Nepad short-term action plan (stap)




НазваниеNepad short-term action plan (stap)
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NEPAD SHORT-TERM ACTION PLAN (STAP)

for Transboundary Water Resources


Framework for Implementation


Part 1: MAIN REPORT


June 2004



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Among the major challenges facing Africa’s water sector planners, managers and users is the large number of transboundary river and lake basins. Africa has over 60 of the world’s 200 large transboundary river/lake basins which are shared by more than two countries, and reaching up to 10 for the larger ones. These basins are in most cases characterized by uneven distribution of water and made worse by droughts, watershed degradation and uncoordinated developments. The demand for water in many countries is increasing and in view of the undeveloped infrastructure, the economy of these countries would be exposed to water stress and scarcity. Cooperation in the management of these basins is essential to gain win-win benefits by all basin countries.


Though NEPAD’s water and sanitation programme had given recognition to these issues, the current programme is targeted to focused programmes in selected basins namely: Niger and Senegal in West Africa, Nile in Eastern Africa, Congo and Lake Chad in Central Africa and, Zambezi and Okavango in Southern Africa. Other basins would be covered in the NEPAD Medium to Long Term Strategic Framework, the preparation of which would commence in the near future


Situation assessment in the selected basins has shown that progress in cooperative management of the river basins is at different levels. Cooperative set-ups range from well established and reasonably resourced river basin organizations (OMVS in Senegal), sub-basin organizations, bilateral and multilateral inter-state arrangements with limited jurisdiction, and at one extremity, absence of any cooperative arrangements (Congo Basin). The main issues identified include: lack of common or shared vision, lack of effective cooperative frameworks for transboundary water resources management, inadequate capacity, inadequate financial base, and weak political will, with some specific variations. Some basins have stalled programmes, while others require support in implementing initiated programmes that are geared to advance the cooperative engagements to higher levels and results.


With the assistance of AfDB, NEPAD is in the process of preparing Medium to Long Term Strategic Framework for Infrastructure Development that would cover incorporates transboundary water resources, the STAP for transboundary water resources would concentrate on strengthening the enabling environment in parallel with supporting on-going or stalled projects that lead to further cooperation including joint investments. The STAP for transboundary water resources’ strategic goal is thus to strengthen the enabling environment for the effective cooperative management and development of transboundary water resources and initiation of the implementation of prioritized programmes thereby contributing to socio-economic development and poverty reduction. This would be met through:


  • Facilitating political support and action.

  • Facilitating resource mobilization.

  • Fostering partnerships.

  • Developing strategic frameworks.

  • Capacity building in the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and River Basin Organizations (RBOs).


NEPAD TWR would be supported by stakeholders and development partners each contributing its part. RECs would have the responsibility of facilitating and monitoring implementation of TWR in their respective regions. River Basin Organisations (RBOs) are the main agencies for cooperative management and development of water resources in the respective river basins and would be responsible for planning, implementation, and monitoring basin-wide activities. Multilateral and bilateral agencies would support the NEPAD activities through provision of financial and technical resources at all institutional levels and all stages of the development process (or project cycle), from project preparation, through appraisal to project execution and monitoring and evaluation. The role of NEPAD as a facilitator/process manager needs emphasis. NEPAD would lend support to regional authorities to implement projects according to their priorities. NEPAD would facilitate mobilisation of financial resources and political will to ensure expeditious implementation of programmes and projects; but would give guidance so that the planned interventions are moving Africa towards the important goal of socio-economic development and poverty alleviation.


A total of 22 projects or action plans have been elaborated with project profiles. The total cost is US$ 7.2 million. Potential sources of finance include:

  • the African Water Facility, hosted by the Africa Development Bank Group;

  • the Canadian PPF, managed by the African Development Ban Group (for selected schemes);

  • multilateral funding, such as the EU and World Bank ;

  • bilateral financing; and

  • RECs through their funding support from contributions of member countries.


The way forward to realize the objectives set about in strengthening cooperation in transboundary water resources management is to initially get consensus on the findings and proposed action plans for each river basin. Following endorsement of the action plan, implementation would proceed as outlined in the project profiles.


Abbreviations and Acronyms


ABN

Niger River Basin Authority

ADB

African Development Bank Group

ADF

African Development Fund

AMCEN

African Ministerial Council for Environment

AMCOW

African Ministers’ Council on Water

AMU

Arab Maghreb Union

ANBO

African Network of Basin Organizations

AWF

African Water Facility

AWFTF

African Water Facility Trust Fund

AWTF

African Water Task Force

AWV

African Water Vision

CAADP

Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme

CEMAC

Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa

CEN-SAD

Community of Sahel-Saharan States

CEPGL

Economic Community of Great Lake Countries

CGIAR

Consultative Group for International Research for Agriculture

CIDA

Canadian International Development Agency

CIDA

Canadian International Development Agency

COMESA

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

DANIDA

Danish International Development Agency

DBSA

Development Bank of Southern Africa

DFID

Department For International Development (UK)

