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The Nature of Matter
This pancake ice has formed on a river in Sweden. Pancake ice forms when surface slush, arising from snow falling on water that is already at the freezing temperature, freezes. The surface slush collects into rounded floating pads that collide and separate.
Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher.
The National Geographic features were designed and developed by the National Geographic Society's Education Division.Copyright © National Geographic Society.The name"National Geographic Society" and the Yellow Border Rectangle are trademarks of the Society, and their use, without prior written permission, is strictly prohibited.
The"Science and Society"and the"Science and History"features that appear in this book were designed and developed by TIME School Publishing, a division of TIME Magazine.TIME and the red border are trademarks of Time Inc. All rights reserved.
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Mathematics and Science Teacher Summit Intermediate School Etiwanda, CA
Thomas McCarthy, PhD
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Eric Werwa, PhD
Department of Physics and Astronomy Otterbein College Westerville, OH
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Department of Biology Texas State University-San Marcos San Marcos, TX
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Mary Helen Mariscal-Cholka
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Use Your Science Book
Chapter Opener Science is occurring all around you, and the opening photo of each chapter will preview the science you will be learning about. The Chapter Preview will give you an idea of what you will be learning about, and you can try the Launch Lab to help get your brain headed in the right direction. The Foldables exercise is a fun way to keep you organized.
Section Opener Chapters are divided into two to four sections. The As You Read in the margin of the first page of each section will let you know what is most important in the section. It is divided into four parts. What You’ll Learn will tell you the major topics you will be covering. Why It’s Important will remind you why you are studying this in the first place! The Review Vocabulary word is a word you already know, either from your science studies or your prior knowledge. The New Vocabulary words are words that you need to learn to understand this section. These words will be in boldfaced print and highlighted in the section. Make a note to yourself to recognize these words as you are reading the section.
Science Vocabulary Make the following Foldable to help you understand the vocabulary terms in this chapter.
As you Read
(jJyQ39 Fold a vertical
sheet of notebook paper from side to side.
Headings Each section has a title in large red letters, and is further divided into blue titles and small red titles at the beginnings of some paragraphs. To help you study, make an outline of the headings and subheadings.
Margins In the margins of your text, you will find many helpful resources. The Science Online exercises and Integrate activities help you explore the topics you are studying. MiniLabs reinforce the science concepts you have learned.
Building Skills You also will find an Applying Math or Applying Science activity in each chapter. This gives you extra practice using your new knowledge, and helps prepare you for standardized tests.
Student Resources At the end of the book you will find Student Resources to help you throughout your studies. These include Science, Technology, and Math Skill Handbooks, an English/Spanish Glossary, and an Index. Also, use your Foldables as a resource. It will help you organize information, and review before a test.
In Class Remember, you can always ask your teacher to explain anything you don’t understand.
Working in the laboratory is one of the best ways to understand the concepts you are studying. Your book will be your guide through your laboratory experiences, and help you begin to think like a scientist. In it, you not only will find the steps necessary to follow the investigations, but you also will find helpful tips to make the most of your time.
Each lab provides you with a Real-World Question to remind you that science is something you use every day, not just in class. This may lead to many more questions about how things happen in your world.
Remember, experiments do not always produce the result you expect. Scientists have made many discoveries based on investigations with unexpected results. You can try the experiment again to make sure your results were accurate, or perhaps form a new hypothesis to test.
Keeping a Science Journal is how scientists keep accurate records of observations and data. In your journal, you also can write any questions that may arise during your investigation. This is a great method of reminding yourself to find the answers later.
Before a Test
Admit it! You don’t like to take tests! However, there arc ways to review that make them less painful. Your book will help you be more successful taking tests if you use the resources provided to you.
Review all of the New Vocabulary words and be sure you understand their definitions.
Review the notes you’ve taken on your Foldables, in class, and in lab. Write down any question that you still need answered.
Review the Summaries and Self Check questions at the
end of each section.
