequently, several river basins come under the jurisdiction of at least two RECs (through the countries falling under the basin). This is the case for the Congo Basin which comes under SADC in Southern Africa, COMESA in Eastern and Southern Africa, as well as ECCAS in Central Africa. The Nile Basin spans countries belonging to SADC, EAC, COMESA and ECCAS; and there are similar examples in West Africa. Table 3.3 reveals overlapping mandates in virtually all river basins. This situation has a bearing on institutional responsibility for implementation of interventions in transboundary basins. Inter-REC coordination and collaboration would be critical to the effective implementation of the NEPAD infrastructure activities in the transboundary basins. It is also revealed that, except in SADC, there is no focal point for water resources development in any of the RECs.


Table 3.1 Main Characteristics of the Selected River Basins




River (Lake) Basin


Basin Area

(sq km)

River Length (km)

Mean Annual Runoff at river mouth (bcm)

No. of States

States in River Basin

Population

(Year 2001)

millions

% Population Growth rate

(1996 - 2001)

Area in the Basin

(sq km)

% Area

of the Basin



Nile


2,850,000

6,700

84

10

Sudan

31.8

2.1

1,931,300

63.57



















Ethiopia

64.5

2.5

356,900

11.75



















Egypt

69.1

1.8

273,100

8.99



















Uganda

24

2.9

238,100

7.86



















Tanzania

36

2.4

120,300

3.96



















Kenya

31.3

2.3

50,900

1.68



















DRC

52.5

2.6

21,700

0.71



















Rwanda

7.9

8.5

20,800

0.69



















Burundi

6.5

0.9

13,000

0.43



















Eritrea

3.8

2.7

3,500

0.12



Zambezi


1,388,200

2,650

230

8

Zambia

10.6

2.5

576,900

41.64



















Angola

13.5

2.9

254,600

18.38



















Zimbabwe

12.9

1.9

215,500

15.55



















Mozambique

18.6

2.3

163,500

11.81



















Malawi

11.6

2.4

110,400

7.97



















Tanzania

36

2.4

27,200

1.97



















Botswana

1.6

1.6

18,900

1.37



















Namibia

1.8

2.1

17,200

1.24




Okavango

708,600

1,100

8

4

Botswana

1.6

1.6

359,000

50.67



















Namibia

1.8

2.1

176,800

24.95



















Angola

13.5

2.9

150,100

21.18



















Zimbabwe

12.9

1.9

22,700

3.2




Senegal

490,000

1050

25

4

Mauritania

2.7

3.2

219,100

50.25



















Mali

11.7

2.7

150,800

34.59



















Senegal

9.7

2.5

35,200

8.08



















Guinea

8.3

2.1

30,800

7.07


Table3.1 Main Characteristics of the Selected River Basins (continued)





River (Lake) Basin

Basin Area

(sq km)

River Length (km)

Mean Annual Runoff at river mouth (bcm)

No. of States

States in River Basin

Population

(Year 2001)

millions

% Population Growth rate (1996 - 2001)

Area in the

Basin

(sq km)

% Area

of the Basin




Niger

1,990,000

4,100

180

11

Nigeria

116.9

2.7

561,900

26.59



















Mali

11.7

2.7

540,700

25.58



















Niger

11.2

3.5

497,900

23.56



















Algeria

30.8

1.8

161,300

7.63



















Guinea

8.3

2.1

95,900

4.54



















Cameroon

15.2

2.3

88,100

4.17



















Burkina Faso

11.9

2.3

82,900

3.93



















Benin

6.4

2.7

45,300

2.14



















Cote d’Ivoire

16.3

2.1

22,900

1.08



















Chad

8.1

3.2

16,400

0.78



















Sierra Leone

4.6

1.5

50

0.00




Congo

2,942,700

4,700

1,250

11

DRC

52.5

2.6

2,313,350

61.1



















Central Afric. Rep

3.8

2.1

403,507

10.7



















Angola

13.5

2.9

285,395

7.5



















Congo

3.1

3.0

246,977

6.5



















Zambia

10.6

2.5

244,593

6.5



















Tanzania

36

2.4

177,735

4.7



















Cameroon

15.2

2.3

96,395

2.5



















Burundi

6.5

0.9

14,574

0.4



















Rwanda

7.9

8.5

6464

0.2



















Gabon

1.3

2.6

460

0.01



















Malawi

11.6

2.4

90

0.00




Lake Chad

2,370,000

Annually variable area 2,500 to 25,000 sq km

Internal Drainage Basin

8

Chad

8.1

3.2

1,079,200

45.18













Niger

11.2

3.5

674,200

28.23
















Central Afr. Rep.

