Учебно-методическое пособие Для студентов, аспирантов Таганрог 2008




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English for Information Protection


Учебно-методическое пособие


Для студентов, аспирантов


Таганрог 2008


English for IT Protection Specialities: Учебное пособие / Сост. Л. К. Сальная – 174 с.





Учебно-методическое пособие English for Information Protection Specialities предназначено для студентов второго образовательного уровня, магистрантов и аспирантов специальностей в области информационной безопасности.


В качестве учебного материала в пособии используются англоязычные тексты, взятые из оригинальных печатных и электронных источников, посвященные различным направлениям защиты информации. Учебное пособие предназначено для использования в учебном процессе при обучении студентов третьего и четвертого курсов специальностей в области информационной безопасности.

Материал учебного пособия направлен на формирование профессионально ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции студентов по направлению их будущей деятельности в области информационной безопасности.

Структура учебного пособия сформировано в соответствии с поставленной задачей. Пособие содержит девять основных разделов (unit), каждый из которых включает четыре подраздела: работы со словами (vocabulary), работы с аутентичными текстами (texts), , заданий для работы по переводу со словарем (vocabulary tasks), работы по освоению той части английской грамматики, которая характерна для научно-технической литературы (grammar), а также разделы writing и communication, позволяющие студентам формировать навыки письменного и устного профессионально ориентированного иноязычного общения в наиболее типичных ситуациях.

Учебное пособие предназначено для аудиторной и внеаудиторной (групповой и индивидуальной) работы. Каждый из основных разделов пособия (unit), содержит учебный текст для аудиторной работы с предтекстовыми заданиями, вопросами и лексическими заданиями разного уровня сложности и дополнительного текста для самостоятельной работы. Работа с грамматикой в пособии начинается с установления уровня сформированности лингвистической компетенции при помощи тестов остаточных знаний трех уровней сложности. Грамматический минимум пособия охватывает основной грамматический материал, касающийся особенностей научно-технической литературы, и содержит упражнения различного уровня сложности, которые студенты могут выполнять самостоятельно, контролируя правильность. В целом, задания направлены на формирование профессионально ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции студентов в сфере будущей профессиональной деятельности и готовят студентов к профессионально ориентированному иноязычному общению: поиску работы, интервью, общению с коллегами, партнерами.

Все англоязычные тексты, используемые в пособии, взяты из оригинальной литературы: стандартов, научных статей, руководств пользователя информационными системами. Они сокращены, но не адаптированы. Разноуровневые упражнения к текстам направлены на формирование умений ознакомительного и изучающего чтения, а также профессионально ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции. Основные темы текстов, которые представлены в пособии, это – методы и средства обеспечения безопасности информационных технологий, критерии оценки безопасности, в части функциональных требований и требований доверия, анализ рисков и управление безопасностью, криптографические методы и методы криптоанализа, способы и методы защиты информации в глобальных сетях и интрасетях.


UNIT 1. COMMON CRITERIA SECURITY EVALUATION


Vocabulary


What do the following terms and word combinations mean?

Аssurance measures, availability, confidentiality, firmware, hardware, integrity, implicit, IT product, IT system, meet the requirements, security evaluation, security property, security risk, software, threat, tolerable.


Texts

Pre-reading task.

What sort of information should be protected? What measures can be taken to protect information? What do you know about Common Criteria Security Evaluation? Comment on the phrase “People who have information rule the world”.


Text 1. Common criteria security evaluation.

The Common Criteria (CC) is meant to be used as the basis for evaluation of security properties of IT products and systems. By establishing such a common criteria base, the results of an IT security evaluation will be meaningful to a wider audience.

The CC will permit comparability between the results of independent security evaluations. It does so by providing a common set of requirements for the security functions of IT products and systems and for assurance measures applied to them during a security evaluation. The evaluation process establishes a level of confidence that the security functions of such products and systems and the assurance measures applied to them meet these requirements. The evaluation results may help consumers to determine whether the IT product or system is secure enough for their intended application and whether the security risks implicit in its use are tolerable.

The CC is useful as a guide for the development of products or systems with IT security functions and for the procurement of commercial products and systems with such functions. During evaluation, such an IT product or system is known as a Target of Evaluation (TOE). Such TOEs include, for example, operating systems, computer networks, distributed systems, and applications.