Study the concepts presented in the chapter by reading the Study Guide and answering the questions in
the Chapter Review.
Reading Checks and caption questions throughout the text.
the Summaries and Self Check questions at the end of each section
the Study Guide and Review at the end of each chapter, the Standardized Test Practice after each chapter.
Let's Get Staffed
To help you find the information you need quickly, use the Scavenger Hunt below to learn where things are located in Chapter 1.
Q What is the title of this chapter?
@ What will you learn in Section 1?
@ Sometimes you may ask, “Why am I learning this?” State a reason why the concepts from Section 2 are important.
What is the main topic presented in Section 2?
@ How many reading checks are in Section 1?
o What is the Web address where you can find extra information?
What is the main heading above the sixth paragraph in Section 2?
There is an integration with another subject mentioned in one of the margins of the chapter. What subject is it?
List the new vocabulary words presented in Section 2.
List the safety symbols presented in the first Lab.
Where would you find a Self Check to be sure you understand the section?
© Suppose you’re doing the Self Check and you have a question about concept mapping. Where could you find help?
© On what pages are the Chapter Study Guide and Chapter Review?
© Look in the Table of Contents to find out on which page Section 2 of the chapter begins.
© You complete the Chapter Review to study for your chapter test.
Where could you find another quiz for more practice?
Teacher Advisory Board
The Teacher Advisory Board gave the editorial staff and design team feedback on the content and design of the Student Edition. They provided valuable input in the development of the 2005 edition of Glencoe Science.
Challenger Middle School Tucson, AZ
Aptakisic Jr. High School Buffalo Grove, IL
Manistique High School Manistique, MI
Northmor Jr. High/High School Galion, OH
Diley Middle School Pickerington, OH
Hamlin Middle School Springfield, OR
Palmyra Middle School Palmyra, PA
Williamsburg Middle School Arlington, VA
Meacham Middle School Fort Worth, TX
Navasota Jr. High School Navasota, TX
Student Advisory Board
The Student Advisory Board gave the editorial staff and design team feedback on the design of the Student Edition. We thank these students for their hard work and creative suggestions in making the 2005 edition of Glencoe Science student friendly.
Reynoldsburg Jr. High School Reynoldsburg, OH
Hastings Middle School Upper Arlington, OH
Perry Middle School Worthington, OH
Hilliard Heritage Middle School Hilliard, OH
Spanish Emersion Academy Columbus, OH
Heritage Middle School Westerville, OH
Monroe Middle School Columbus, OH
Davis Middle School Dublin, OH
Eastmoor Middle School Columbus, OH
Karrer Middle School Dublin, OH
The Glencoe middle school science Student Advisory Board taking a timeout at COSI, a science museum in Columbus, Ohio.
Nature of Science: Pencils into Diamonds—2
Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures—6
Models of the Atom 8
The Simplest Matter 18
Lab Elements and the Periodic Table 24
Compounds and Mixtures 25
Lab: Design Your Own
Mystery Mixture 30
States of Matter—38
Section 1 Section 2
Changes of State 45
Lab The Water Cycle 53
Behavior of Fluids 54
Lab: Design Your Own Design Your Own Ship 62
In each chapter, look for these opportunities for review and assessment:
Chapter Study Guide
Standardized Test Practice
Online practice at bookk.msscience.com
Mfky Properties and Changes of Matter—70
Section 1 Physical and Chemical Properties ... .72
Lab Finding the Difference 77
Section 2 Physical and Chemical Changes 78
Lab: Design Your Own
Battle of the Toothpastes 88
nvrw The Periodic Table—96
Section 1 Introduction to the Periodic Table ... .98
Section 2 Representative Elements 105
Section 3 Transition Elements 112
Lab Preparing a Mixture 117
Lab: Use the Internet
Health Risks from Heavy Metals ... .118
| Science Skill Handbook—128
Scientific Methods 128
Safety Symbols 137
Safety in the Science Laboratory 138
H Extra Try at Home Labs—140 H Technology Skill Handbook—142