DRC

Democratic Republic of Congo

EAC

East African Community

EAIF

Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund

ECA

Economic Commission for Africa

ECCAS

Economic Community of Central African States

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organisation

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GNP

Gross National Product

GWh

Gigawat hour

GWP

Global Water Partnership

HYCOS

Hydrological Cycle Observing System

ICT

Information Communication Technology

IGAD

Inter Governmental Authority on Development

IUCN

World Conservation Union

IWRM

Integrated Water Resources Management

LCBC

Lake Chad Basin Commission

MDGs

Millennium Development Goals

MLTSF

Medium to Long-Term Strategic Framework

NBA

Niger Basin Authority

NBI

Nile Basin Initiative

NEPAD

New Partnership for Africa’s Development

NORAD

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation

ODA

Overseas Development Aid

OKACOM

Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission

OMVS

Senegal River Basin Organisation

PRSP

Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

RBO

River Basin Organisation

REC

Regional Economic Community

RMCs

Regional Member Countries of the African Development Bank Group

RWSSI

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative

SADC

Southern African Development Community

SAPP

Southern African Power Pool

SIDA

Swedish International Development Agency

STAP

Short-Term Action Plan for NEPAD Infrastructure

STAP TWR

Short-Term Action Plan for Transboundary Water Resources

TAC

Technical Advisory Committee

TOR

Terms of Reference

TWR

Transboundary Water Resources

UEMOA

West African Economic and Monetary Union

UNECA

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

WHO

World Health Organization

WSS

Water Supply and Sanitation

WSSD

World Summit on Sustainable Development

WWF

World Water Forum

ZACPLAN

Zambezi River Action Plan

ZACPRO

Zambezi River Action Plan Project

ZAMCOM

Zambezi River Basin Commission

ZRA

Zambezi River Authority



Units: ha = hectare

km2 = square kilometer (100 ha)

km3 = cubic kilometer (billion cubic meter)

bcm = billion cubic meter


Table of Contents



1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. BACKGROUND 3

2.1 NEPAD and Its Programme in Infrastructure and Water 3

2.2 Short Term Action Plan (STAP) for Water and Sanitation 3

2.3 Review of STAP Implementation Progress 4

2.4 Context of NEPAD’s Focus in Transboundary Water Resources 4

2.5 Linkages to Other Initiatives/Programmes 6

2.6 Approach to Preparation of STAP for Transboundary Water Resources 9

3. SITUATION ASSESSMENT 11

3.1 Introduction and Background 11

3.2 Cooperative Arrangements 14

Nile 16

Zambezi 16

3.3 Issues and Challenges 20

4. STRATEGIC GOAL 28

4.1 Issues to be Addressed 28

4.2 Stages and Processes Towards Effective River Basin Management 28

4.3 Strategic Goal 30

4.4 Linkage to Sector Goal 30

5. WORK PLAN AND BUDGET REQUIREMENTS 35

5.1 Project Selection Criteria 35

5.2 NEPAD Support for Transboundary Water Resources Management 35

5.3 Action Plans 38

6. MONITORING AND EVALUATION 40

6.1 Objectives of Monitoring 40

6.2 Monitoring Indicators 40

6.3 Evaluation of NEPAD STAP-TWR 41

6.4 Framework Matrix 41

7. PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT 44

7.1 Major Stakeholders 44

7.2 Roles and Responsibilities of Key Stakeholders 44

7.3 Implementation Capacities 46

7.4 Financing the NEPAD STAP-TWR 47

N E P A D 48

8. WAY FORWARD 49

CONGO BASIN 1

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. EXISTING AGREEMENTS AND STATUS OF COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 1

3. KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE BASIN 3

3.1 Regional Economic Communities 3

ECCAS: The countries of Central Africa namely: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda Sao Tome & Principe have formed the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) / Communaute Economique des Etats d’Afrique Centrale (CEEAC) based in Libreville. ECCAS aims to promote regional economic co-operation and establish a Central African Common Market. The crisis in the region has been a divisive factor in ECCAS limiting its operations. ECCAS has initiated the establishment of water unit to coordinate integrated water resources management, though concrete actions have yet to take place. 3

CEMAC: Another organization relevant to Central Africa is the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC). It comprises of seven member countries namely: Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe and Chad who have been meeting to establish economic integration. The involvement of this organization to basin water resources management would need to be further explored. 3

4. NEPAD STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 4

5. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
4

5.1 Key Issues 4

5.2 Development Challenges 5

6. NEED FOR COOPERATION 5

7. PROPOSED ROLE OF NEPAD 6

LAKE CHAD BASIN
7

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
7

1.1 General 7

2. AGREEMENTS AND EXISTING MODALITIES FOR COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 7

Governance 9

3. KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE BASIN 10

3.1 Regional Economic Communities 10

ECCAS 10

Other RECs whose members partly belong in the lake Chad basin are: CEMAC and ECOWAS. ECOWAS would have relevance to Nigeria and Niger as both countries are members of ECOWAS and LCDC. 10

4. NEPAD STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 11

5. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
11

6. NEED FOR COOPERATION 12

7. IDENTIFIED SPECIFIC ISSUES AND POTENTIAL AREAS FOR NEPAD SUPPORT 13

List of Projects Under Implementation by Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) 15