The CC addresses protection of information from unauthorized disclosure, modification, or loss of use. The categories of protection relating to these three types of failure of security are commonly called confidentiality, integrity, and availability, respectively. The CC may also be applicable to aspects of IT security outside of these three. The CC concentrates on threats to that information arising from human activities, whether malicious or otherwise, but may be applicable to some non-human threats as well. In addition, the CC may be applied in other areas of IT, but makes no claim of competence outside the strict domain of IT security.

The CC is applicable to IT security measures implemented in hardware, firmware or software. Where particular aspects of evaluation are intended only to apply to certain methods of implementation, this will be indicated within the relevant criteria statements.


Answer the questions.

What is the reason for creating this standard? What is the sphere of application of CC? What is meant by TOE?


Read the second part of the text. Say which topics are outside the scope of CC.

Certain topics, because they involve specialised techniques or because they are somewhat peripheral to IT security, are considered to be outside the scope of the CC. Some of these are identified below.

a) The CC does not contain security evaluation criteria pertaining to administrative security measures not related directly to the IT security measures. However, it is recognised that a significant part of the security of a TOE can often be achieved through administrative measures such as organisational, personnel, physical, and procedural controls. Administrative security measures in the operating environment of the TOE are treated as secure usage assumptions where these have an impact on the ability of the IT security measures to counter the identified threats.

b) The evaluation of technical physical aspects of IT security such as electromagnetic emanation control is not specifically covered, although many of the concepts addressed will be applicable to that area. In particular, the CC addresses some aspects of physical protection of the TOE.

c) The CC addresses neither the evaluation methodology nor the administrative and legal framework under which the criteria may be applied by evaluation authorities. However, it is expected that the CC will be used for evaluation purposes in the context of such a framework and such a methodology.

d) The procedures for use of evaluation results in product or system accreditation are outside the scope of the CC. Product or system accreditation is the administrative process whereby authority is granted for the operation of an IT product or system in its full operational environment.

Evaluation focuses on the IT security parts of the product or system and those parts of the operational environment that may directly affect the secure use of IT elements. The results of the evaluation process are consequently a valuable input to the accreditation process. However, as other techniques are more appropriate for the assessments of non-IT related product or system security properties and their relationship to the IT security parts, accreditors should make separate provision for those aspects.

e) The subject of criteria for the assessment of the inherent qualities of cryptographic algorithms is not covered in the CC. Should independent assessment of mathematical properties of cryptography embedded in a TOE be required, the evaluation scheme under which the CC is applied must make provision for such assessments.


Vocabulary tasks

Form the word combinations and give their definitions.

Security

Complete the sentences using the words given below.

Require judgements inspection certification a set

  1. The certification process is the independent ________ of the results of the evaluation leading to the production of the final certificate or approval.

  2. The CC is presented as __________ of distinct but related parts.

  3. The evaluation scheme, methodology and __________ processes are the responsibility of evaluation authorities that run evaluation scheme.

  4. Many of the evaluation criteria _________ the application of expert judgements and background knowledge for which consistency is more difficult to achieve.

  5. The CC contains criteria to be used by evaluators when forming __________ about the conformance of TOEs to the security requirements.


Make the word combinations

1. distributed a) custodians

2. fulfill b) comparability

3. make c) disclosure

4. permit d) information

5. loss e) measures

6. security f) claims

7. auxiliary g) of use

8. assurance h) system

9. unauthorized i) function

10. system j) the needs

Match the term and its definition.

  1. Evaluation authority

  2. Target of Evaluation

  3. Assets

  4. Augmentation

  5. Protection Profile




  1. information or resources to be protected by the countermeasures of a TOE

  2. the addition of one or more assurance components from Part 3 to an EAL or assurance package

  3. a body that implements the CC for a specific community by means of evaluation scheme and thereby sets the standards and monitors the quality of evaluation

  4. an implementation-independent set of security requirements for a category of TOEs that meet specific consumer needs

  5. an IT product or system and its associated administrator and user guidance documentation that is the subject of an evaluation

Complete the text by translating Russian phrases given in brackets.

