The"Science and Society"and the"Science and History"features that appear in this book were designed and developed by time school Publishing, a division of time magazine. Time and the red border are trademarks of Time Inc




НазваниеThe"Science and Society"and the"Science and History"features that appear in this book were designed and developed by time school Publishing, a division of time magazine. Time and the red border are trademarks of Time Inc
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D) height

t

What word best describes the type of materials that attract iron?

magnetic C) mass

B.

chemical D) physical

Which is an example of a chemical property?

17. Which is an example of a physical change and which is a chemical change?

color C) density

mass D) ability to burn

Which is an example of a physical change?

metal rusting C) water boiling

silver tarnishing D) paper burning

What characteristic best describes what happens during a physical change?

composition changes

composition stays the same

form stays the same

mass is lost

Which is an example of a chemical change?

water freezes C) bread is baked

wood is carved D) wire is bent

Which is NOT a clue that could indicate a chemical change?

change in color

change in shape

change in energy

change in odor

What property stays the same during physical and chemical changes?

density

shape

mass

arrangement of particles

Review

Draw Conclusions When asked to give the physical properties of a painting, your friend says the painting is beautiful.

Why isn’t this description a true scientific property?

Draw Conclusions You are told that a sample of matter gives off energy as it changes. Can you conclude which type of change occurred? Why or why not?

Describe what happens to mass during chemical and physical changes. Explain.

Classify Decide whether the following properties are physical or chemical.

Sugar can change into alcohol.

Iron can rust.

Alcohol can vaporize.

Paper can burn.

Sugar can dissolve.

Determine A jeweler bends gold into a beautiful ring. What type of change is this? Explain.

Compare and Contrast Relate such human characteristics as hair and eye color and height and weight to physical properties of matter. Relate human behavior to chemi­cal properties. Think about how you observe these properties.

j—^

Write a Story Write a story describing an event that you have experienced. Then go back through the story and circle any physical or chemical properties you men­tioned. Underline any physical or chemical changes you included.

Applying Math

Use the table below to answer question 22 and 23.

Physical PropertiesSubstanceMelting Point ! (°C)Density

(g/cm3)Benzoic acid122.11.075Sucrose185.01.581Methane-182.00.466Urea135.01.323Brick Volume What is the volume of a brick that is 20 cm long, 10 cm wide, and 3 cm high?

Density of an Object What is the density of an object with a mass of 50 g and a volume of 5 cm3?

Use the table below to answer question 29.

Mineral Samples

Sample

A

B

Mass •Volume96.5 g5 cm338.6 g4 cm3Determine A scientist has a sample of a sub­stance with a mass of 1.4 g and a volume of 3.0 mL. According to the table above, which substance might it be?

Conclude Using the table above, which sub­stance would take the longest time to melt? Explain your reasoning.

Density of Gold The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. Which sample is the gold?

Ammonia Solubility 89.9 g of ammonia will dissolve in 100 mL of cold water. How much ammonia is needed to dissolve in 1.5 L of water?

Standardized Test Practice

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Record your answers on the answer sheet provided by your teacher or on a sheet of paper.

Use the photograph below to answer questions 1 and 2.

Which of the following could you do to the ball in the photograph above to cause a chemical change?

cut in half C. flatten

paint D. burn

Which of the following physical properties of the ball is size independent?

density C. volume

mass D. weight

Each of the following procedures results in the formation of bubbles. Which of these is a physical change?

pouring an acid onto calcium carbonate

dropping an antacid tablet into water

heating water to its boiling point

pouring vinegar onto baking soda

Which of the following occurs as you heat a liquid to its boiling point?

condensation C. vaporization

melting D. freezing

Test-Taking Tip

Essay Questions Spend a few minutes listing and organizing the main points that you plan to discuss. Make sure to do all of this work on your scratch paper, not on the answer sheet.

During an experiment, you find that you can dissolve 4.2 g of a substance in 250 mL of water at 25°C. How much of the sub­stance would you predict that you could dissolve in 500 mL of water at the same temperature?