NIGER BASIN 16

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
16

2. AGREEMENTS AND EXISTING MODALITIES FOR COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 16

3. KEY STAKEHOLDERS OPERATING IN THE BASIN 19

3.1 Regional Economic Communities 19

3.2 Multilateral and Bilateral Programmes in the Sub-Region. 19

3.3 National Governments: 19

4. NEPAD STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 19

5.0 KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
20

6. NEED FOR COOPERATION 21

7. IDENTIFIED SPECIFIC ISSUES AND POTENTIAL AREAS FOR NEPAD SUPPORT 22

SENEGAL RIVER BASIN 24

1. INTRODUCTIONS AND BACKGROUND 24

2. AGREEMENTS AND EXISTING MODALITIES FOR COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 24

3.0 KEY STAKEHOLDERS OPERATING IN THE BASIN 26

3.2 Bilateral and multilateral support activities in the Senegal River basin. 26

3.3 Organizations responsible for the operation and management of infrastructure 26

4. NEPAD STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 27

5. KEY ISSUES 27

6. NEED FOR COOPERATION 28

7. IDENTIFIED SPECIFIC ISSUES AND POTENTIAL AREAS FOR NEPAD SUPPORT 28

ZAMBEZI RIVER BASIN 31

1. GENERAL 31

Fig. 1 Zambezi River Basin 31

2. DEVELOPMENT STATUS 32

3. COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 34

4. INSTITUTIONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 35

5. NEPAD-STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 35

6 KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE BASIN 37

7. DEVELOPMENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 38

7.1 Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities and Threats 38

7.2 Key Issues in WRM in the Zambezi Basin 38

7.3 Need for Cooperation in the Basin 39

7.4 Areas of NEPAD Support 40

OKAVANGO RIVER BASIN 56

1. INTRODUCTION 56

2. DEVELOPMENT STATUS 57

3. COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 57

4. INSTITUTIONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS IN THE BASIN 58

5. NEPAD-STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 59

6 KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE BASIN 60

7. DEVELOPMENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 63

7.1 Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities and Threats 63

7.2 Key Issues 63

7.3 Need for Cooperation in Water Resources Management 64

7.4 Areas of NEPAD Support 64

NILE RIVER BASIN 66

1. INTRODUCTION 66

2. DEVELOPMENT STATUS 66

3. COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK 70

4. INSTITUTIONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS IN THE BASIN 71

5. NEPAD-STAP PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 72

6 KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE BASIN 72

6.1 Regional Economic Communities (RECs) 72

6.2 Multilateral and Bilateral Agencies. 73

6.3 National Governments 73

7. DEVELOPMENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 73

7.1 Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities and Threats 73

7.2 Key Issues in WRM in the Nile River Basin 73

7.3 Areas of NEPAD Support 74

Objectives 76

Summary of Projects 84

Text of the regional convention on management of shared water resources finalised 95

National legislation adapted in relation the framework convention 95

Body for monitoring of the framework convention installed 95

Capacity for application of the convention established 95

collect existing legislative texts in the water area (and related areas: environment, natural resources etc) in each country) 98

Analyse and compare the texts 98

Constitute a commented collection of relevant document summaries for each country in the country's language 98

Disseminate the documents to the competent services through the National Focal Points 98

Collect advises from national administrations 98

Collect the conventions relevant to water (and related areas: environment, natural resources, international basins etc) in each country) and the corresponding bibliographies from the relevant institutions 98

Constitute a complete collection of conventions (in the three languages) 98

Identify the national monitoring institutions 98

Analyse the texts their state of application, compare with the dispositions of national legislation 98

Write a report analysing the situation in each country, in the language of the country 98

Disseminate the inventory and the analysis report to competent departments through the National Focal Points 98

Collect advise from the national administrations 98

Recruit a team of regional and international consultants to be responsible for writing the guidelines 98

Write a first draft of the guidelines for application of conventions 98

Organise a consultation with the Governments (with support from the National Focal Points) 98

Finalise the guide according to comments received 98

Translate, edit, and disseminate the Guidelines (in English, French, and Portuguese) 98

Inventory, analysis, comparison, and evaluation of principal texts relevant to the water sector of each country 99

Inventory of relevant conventions. 99

Guidelines for ratification and application of international conventions related to water available for the countries. 99

The Governments, which will be assisted in their will to ratify the international conventions concerning them, the consequent adaptation of their national legislation, the harmonisation of water management approaches at the regional level 99

The water resources departments, which will get a decision tool and be assisted in the elaboration of national regulations 99

The consumers, who finally benefit from a more efficient, better monitored, and more equitable water resources management 99

5. Required Resources 99

6. Implementation 99

1.0 Background 105

2.0 Objectives 106

3.0 Scope of Activity 106

4.0 Expected Output and Beneficiaries 106

5.0 Required Resources 107

6.0 Implementation 107

1.0 Background 108

2.0 Objectives 108

3.0 Scope of Activity 108

4.0 Expected Output and Beneficiaries 108

5.0 Required Resources 109

6.0 Implementation 109



ANNEX

Annex 1: Basin Reports

Annex 2: Project/Activity Profiles

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