Had I special: The Astronomical Contributions of the Herschel Family




НазваниеHad I special: The Astronomical Contributions of the Herschel Family
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Thursday

Thursday, January 13, 2011, 8:30 AM - 9:20 AM

Exoplanets: New Approaches to their Discovery and Characterization

Thursday, January 13, 2011, 9:00 AM - 2:00 PM

Extrasolar Planets

Galaxies, Galaxy Clusters and Friends

Education and Outreach

High Energy, Cosmology and Other Topics

Instrumentation, Surveys and Data

Stars, Star Formation and Associated Topics

The Solar System II

The Sun II

Thursday, January 13, 2011, 10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Exoplanet Detection: Radial Velocities

Exoplanet Atmospheres - Modeling and Observations

Dark Matter & Dark Energy

Black Holes

Astronomy Education Research

Circumstellar Disks II

Evolution of Galaxies VIII

AGN, QSO, Blazars VII

Star Associations, Star Clusters II

Supernovae III

The Role of Environment in Galactic Star Formation

Intergalactic Medium, QSO Absorption Line Systems

Instrumentation: Ground Based

Thursday, January 13, 2011, 11:40 AM - 12:30 PM

Addressing Unconscious Bias: Steps toward an Inclusive Scientific Culture

Thursday, January 13, 2011, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Exoplanet Systems - Characterization and Dynamics

The Formation of Very Massive Stars

Spiral Galaxies

Exoplanet Atmospheres - Observations and Modeling II

Circumstellar Disks III

Education and Outreach Beyond IYA

Evolution of Galaxies IX

Elliptical Galaxies: S4G, LIERs, Black Holes

Supernovae IV

Origin and Evolution of the Milky Way Satellites

Instrumentation: Space Missions

The Intergalactic Medium as seen by FIREBALL & CW1

Star Associations, Star Clusters III

Thursday, January 13, 2011, 3:40 PM - 4:30 PM

Berkeley Prize: Kepler: Opening New Doors in Astronomy


Abstracts

Sunday, January 9, 2011, 12:30 PM - 3:40 PM

HAD I Special: The Astronomical Contributions of the Herschel Family

Special Session

Room 613/614

The Herschels: A very fashionable scientific family

Emily Winterburn1
1University College London, United Kingdom.

12:30 PM - 1:15 PM

Room 613/614

What is special about the Herschel family? It is a family that has attracted the attention of historians of science for many years and has done so for a number of reasons. Some simply marvel at the family’s ability to have produced generations upon generation of great men and women of science. Others have highlighted the work of individuals within the family and how their work changed the way astronomy was done, what it was about, and then later did the same for science as a whole. The unusually high status enjoyed by Herschel women, Caroline Herschel in particular, has not escaped notice, though I will here question some of the conclusions drawn about her motivations. Most of all, however I will argue in this paper, they should be interesting to a modern audience for the way in which they managed time and again, generation on generation, to make science fashionable and popular.
In this paper I will look at three generations of this family - from William and Caroline discovering comets and planets in the late eighteenth century, through John and his claim that society needs science to be properly civilised, to John and Margaret’s children and their varied takes on the relationship between astronomy, science and the public. I will look at the role astronomy played in each of their lives, how they were taught and taught each other and how in each generation they managed to make their work the talk of the town.

The Herschels and the Nebulae

Robert W. Smith1
1University of Alberta.

1:15 PM - 1:40 PM

Room 613/614

An innovative observer, theorist and telescope builder, William Herschel is now generally recognised as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. In this paper I will argue that to set Herschel’s career correctly into context it is essential to see him in addition as a natural philosopher (as the term `natural philosopher’ was understood around 1800). In examining Herschel as a natural philosopher, I will focus on his shifting views on the nature of the nebulae, views I will also contrast and compare with those of his son John Herschel.

Herschel's 20ft Telescope at the Smithsonian

David H. DeVorkin1
1Smithsonian Inst..

1:40 PM - 1:55 PM

Room 613/614

The tube and one of the mirrors from the original Herschel 20-foot telescope have been on display at the National Air and Space Museum since September 12, 2001. Approximately 3,000 visitors walk past it each day, inspecting how William and Caroline jointly operated the telescope in their garden. This presentation will recount how the telescope was brought to NASM, and prepared for exhibition. We will also discuss a bit of what we've learned about the telescope's history from developing this display.

William Herschel's Explorations of the Conditions for Extraterrestrial Life

Marvin Bolt1
1Adler Planetarium.