Computer Skills .142
Presentation Skills 145
| Reference Handbooks—161
Reference Tables 161
Periodic Table of the Elements 162
1 English/Spanish Glossary—165
The Periodic Table 20
States of Matter 48
Synthetic Elements 115
Ancient Views of Matter 32
Incredible Stretching Goo 64
15 “Anansi Tries to Steal All the
Wisdom in the World” 120
Strange Changes 90
Design Your Own Labs
Model the Unseen 7
Experiment with a
Freezing Liquid 39
The Changing Face
of a Volcano 71
Make a Model of a
Periodic Pattern 97
m/m a m
Comparing Compounds 26
Observing Vaporization 50
Measuring Properties 74
Unknown Substance 75
Designing a Periodic Table 99
Modeling the Nuclear Atom 15
Predicting a Waterfall 57
Comparing Changes 81
ImJ ir. i« l J BBBBSlBHBBi
Elements and the
Periodic Table 24
The Water Cycle 53
Finding the Difference 77
Metals and Nonmetals 117
03 1 Mystery Mixture 30-31
EDI 2 Design Your Own Ship 62-63
EES 3 Battle of the Toothpastes 88-89
4 Health Risks from
Heavy Metals 118-119
Calculating Density 59
Converting Temperatures 84
What’s the best way to desalt
ocean water? 27
How can ice save oranges? 49
What does periodic mean
in the periodic table? 103
Use the Internet Labs
Astronomy: 83 Career: 108 Chemistry: 120 Earth Science: 29 Health: 116 History: 19,42 Life Science: 28,61,81,109 Physics: 16,46,114
28, 43,49,51,61,76,81, 102, 116
Standardized Test Practice
Figure 1 Uncut diamonds are ground and shaped into highly prized gems.
Diamond, the hardest mineral, is both beautiful and strong. Diamonds can cut steel, conduct heat, and withstand boiling acid. Unfortunately, to find a one carat gem-quality diamond, an average of 250 tons of rock must be mined!
But what if there were another way to get gems? In 1902, Auguste Verneuil, a French scientist, created the world’s first synthetic ruby by carefully heating aluminum oxide powder. When other elements were added to this mixture, other colored gemstones were created.
During World War II (1939-1945), there was a sudden need for hard gems used in the manufacturing of precision instruments. Around this time, scientists made the first diamond from carbon, or graphite—the same substance that is in #2 pencils. Graphite is made up of sheets of well-bonded carbon atoms. However, the sheets are only loosely bonded together. This gives graphite its flaky, slippery quality. Diamond, however, is made up of carbon atoms bonded strongly in three dimensions.
Figure 2 Q Graphite has a layered structure of carbon atoms. Strong bonds exist within the layers and weak bonds exist between the layers. Q All bonds between carbon atoms in diamond are strong.
♦ K Pencils into Diamonds
Making Synthetic Diamond
To change graphite to diamond, scientists expose it to extreme pressures and to temperatures as high as 3,000°C. The first experiments were unsuccessful. Scientists then reasoned that since diamond is a crystal, it might grow out of a super-concentrated solution as other crystals do. To dissolve carbon, they added melted troilite to their experiments. Troilite is a metal found surrounding tiny diamonds at meteorite impact sites. Finally, they succeeded. The first synthetic diamonds were yellowish, but they could be used in industry.
Diamond is a valuable material for industry. It is used to make machine-tool coatings, contact lenses, and electrodes. Computer engineers expect that diamond will soon be used to make high-speed computer chips.
Telling Them Apart
Of course, no one has forgotten the diamond’s first use: decoration. The first synthetic diamonds were flawed by tiny pieces of metal from the diamond-making process and yellowed by the nitrogen in our atmosphere. Today, diamond makers have eliminated many of these problems. In just five days, labs now produce colorless, jewelry-grade synthetic diamonds that are much less expensive than natural diamonds. One natural diamond company now determines which stones are synthetic by using phosphorescence. Unlike natural diamonds, synthetic diamonds will glow in the dark for a few seconds after being exposed to ultraviolet light. Synthetic diamond makers are already working to eliminate this difference, too.
