Unit II grammar Revision: Noun Structures, Participles Text: The Distribution System

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Unit II

Grammar Revision: Noun Structures, Participles

Text: The Distribution System

Ex. 1

Read and translate the international words, try to give more than one variant of translation, where possible:

















Translate the following collocations into Russian:

product marketing, professional dealer, unique brand, universal automobile, transportation by tanker, limited reserves, unique functions, to invest money, local investors, marine terminal, system functions, local reserves, service station, product brand.


Match “false friends” in A with Russian words in B and try, where possible, to give Russian words with international roots in C:




E.g inventory

список, реестр







Ex. 4

Translate these sentences with international words into Russian:

  1. The company keeps a full inventory of its equipment.

  2. You can find all these books in your local library.

  3. Be sure you read the directions before using any piece of equipment.

  4. The hot water tank is leaking.

  5. After a brief examination by a local doctor, I was taken to the city's main hospital.

Words to Text A

liquid n.

liquefy v.

LNG (liquefied natural gas)


Ex. Water is a liquid.

a. жидкий

Ex. Liquid gas is cheaper to transport.

сжижать, превращать(ся) в жидкое состояние


Ex. People learned to liquefy gas at the end of the 19th century.

(СПГ) сжиженный природный газ

Ex. The construction of LNG tankers demands a sophisticated technology, combining maximum safety with optimum economic conditions.

wellhead n.

устье скважины

Ex. Pipelines convey oil, gas and petroleum products from the wellhead to consumers.

primary a.

    1. первичный

Ex. Before the Internet appeared the radio used to be the primary source of information and link to the outside world.

    1. первоочередной, основной

Ex. The primary objective of a business is to make money.

secondary a.


Ex. Price is the most important factor for us - location is a secondary issue.

tertiary a.



handle v.

1) обращаться с чем-л.

Ex. Some customers are quite difficult to handle.

2) управлять, регулировать

Ex. Opposition leaders will be watching carefully to see how the Prime Minister handles the crisis.

3) обрабатывать, перерабатывать

Ex. The finance department handles all the accounts

4) торговать чем-л.

Domestic car manufactures have said their dealers are free to handle foreign cars if they wish.

5) грузить, выгружать, транспортировать

Ex. The Post Office handles nearly 2 billion letters and parcels over the Christmas period.

trunk pipeline n.

syn. main

to lay a pipeline

магистральный трубопровод

прокладывать трубопровод

To meet the demand for Russian gas in Turkey and the Balkan countries it is planned to lay new gas pipelines in Romania and Bulgaria.

bulk n.

1) величина, масса, объем

2) большое количество;

Ex. We sell bulk coffee to restaurants.

in bulk – оптом, большими партиями, навалом, наливом (о транспорте нефтепродуктов)

~ terminal – наливной терминал

Transneft is planning to build a second bulk terminal in Murmansk.

~ plant - нефтебаза

retail a.

ant. wholesale a.

retailer n. = retail dealer

розничный, предназначенный для индивидуальных клиентов или потребителей


Ex. I've worked in retail trade for two years.

~ trade (business) – розничная торговля

~ price – розничная цена

Ex. His experience in retail trade includes managing a number of shopping centers in New Zealand.

розничный торговец

~ trade (business) – оптовая торговля

~ dealer –оптовый торговец, оптовик

Ex. Japan’s wholesale prices in December were unchanged.


outlet n.

рынок сбыта; торговая точка

retail ~ - розничный магазин

Ex. Benetton has retail outlets in every major European city.

inventory n.


список, реестр

Ex. We need a full inventory of the company’s product consumers.

материально-производственные запасы, (товарно-)материальные запасы

Ex. There is an interesting article on the inventories of the company in the “Economist”

lease n.


Ex She has signed a lease contract with Texaco to drill for oil on the land she owns.

tank n.

~ truck

~ farm

fuel oil ~

gasoline ~

резервуар, емкость, хранилище, цистерна



топливный бак


marine terminal

морской терминал, портовая база, перевалочная база с водного пути на железнодорожный

Ex. Two marine terminals were built last year.

capacity n.

1. емкость, вместимость, объем

Ex. The fuel tank has a capacity of 12 gallons

2.производственная мощность; максимальная производительность;

пропускная способность; уровень добычи

Ex. Our production capacity has gone up again.

intermediate product

finished product

промежуточный продукт

Ex. Intermediate oil products require further processing

готовая продукция, готовый продукт

Ex. Finished products move from refinery storage by pipeline

purchase n.

purchase v.

покупка, закупка, купля

Ex. House purchase is the biggest decision that most people make.

покупать, закупать, приобретать

Ex. The land was purchased for investment purposes.

avoid v.

~ smth.,doing smth.

~ costs

избегать, уклоняться

избегать чего-л./ делать что-л.

Ex. She avoided answering my questions.

избегать расходов

logistics n.

материально-техническое снабжение

Ex. Logistics is the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources, including energy and people, between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet the requirements of consumers.

brand n.

сорт, качество, марка

Ex. This is a company with strong brands and a good position in many markets.

on behalf

от лица, от имени

Ex. The president is ill, so I am speaking on his behalf.

account for v.

