Week lectures practical lesson

НазваниеWeek lectures practical lesson
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Wed. 11,00-12,00/ Fri. 10,45-12,00

Tue., Wed./ Wed., Thurs., Fri. 8,00-10,15/14,00-16,15


Cell- morphological and functional unit of the organism. Cell membrane – structure and function. Transmembrane transport. Membrane organelles (cellular compartments) – structure and function.

Methods of microscopical study of cells and tissues. Histological specimen. Collection, fixation, labeling and processing of material. Basics of microscopy.


Nucleus – structure and function. Non-membrane organelles. Cytoskeleton – structure, function, tissue specificity. Cell inclusions (deposits).

Principles of staining, histological dyes. Basic and special staining methods. Identification of staining methods on slides. Set T.


Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis. Cell death - apoptosis. Intercellular junctions, specialization of the cell surface. Exocytosis, endocytosis.

Basics of histochemistry, immunohistochmistry and electron microscopy. Microscopical analysis of slides demonstrating histological techniques. Set T.


From cells to tissues. Tissues – classification, general structure and function. Connective tissue – general characterization. Extracellular matrix – its synthesis and composition.

Epithelial tissue 1 – general characteristic, classification, basic types and their morphological properties. Microscopy of epithelial tissue. Set T.


Cartilage – structure and function. Types of bone tissue, structure and function. Bone histogenesis. Dentin and cementum.

Epithelial tissue 2 – functional classification and characteristic, glands – general structure, classification, types of secretion and their cytological features. Microscopy of glands. Set B1 and H.


Muscle tissue. Molecular principle of a molecular motor. General characterization of smooth and striated muscle. Functional morphology of a myofibril. Mechanism of contraction.

Connective tissue. Visualization of connective tissue fibers. Types of connective tissue cells. Types of connective tissue, structure and function. Microscopy of connective tissue. Set A.


Nerve tissue. Neuron, structure, function, synapse. Neurogliaclassification, structure, function. Nerve fibers and their sheets. Initiation, spreading and transmission of a nerve impulse.

Lamellar and woven bone. Microscopy of hyaline, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage, lamellar and woven bone. Set A.


Blood – composition and function of peripheral blood. Blood plasma, homeostasis, buffer systems, regulatory mechanisms. Blood elements – classification and general characteristics.

Muscle tissue. Intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Microscopy of ossification and muscle tissue. Set A.


Hematopoiesis – hematopoietic periods – stem and progenitor cells. Regulatory mechanisms of hematopoiesis.

Neurohistological methods. Types of neurons inn CNS and PNS. Structure of the peripheral nerve. Motor end-plate, muscle spindle. Set L.


Defense of the organism, basic principles. Lymphatic organs, structure and function.

Blood. Formed blood elements. Preparation, staining and evaluation of a blood smear. Leukogram – its significance for diagnosis.


Development of germ cells – spermiogenesis and oogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, development of the blastocyst.

Hematopoiesis. Bone marrow examination. Morphology of cell lineages.


Implantation. Development of the yolk sac, amnion, chorion. Exocoelom, extraembryonic coelom.

Lymphatic organs. Microscopy of spleen, thymus, lymph node, tonsils. Set G and B1.


Blastogenesis. Notogenesis. Differentiation of mesoderm and mesenchyme.

Growth of the conceptus, determination of age of the conceptus, early development of the cardiovascular system, primitive blood circulation.


Development of the placenta, the umbilical cord and fetal membranes, their structure, function and anomalies. Hemoplacental barrier. Multiple pregnancies.

Development of face, oral and nasal cavity. Development of the tooth. Labor. Characteristics of full-term baby. Microscopy of developing tooth. Set X.


Causes of the abnormal development. Chromosomal aberrations, teratogens, critical periods. Developmental anomalies.

Microscopy of embryologic slides – placenta, umbilical cord, chorion, decidua. Set X. CREDIT

Teachers : prof. Martínek, prof. Brichová, Dr. Becke, Dr. Kučera

Recommended literature:

Wheater, P.R.-Burkitt,H.G - Wheater´s Functional Histology. Text and Colour Atlas, Elsevier Science, 2000-2006 Ross,M.H.-Romrell,L.J.-Kaye,G.I. - Histology: A Text and Atlas  , Williams and Wilkins,1995-2006 Garner,L.P.-Hiatt,J.L. - Colour Textbook of Histology ,  Saunders, 2001 Junqueira,L.C.-Carneiro,J. - Basic Histology: Text and Atlas, McGraww Hill, 2002-2005 Kuehnel,W. - Pocket Atlas of Cytology, Histology and Microscopic Anatomy, Thieme Publishing Group, 2003 Eroschenko V.P. - diFiore´s Atlas of Histology with Functionla Correlations,  Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005


Week lectures practical lesson iconModified from a lesson by Kathy Deliz and a Beacon Lesson plan by Carolyn Garner

Week lectures practical lesson icon1 Type of teaching: Lectures and Tutorials Lessons per week: L – 3 hours; t – 3 hours Number of credits: 7

Week lectures practical lesson icon1 Type of teaching: Lectures and Tutorials Lessons per week: L – 3 hours; t – 3 hours Number of credits: 7

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