Some people are excited about affordable diamonds. Others are concerned that synthetic gem quality diamonds will be sold as natural diamonds. Some people also wonder if a diamond that was made in a laboratory in a few days has the same symbolic significance as a diamond formed naturally over millions of years.
Figure 3 Diamond is sought after for its beauty and for its useful properties.
The path to tomorrow’s high-speed diamond computer chips will have begun with people trying to make jewelry! Such pathways are reminders of how science touches many aspects of human life. Like the pieces in a puzzle, each scientific breakthrough reveals more about how the world works.
Physical science includes the chemistry that produces synthetic diamonds. In this book, you’ll learn how the elements on the periodic table combine to make up everything you see around you. You’ll also learn how chemistry can change many aspects of the world around you.
Scientists work to find solutions and to answer questions. As people’s needs change, scientists who are developing new technologies change the direction of their work. For example, the need for diamonds during World War II triggered research into making synthetic diamonds.
Where Do Today’s Scientists Work?
Scientists today work in a variety of places for a variety of reasons. Both scientists who study natural diamonds and people who make synthetic diamonds might work in controlled laboratory environments. They may also study diamonds where they are found in nature.
Public and Private Research
The United States government supports a great deal of scientific research. Publicly funded research usually deals with topics that affect the health and welfare of the country’s citizens.
4 ♦ K Pencils into Diamonds
In the private sector, many companies, large and small, have their own laboratories. Their scientists research new technologies, use the technologies in the products that they sell, and test the new products. The world’s first synthetic diamond was created by a private company that needed diamond for its products. Another private company, a diamond company, has created many of the world’s synthetic diamonds in its laboratory! Why? The diamond company wants to understand how synthetic diamonds are made so that they can see the differences between their naturally formed diamonds and their competitors’ manufactured diamonds. Research has helped them to develop a machine that identifies synthetic diamonds.
Research at Universities
Major universities also have laboratories. Their work with the government or corporations allows academic and industrial scientists to learn from one another. Industry and the government also provide grants and funding for university laboratories.
Dr. Rajiv K. Singh is a professor at the University of Florida, Gainesville. He and his colleague James Adair created the world’s largest synthetic diamond using a process called chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Dr. Singh researches many different materials for the University. His work with synthetic diamonds also involves research in flat-panel displays, thin film batteries, electronics, and superconductors.
You probably have many devices at home that new discoveries in science have made possible. For example, DVD and MP3 players are technologies that didn't exist just a few years ago. Research the science behind your favorite
"gadget" and explain to the class how it works.
THE NATURE OF SCIENCE K ♦ 5
—;—;——..............— — —
Models of the Atom
The Simplest Matter
Elements and the Periodic Table
Based on your knowledge,
Compounds and Mixtures
Atoms, Elements; Compounds, and Mixtures
What an impressive sight!
Have you ever seen iron on an atomic level? This is an image of 48 iron atoms surrounding a single copper atom. In this chapter, you will learn about scientists and their discoveries about the nature of the atom.
describe what an atom is.
Have you ever had a wrapped birthday present that you couldn't wait to open? What did you do to try to figure out what was in it? The atom is like that wrapped present. You want to investigate it, but you cannot see it easily. ■mr-y
Your teacher will give you a piece of clay and some pieces of metal. Count the pieces of metal.
Bury these pieces in the modeling clay so they can't be seen.
Exchange clay balls with another group.
With a toothpick, probe the clay to find out how many pieces of metal are in the ball and what shape they are.
In your Science Journal, sketch the shapes of the metal pieces as you identify them. How does the number of pieces you found compare with the number that were in the clay ball? How do their shapes compare?
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