2.1 g C. 6.3 g

4.2 g D. 8.4 g

Which of the following is a chemical reaction?

making ice cubes

toasting bread

slicing a carrot

boiling water

When you make and eat scrambled eggs, many changes occur to the eggs. Which of the following best describes a chemical change?

crack the eggs

scramble the eggs

cook the eggs

chew the eggs

Use the table below to answer questions 8 and 9.

Physical Properties of BromideDensity3.12 g/cm3Boiling point59°CMelting point-7°CAccording to the table above, what is the mass of 4.34 cm3 of bromine?

0.719 g C. 7.46 g

1.39 g D. 13.5 g

At which of the following temperatures is bromine a solid?

-10°C C. 40°C

10°C D. 80°C

Standardized Test Practice

Record your answers on the answer sheet provided by your teacher or on a sheet of paper.

A precipitate is one clue that a chemical change has occurred. What is a precipitate and when is it observed?

The photograph above shows a rusted chain. Explain why rusting is a physical or a chemical change.

12

What are some physical properties of the rusty chain that you can see? What are some physical properties that you cant see?

13

You measure the density of a 12.3-g sam­ple of limestone as 2.72 g/cm3. What is the density of a 36.9 g sample?

Record your answers on a sheet of paper.

Suppose you have a gas in a closed con­tainer. Explain what would happen to the mass and density of the gas if you com­pressed it into half the volume.

Color change is an indication that a chem­ical change may have occurred. Mixing yellow and blue modeling clay makes green modeling clay. Is this a chemical reaction? Explain why or why not.

At a temperature of 40°C, you find that

40 g of ammonium chloride easily dissolves in 100 mL of water. When you stir 40 g of potassium chloride into a beaker contain­ing 100 mL of water at 40°C, you find that some of the potassium chloride remains in the bottom of the beaker. Explain why this occurs and how to make to make the remaining potassium chloride dissolve.

Use the photo below to answer questions 19 and 20.A scientist measures the masses of two chemicals. He then combines the chemi­cals and measures their total mass. The total mass is less than the sum of each individual mass. Has this violated the law of conservation of mass? Explain what might have happened when the chemicals were combined.

A scientist measures 275 mL of water into a beaker. She then adds 51.0 g of lead into the beaker. After the addition of the lead, the volume of water in the beaker increases by 4.50 mL. What is the density of the lead?

What would happen if you left the glass of cold water shown in the photograph above in the hot Sun for several hours? Describe how some physical properties of the water would change.

What properties of the water would not change? Explain why the density of the water would or would not change.

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The Periodic Table

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chaprer preview

sections

Introduction to the Periodic Table

Representative Elements

Transition Elements

Metals and Nonmetals

Health Risks from Heavy

Metals

/ I How is an atom's

structure related to its position on the periodic table?

Skyscrapers, Neon Lights, and the Periodic Table

II

I—..III '—*■**

Start-Up Activities

Foldables

Study Organizer

I r

Me\ate ' Me\atto\ds '\Aorav\e\a\s\ I ll>

Make a Model of a Periodic Pattern

Every 29.5 days, the Moon begins to cycle through its phases from full moon to new moon and back again to full moon. Events that follow a predictable pattern are called periodic events. What other periodic events can you think of?

On a blank sheet of paper, make a grid with four squares across and four squares down.

Your teacher will give you 16 pieces of paper with different shapes and colors. Identify properties you can use to distin­guish one piece of paper from another.

Place a piece of paper in each square on your grid. Arrange the pieces on the grid so that each column contains pieces that are similar.

Within each column, arrange the pieces to show a gradual change in their appearance.

Think Critically In your Science Journal, describe how the properties change in the rows across the grid and in the columns down the grid.

Find Main Ideas As you read the chapter, write information about the three types of elements under the appropriate tabs. Use the information in your Foldable to explain how metalloids have properties between those of metals and nonmetals.

Periodic Table Make the

following Foldable to help

you classify the elements in the periodic table as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.

IHQHQ Unfold and cut only the top layer along both folds to make three tabs. Label each tab as shown.

QJJjQ Fold a vertical sheet of paper from side to side. Make the front edge about 1.25 cm shorter than the back edge.

BlBl Turn lengthwise and fold into thirds.

Sciences?

Preview this chapter's content and activities at

booKk.mssciei

Introduction to the Periodic Table

1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   ...   29

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