составлять, насчитывать, приходиться на

Ex. The economy of Venezuela is based in large part on oil. The petroleum sector dominates the economy, accounting for roughly a third of GDP, around 80% of export earnings.

Text A

Read the text and name the parts of the distribution system.

The Distribution System

1. As liquid hydrocarbons, oil or LNG, flow from the wellhead to the consumer, patterns of ownership change along the course. Let us see how the distribution system functions. The United States will serve as the example, since it is the world's single biggest petroleum market and since other distribution systems follow the general pattern.

2. The U.S. distribution system has three parts. What is called the primary distribution system handles crude oil and products from the wellhead to large bulk terminals for petroleum products. The secondary distribution system divides the large quantities of product from large bulk terminals into smaller quantities for delivery to retail outlets and smaller bulk storage facilities. The tertiary system includes storage facilities and inventories of product consumers.

3. The primary distribution system begins at the lease tank, a storage unit near the producing well. Crude oil moves from there into gathering pipelines or tank trucks. Gathering pipelines may connect to larger trunk pipelines or to loading stations for trucks, barges, or rail tank cars. The crude may travel to a storage terminal or directly to a refinery, where it usually spends more time in a storage tank. Imported crude oil arrives by tanker for unloading at marine terminals, which have storage capacity and pipeline links to refineries or trunk pipelines. Crude oil purchased by the U.S. government goes into storage facilities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

4. Refineries have storage tanks for crude, intermediate products (those requiring further processing), and finished products. The finished products move from refinery storage by pipeline, tank truck, barge, or tanker toward a general market area, stopping usually at the large bulk terminal that represents the end of the primary distribution system.

5. The secondary distribution system includes localized storage facilities and retail outlets. The storage at this stage usually involves wholesale bulk plants that receive products by tank car or truck. From wholesale storage, products move to tanks at retail outlets, including service stations and retail fuel oil dealers.

6. Storage in the tertiary distribution system includes everything from fuel tanks for boilers at factories to fuel oil tanks in homes, to gasoline tanks in automobiles. Sometimes, products move directly from the primary distribution system to the tertiary system. High-volume fuel users often invest in direct transportation links to the primary system in order to avoid the costs of the secondary system. Large airlines, for example, purchase jet fuel directly from refineries where logistics are favorable.

7. Downstream of refineries, product ownership can change several times. Especially in the case of gasoline, this is not always apparent because of widespread brand identification with oil companies. A motorist filling up at a service station identified by the brand of a major refiner indeed buys that refiner's gasoline, but the station attendant may or may not be an employee of the refiner. In fact, the attendant probably works for an independent business person who owns the station and pays for the right to use the refiner's brand. The station owner might also be an investment company operating stations on behalf of the refiner.

8. In 1985, 81.5% of gasoline sales by all refiners were to independent dealers or wholesalers. Service stations operated by refining company employees accounted for only 16.4% of total gasoline sales. The rest of the sales were to bulk purchasers.

9. When crude oil comes out of the ground, then, it and its derivatives most likely will have several owners before a consumer buys the finished products. Each of these changes in ownership implies a business transaction. Petroleum changes many hands and rings many cash registers, as it passes through production, processing, and distribution systems.

Text Analysis

Find English equivalents for the following in Text A

по мере продвижения; первичная распределительная система охватывает операции с сырой нефтью и нефтепродуктами от устья скважины до крупных нефтеналивных терминалов; промысловый трубопровод; отводы трубопровода; после НПЗ; не всегда можно определить; крупная нефтеперерабатывающая компания; заставляет работать не один кассовый аппарат



Refer closely to Text A and answer the questions:

  1. What is each part of the distribution system responsible for?

  2. What are the starting and terminal points of the primary distribution system?

  3. What storage and transportation facilities are employed in the primary distribution system?

  4. Where does the secondary distribution system begin and where does it end?

  5. What storage facilities are involved here?

  6. How can high volume fuel users skip the secondary distribution system?

  7. How do crude and products change ownership through the distribution system?

Ex. 6

Refer to Text A again. Here are some answers. What are the questions?

  1. It includes storage facilities and inventories of product consumers.

  2. This system handles crude oil and products from the wellhead to large bulk terminals for petroleum products.

  3. It goes into salt dome storage facilities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

  4. High volume users do so to avoid the costs of the secondary system.

  5. Storage in this distribution system includes everything from fuel tanks for boilers at factories to fuel oil tanks in homes, to gasoline tanks in automobiles.

  6. They accounted for only 16.4% of total gasoline sales.

  7. They have storage tanks for crude, intermediate products, and finished products.

Ex. 7

Match the words in A with the definitions in B




The amount of stock, including raw materials, supplies and finished goods, that a company has at a particular time


To form a particular amount or part of something.