2:10 PM - 2:35 PM

Room 613/614

William Herschel’s notion of life on the sun has been described as one of his stranger ideas. A more careful look, though, supports his declaration to have founded his view “upon astronomical principles” (broadly construed) as opposed to resembling the musings of “fanciful poets.” In particular, we’ll explore how contemporary concepts of geology and heat informed William’s defense of solarians, and see how a few of John Herschel’s methodological comments provide insight into William’s reasoning.

Planetary Observations by William Herschel

Woodruff T. Sullivan, III1
1Univ. of Washington.

2:35 PM - 3:00 PM

Room 613/614

William Herschel was a constant observer of the planets and ~40% of his publications are concerned with every known object in the solar system; yet historians have paid little attention to this aspect of his career. In this paper I will summarize his major solar system findings (including the moon and sun) and, for a few key cases, discuss his observational techniques and interpretations. I will also argue for significant connections between Herschel’s planetary and solar work and his more familiar work on the sidereal universe.

Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

Clifford J. Cunningham1
1James Cook University.

3:00 PM - 3:15 PM

Room 613/614

William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term “asteroid” to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

John Herschel's Graphical Method

Thomas L. Hankins1
1University of Washington.

3:15 PM - 3:40 PM

Room 613/614

John Herschel’s Graphical Method
In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation.
Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a “wheeled machine” to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel’s methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more.
It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel’s advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

Sunday, January 9, 2011, 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM

HAD II Special: Neptune after One Orbit: Reflections on the Discovery of a Planet

Special Session

Room 613/614

The Discovery of Neptune: Why It Mattered in 1846 and Why It Still Matters

Robert W. Smith1
1University of Alberta.

4:00 PM - 4:20 PM

Room 613/614

The discovery of Neptune is one of the most well-known events in the history of nineteenth century astronomy as well as one of the most analyzed. Given the ferocious battle for priority that the optical discovery provoked, it is not surprising that much of the literature on the discovery has focused narrowly on issues around the appropriate amount of credit to be handed out to the main protagonists for the theoretical and optical discoveries of the planet. In this paper I will instead seek to put the discovery of Neptune and the events surrounding it into the broad context of mid-nineteenth century science to explain why it was seen to matter so much at the time and why it still matters today.

The Life and Times of John Couch Adams, from 1819 to 1847

Brian M. Sheen1
1Roseland Observatory, United Kingdom.

4:20 PM - 4:40 PM

Room 613/614

John Couch Adams was born in 1819 in the middle of Cornwall, the most remote and isolated county in England. How he progressed from there to Cambridge University to become one of the finest mathematicians of the nineteenth century fills everyone who studies him with awe. Tragically what should have been his greatest triumph - the discovery of a new planet - was marred by mishap, controversy and unanswered questions.
This presentation examines one of the first of these questions and provides new answers based on recently revealed evidence. The Astronomer Royal of the day was attempting to support Adams and as part of that support asked if his analysis took into account changes in radius vector of Uranus. Adams did not reply and the rest as they say is history.
However there is far more to the question than a non-existent letter - this in itself turns out to be not exactly true. Further analysis of the orbits and a letter in French - not been translated before reveals Adams had a more profound understanding of the situation than some later authors have given him credit.

Neptune's Discovery: Le Verrier, Adams, and the Assignment of Credit

William Sheehan1
1Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health Services.

4:40 PM - 5:00 PM

Room 613/614

As one of the most significant achievements of 19th century astronomy, the discovery of Neptune has been the subject of a vast literature. A large part of this literature--beginning with the period immediately after the optical discovery in Berlin--has been the obsession with assigning credit to the two men who attempted to calculate the planet's position (and initially this played out against the international rivalry between France and England). Le Verrier and Adams occupied much different positions in the Scientific Establishments of their respective countries; had markedly different personalities; and approached the investigation using different methods. A psychiatrist and historian of astronomy tries to provide some new contexts to the familiar story of the discovery of Neptune, and argues that the personalities of these two men played crucial roles in their approaches to the problem they set themselves and the way others reacted to their stimuli. Adams had features of high-functioning autism, while Le Verrier's domineering, obsessive, orderly personality--though it allowed him to be immensely productive--eventually led to serious difficulties with his peers (and an outright revolt). Though it took extraordinary smarts to calculate the position of Neptune, the discovery required social skills that these men lacked--and thus the process to discovery was more bumbling and adventitious than it might have been. The discovery of Neptune occurred at a moment when astronomy was changing from that of heroic individuals to team collaborations involving multiple experts, and remains an object lesson in the sociological aspects of scientific endeavor.
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