Information held by (1 продукты и системы информационных технологий) is a critical resource that enables organisations to succeed in their mission. Additionally, individuals have a reasonable expectation that their (2 частная информация, содержащая) IT products or systems remain private, be available to them as needed, and not be subject to (3 несанкционированных изменений). IT products or systems (4 должны выполнять свои функции) while exercising proper control of the information to ensure (5 защищена от опасности) such as (6 нежелательного или незаконного распространения, изменения или потери). The term IT security is used to cover prevention and mitigation of these and similar hazards.

Many consumers of IT (7 не хватает знаний, компетенции или средств) necessary to judge whether their confidence in the security of their IT products or systems is appropriate, and they (8 могут не захотеть полагаться только на заверения разработчиков).

Consumers may therefore choose to increase their confidence in the security measures of an IT product or system by ordering (9 оценка безопасности).

The CC can be used to select the appropriate IT security measures and it contains criteria for evaluation (10 требований безопасности).


Grammar tasks


Test A.

I. Choose the correct form of the verb.

1. Usually I have/am having breakfast at 8.

2. Look! What are the children doing/do the children do?

3. Hello! I haven’t seen/didn’t see you for ages.

4. Tom have met/met his friends yesterday.

5. When I last have seen /saw her, she went/ was going to Moscow.

6. Have you read/did you read all these books? – I have read/read them last mouth.

7. I have lost /lost my notebook. Have you seen/Did you see it anywhere?

8. If we go/will go shopping, we buy/will buy something tasty.

9. He is so annoyed. If he leave/left earlier, he will catch /would catch the train.

10. I have redecorated/have been redecorating my setting-room.

It’ll be ready next week.

11. When I went/came home, my mother already cooked/had already cooked dinner.

II. Choose the correct modal verb.

1. I can/have to start my work early in the morning.

You must /should get up early, I think.

2. He can/may swim and play tennis.

3. You can/may come in and sit down.

4. The train has to be/might be late. It depends on the weather.

5. You can/must come and see us! We’ll be happy to see you.

6. I should/have to learn English for my university exam.

7. I might not/can’t talk to my friends’ parents. I don’t speak French.

III. Choose the correct form.

1. I like to watch/watching football very much.

2. We’d like to buy/buying a tour to New Zealand.

3. I hope to pass/pass my driving test.

4. Old comedies always make me to laugh/laugh.

5. My sister hates read/reading detective stories.

6. We went to the hospital to visit/visit our aunt. She was glad to see/seeing us.

7. We couldn’t stop to talk/talking to her.

IV. Choose the correct form of the verb in Active or Passive voice.

1. The roof of the house broke/was broken by the storm.

2. Have you booked/have you been booked the tickets?

3. Rubens painted/was painted his “perfect” ladies in the seventeenth century.

4. Thrives stole/were stolen a world- famous painting last night.

5. German and English speak/are spoken here.

6. This book will publish/will be published next month.

7. He hasn’t seen/hasn’t been seen anywhere.

8. The student is listening/is being listened now.

V. Choose the correct preposition.

1. She has always been interested at/on/in Maths.

2. He is good at/on/in English.

3. Have you ever been at/on/to London?

4. The conference starts at/on/in Monday.

5. They will come at/on/in the evening.

6. Usually they come at/on/in 7.

7. The laboratory is situated at/in/of the center at/in/of the town.

VI. Put an article or an expression of quantity where necessary.

1. A/the/– longest mountain range in a/the/– world is a/thе/ – Andes in a/the/–

South America.

2. Would you like a/the/some coffee? – I’d prefer a/the/some glass of a/the/– juice.

3. There is a lot of/many/much pollution in this region.

4. Nick lives far from a/the/– city center. There isn’t a lot of/many/much noise.

5. She’s made a lot of/a few/a little mistakes. Just on or two.

6. How many/much/a lot of work have you written? – Just a lot of/a few/a little.

7. He lives in a/the/ – Cowan street. He goes to a/the/ – work by a/the/– bus.

VII. Choose the correct form of an adjective or an adverb.

1. He is old/older/ the oldest than he looks.

2. She is as bright/brighter/the brightest as her sister.

3. It’s the high/the most high/the highest mountain.

4. You live far/farer/farther than me.

5. It’s crowdeder/more crowded/the most crowded street than that one.

6. It’s the comfortablest/the more comfortable/ the most comfortable hotel

in the town.

7. You’ve made the bad/the baddest/the worst report I’ve ever heard.

8. Beautiful/more beautiful/the most beautiful pictures make you feel fine.


Test B.