The business of selling large quantities of goods at low prices to other businesses, rather than to general public


Marketing name given to a product by a company so that the product can easily be recognized by its name or its design


The amount of something that a machine, factory, company etc. can produce or deal with/

To account for

A person or business that sells goods to customers in a shop


The sale of goods for customers for their own use, rather than to the shops.


the practical arrangements that are needed in order to make a plan that involves a lot of people and equipment successful:


A legal contract that allows a person or organization to make payments to use something for a particular time in return for payment

Ex. 8

Build words and translate them into Russian:

















Ex. 9

Read and translate into Russian the following sentences, paying attention to the words: handle, run, treat:

  1. Royal Vopak is a Dutch company, that stores and handles various oil and natural gas-related products. The company was created by the merger of Van Ommeren and Pakhoed in 1999.

  2. Standard Oil Company of Iowa was created in 1885 as a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Trust to handle marketing along the Pacific Coast states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington, California, and Arizona.

  3. SaskOil is a Canadian state-owned oil and gas corporation handling oil exploration and production.

  4. The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is a deepwater port in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana near the town of Port Fourchon. LOOP provides tanker offloading and temporary storage services for crude oil transported on some of the largest tankers in the world. Most tankers offloading at LOOP are too large for U.S. inland ports. LOOP handles 13 percent of the nation's foreign oil, about 1.2 million barrels a day, and connects by pipeline to 50 percent of the U.S. refining capacity.

  5. We treat all our customers’ complaints very seriously.

  6. The crude leaving the well head must be processed and treated to make it safe, environmentally acceptable, and economically viable1 for storage, processing and export.

  7. H-Bio is an oil refinery process developed in Brazil by the state run oil company Petrobras for refining vegetable oil into standard petroleum products.

  8. Central Asia-Center is a Gazprom controlled system of natural gas pipelines, which run from Turkmenistan via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to Russia.

  9. The Standard Oil Company of Kentucky or Kyso was an oil company and gasoline distributor that operated in the southeastern United States from 1886 until it was acquired by Chevron Oil Company in 1960. After the breakup of the Standard Oil company in 1911, the company was awarded rights to run the oil operation of Kentucky, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi.

  10. Bombay High is an offshore oilfield 160 km off the coast of Mumbai (Bombay). Despite the name of Bombay being changed to Mumbai, the name of the rigs remains Bombay High. The oil operations are run by India's Oil and Natural Gas Corporation.

  11. Venezuela has the largest conventional oil reserves and the second-largest natural gas reserves in the Western Hemisphere. In addition Venezuela has non-conventional oil deposits (extra-heavy crude oil, bitumen and tar sands) approximately equal to the world's reserves of conventional oil. Venezuela nationalized its oil industry in 1975-1976, creating Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. (PdVSA), the country's state-run oil and natural gas company. Along with being Venezuela's largest employer, PdVSA accounts for about one-third of the country’s GDP, 50 percent of the government’s revenue and 80 percent of Venezuela’s exports earnings.

Ex. 10

Translate the sentences into English, using useful words in the box:

rather than in fact in greater detail at this point indeed the number a number thus while at least both … and

  1. За последнее время число скважин, пробуренных в Западной Сибири, значительно возросло.

  2. Уже в античном мире нефть использовалась как в мирных, так и в военных целях.

  3. За последнее время в Западной Сибири был пробурен целый ряд горизонтальных скважин.

  4. Авиалинии закупают реактивное топливо напрямую у НПЗ, избегая, таким образом, дополнительных затрат.

  5. В настоящее время компания проводит технико-экономическое обоснование проекта.

  6. Мы сообщим подробнее о результатах переговоров на нашей следующей встрече.

  7. На самом деле, как нефть, так и газ дешевле перевозить по морю, а не транспортировать по трубопроводам.

  8. В 1930-х годах Тринидад. Колумбия, Перу и Эквадор экспортировали нефть, в то время как Аргентина и Канада добывали нефть только для собственного потребления.

  9. За последнее время цены на нефть увеличились, по меньшей мере, вдвое.

  10. Вся работа была фактически выполнена одним человеком.


Noun structures


the possessive case


noun compounds


refiner’s brand

change of ownership

service station

Ex. 10

Join the words below in an appropriate noun structure; use necessary articles.

  1. facility /storage

  2. system/distribution

  3. retail/outlet

  4. construction/tankers

  5. inventories/company

  6. purchaser/bulk

  7. amount/stock

  8. end/century

  9. tanker/LNG

  10. station/service

  11. user/fuel

  12. Taiwan/gas demand

  13. geophysics/science

  14. rock/underground

  15. contractor/employees

  16. equipment/installation

  17. method/production

  18. earth/surface

  19. operations/upstream

  20. set/professionals

  21. product/consumer

  22. competitor/price

  23. trade/pattern

  24. price/barrel

Ex. 11

Rewrite the following phrases as noun structures.

  1. development of a field of oil

  2. the production of oil and gas in the world

  3. a station for serving cars which belongs to the Brown family

  4. a car for races belonging to my brother

  5. a tank containing oil

  6. a study made to determine if the project is feasible

  7. a tank for oil

  8. a user consuming high volumes of fuel

  9. an employee working for the refiner

  10. dealers selling oil used as a fuel on retail basis

  11. a contractor involved in drilling operations

  12. a layer bearing oil

  13. consumption of large volumes of energy

  14. the center which makes research into energy crisis

  15. the institute in Houston which trains teachers

  16. increase of capacity to export Russian oil

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