3.8

2.1

218,600

9.15
















Nigeria

116.9

2.7

180,200

7.54
















Algeria

30.8

1.8

90,000

3.77
















Sudan

31.8

2.1

82,800

3.47



















Cameroon

15.2

2.3

46,800

1.96



















Libya

5.4

2.1

4,600

0.19

References: (1) UNEP, Atlas of International Freshwater Agreement, 2002 (2) African Development Bank, 2001

Table 3.2 Cooperative Arrangements for Water Resources Management

Basin
Basin Organisation

Year

Established

Member States

Location of Secretariat

Functions

Nile

Kagera Basin Organisation

1977

Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania

Kigali, Rwanda

Planning with wide multi-sectoral scope including water supply, agriculture, animal husbandry, minerals, wildlife, fisheries and environment protection


Zambezi

Zambezi River Authority

1987

Zambia, Zimbabwe

Lusaka, Zambia

Operation of the Kariba Dam Complex, hydropower planning, processing hydrological data for hydropower purposes, water quality monitoring in Lake Kariba


Okavango

Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM)

1994

Angola, Botswana, Namibia

No secretariat, functions shared by all states on rotating basis

Technical advisory service on water resources management in the Okavango River Basin.

Niger

Niger River Basin Authority (NBA)

1980

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria

Niamey, Niger

Promoting cooperation and harmonization of water resources policies and programmes; planning sub-regional and bilateral projects; designing, implementing and maintaining common projects

Senegal

Senegal River Basin Organisation (OMVS)

1972

Mali, Mauritania, Senegal

Dakar, Senegal

Promoting inter-country cooperation; co-ordination of water resources development for navigation, irrigation, hydropower generation; environmental protection and conservation; river flow regulation


Congo













No cooperative arrangement in the basin


Lake Chad

Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC)

1964

Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Niger, Nigeria

N’djamena, Chad

Data collection and dissemination; undertaking major studies and works within the basin; promotion of regional cooperation; and planning, co-ordination and implementing projects of regional nature



Table 3.3 Regional Economic Communities in the Selected Basins


River Basin

Basin Countries

Regional Economic Communities in Basin

Location of

Secretariat

Organizational Unit

for Water Resources

Cooperating Partners in Water Sector

Nile

Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

EAC

SADC

COMESA

CEPGL

ECCAS

IGAD

Arusha, Tanzania

Gaborone, Botswana

Lusaka, Zambia


Libreville, Gabon

Djibouti, Djibouti

None

SADC Water Division

None

None

None

None

CIDA, NORAD, Netherlands, Sida, AfDB, GEF/UNDP, GEF/World Bank, World Bank, DFID, GTZ Italy

Zambezi

Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

SADC

COMESA

EAC

Gaborone, Botswana

Lusaka, Zambia

SADC Water Division

None

Danida, Sida, NORAD, France, AfDB, UNDP, GTZ, IUCN

Okavango

Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe

SADC

COMESA

Gaborone, Botswana

Lusaka, Zambia

SADC Water Division

None

SIDA, USAID, UNDP/GEF

Niger

Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria

ECCAS

ECOWAS

UEMOA


Libreville, Gabon

Abuja, Nigeria

None

Under establishment

World Bank, CIDA, AfDB, France, GEF/UNDP, BADEA,

Senegal

Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal

ECOWAS

AMU

CENSAD

Abuja, Nigeria


Under establishment None

World Bank, AfDB, France, GEF/UNDP

Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Central African Republic, the Congo, Angola, Cameroon, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia

SADC

COMESA

CEMAC

CEPGL

EAC

ECCAS

Gaborone, Botswana

Lusaka, Zambia


Arusaha, Tanzania

Libreville, Gabon


SADC Water Division

None

None

None

None

None





Lake Chad

Algeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan

AMU

CEMAC

CEN-SAD

COMESA

ECCAS

ECOWAS

Rabat, Morocco


Lusaka, Zambia

Libreville, Gabon

Abuja, Nigeria

None


None

None

Under establishment

World Bank, UNDP, GEF, AfDB, IUCN, DFID, FAO, France

Ref: ECA

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