I. Put the verbs in the correct form. Present Simple, Present Continuous,

Present Perfect.

1. All people in Australia (share) its national passion – surfing.

2. We (go) to my sister’s wedding next month.

3. What you (be) busy with? – I just (write) the report and now I (read) my e-mail.

4. What she (do)? – She (be) an artist. She just (finish) the college and (think) of

changing the place of work now.

5. You still (cook)? – No, I already (cook) dinner.

6. I (envy) you. You (cook) so quickly.

7. Where you (go)? – We (go) for a run.

8. When I (go) home, I (take) you.

II. Put the verbs in the correct form. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Future – in – the Past.

1. What the first vending machine (sell)?

2. If he (win) 1000$, he (buy) a beautiful yacht.

3. When we (arrive) at the party, Laura already (leave).

4. When Sarah (come) home, her mother (cook) dinner and (ask) Sarah to help her.

5. If I (be) the president of my country, I (support) the development of high

technologies.

6. When Tim (come) to the airport, he (remember) that he (forget) his documents.

7. When I (drive) home, I (see) an accident.

III. Fill in the gaps using articles where necessary.

1. I want to became ____ manager.

2. We’ll be there in ____ couple of hours.

3. She goes to the university by ____ train.

4. This take is in ____ United States.

5. ____ river Rhine flows through ____ Switzerland.

6. ____ Kiev is ____ capital of ____ Ukrain.

7. She lives in ____ city centre.

IV. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. Infinitive, to – infinitive,

Gerund.

1. I don’t really like (sunbathe).

2. The doctor told me (do) more exercises.

3. I hate (get stuck) in traffic jam.

4. The film made me (laugh).

5. He really enjoy (buy) presents. When he starts (go) round the souvenir shops, it’s difficult for him (stop).

6. Let me (think). I’d like (be left) alone.

7. We went to Moscow (enter) the university.

V. Put adjectives and adverbs in the correct degree of comparison.

1. James Bond is considered to be (brave) and (attractive) men in the world.

2. My brother is as (tall) as me.

3. Anna is (old) than she looks.

4. The test is (complicated) than it seems.

5. My brothers are very (pale). They have (strong) legs and can run (quickly).

6. Democracy is (bad) form of government from all the others.

7. All animals are equal, but some animals are (equal) than others.

VI. Fill in the gaps using prepositions where necessary.

1. They arrived ____ the station ____ 8.00.

2. What have we got ____ dinner? – Don’t worry ____ it. Your favorite lamb will be ready ____ 20 minutes.

3. ____ last year we were ____ holiday ____ Egypt.

4. I’m so tired ____ housework!

5. ____ Monday morning we have Math’s.


Test C.

I. Put the verbs in the correct form.

1. If I (have) more free time, I (go) jogging every day, but I (be) too busy recently that I (quit) even (do) morning exercises.

2. He (love) (dance) and (hope) (become) a professional dancer one day. He (go) (dance) for 7 years and (win) 3 awards since then. He (like) (found) his dancing school when he (be) 30.

3. Jane (be) so nervous these days – she (try) (find) a job. She (see) the manager of BP tomorrow morning. – I’m sure, if she (want), she (get) the job she (like).

4. My room (decorate) now. It (finish) in two weeks. The walls already (paint).

II. Put the articles and the expressions of quantity where necessary.

1. Where is ___ coffee? – It’s in ___ cupboard on ___ left.

2. There are ___ pubs in ___ north of ___ Britain.

3. WE need ___ eggs, ___ flour, ___ milk. We’re going to bake ___ cake.

III. Put the adjectives and adverbs in the correct degree of comparison.

1. (large) animal that ever walked the planet was (tall) that giraffe and (heavy) than five elephants.

2. They were vegetarians and used their (long) necks to eat leaves from the tops of the trees.

3. They were as (calm) as all vegetarians and considered to be (ancient) creatures that lived on the Earth.

IV. Put prepositions where necessary.

1. He suffers ____ headaches.

2. ____ Christmas morning children look the present.

3. This bag is similar ____ mine.

4. I’m afraid ____ spiders.

5. He broke the pen ____ accident.


Communication.

Discuss your plans for the course.

Distinguish the sphere of your scientific and professional interests and discuss it with your group-mates.


Writing.


You’d like to have more practice in English. You’ve read an advertisement about International School of English and are planning to study there during your summer vacations. Fill in the registration form.


Registration Form. Please print.

Name




Occupation




Age




Nationality




Home address




Length of course




Numbers of hours per day




Course starting date




Accommodation

Required / not required

Signature





Additional Vocabulary.

  1. procurement – приобретение

  2. Target of Evaluation(TOE)- объект оценки

  3. distributed systems – распределенные системы

  4. applications – приложения

  5. unauthorized disclosure – несанкционированное раскрытие

  6. modification – изменение

  7. loss of use – потеря возможности

  8. types of failure of security – типы нарушения безопасности

  9. malicious – злонамеренный, злоумышленный

  10. non-human threats – угрозы исходящие не от человека

  11. implement – осуществлять, выполнять

  12. secure usage assumptions – предположения безопасного использования

  13. have an impact – иметь последствия

  14. counter the identified threats – противопоставить установленным угрозам

  15. electromagnetic emanation control – контроль электромагнитного излучения

  16. administrative and legal framework – административно-правовая структура (основа)

  17. inherent qualities – специфические (неотъемлемые свойства)

  18. consumer – потребитель

  19. developer – разработчик

  20. evaluator – оценщик

  21. fulfill the needs – удовлетворять потребности

  22. fundamental purpose and justification – основная цель и оправдание (подтверждение)

  23. policy direction – направление политики

  24. implementation-independent structure – структура , не зависящая от реализации

  25. Protection Profile – профиль защиты

  26. make claims – предъявлять требования

  27. Security Target – задание по безопасности

  28. form judgements – составить мнение

  29. conformance – соответствие, согласованность

  30. carry out – выполнять

  31. system custodian – системный администратор

  32. adequacy of the security – адекватность безопасности

  33. oversight – контроль, надзор



Unit 2. Cost/Benefit Analysis of the Risk

Vocabulary


What do the following terms and word combinations mean?

Estimate risk, facility, adversary success, undesired event, consequence, equation, acceptable risk / unacceptable risk, reduce risk, risk assessment, physical security, vulnerability analysis, access point, facility design blueprints, fault tree, total mission loss, severe environmental damage, threat.


Texts

Pre-reading task.

What measures can be used to persuade the managers use security system?

What should be done to keep the high level of an enterprise security?


Text 1. Cost/Benefit Analysis of the Risk.

Violence, vandalism, and terrorism are prevalent in the world today. Managers and decision-makers must have a reliable way of estimating risk to help them decide how much security is needed at their facility. A risk assessment methodology (RAM) has been refined by Sandia National Laboratories to assess risk at various types of facilities including US Mints and federal dams. The methodology is based on the traditional risk equation:

Risk = PA * (1 - PE) * C,

PA is the likelihood of adversary attack,

PE is security system effectiveness,

1 - PE is adversary success, and

C is consequence of loss to the attack.

The process begins with a characterization of the facility including identification of the undesired events and the respective critical assets. Guidance for defining a design basis threat is included, as well as for using the definition of the threat to estimate the likelihood of adversary attack at a specific facility. Relative values of consequence are estimated. Methods are also included for estimating the effectiveness of the security system against the adversary attack. Finally, risk is

calculated. In the event that the value of risk is deemed to be unacceptable (too high), the methodology addresses a process for identifying and evaluating security system upgrades in order to reduce risk.


Analysis Methodology

An analysis methodology has been used to assess the vulnerability of physical protection systems for facilities. Here we describe the order and sequence of the seven basic steps of the methodology.


1. Characterize Facility

2. Identify Undesirable Events & Critical Assets

3. Determine Consequences

4. Define Threats

5. Analyze Protection System Effectiveness

6. Upgrade the System

7. Estimate Risks

8. Are Risks Acceptable?

No Yes


An initial step in security system analysis is to characterize the facility operating states and conditions. This step requires developing a thorough description of the facility itself (the location of the site boundary, building locations, floor plans, and access points). A description of the processes within the facility is also required, as well as identification of any existing physical protection features. This information can be obtained from several sources, including facility design blueprints, process descriptions, safety analysis reports, environmental impact statements, and site surveys.

Undesired Events. The undesired events must be established. Undesired events result in undesired consequences. Undesired events are site-specific and have adverse impacts on public health and safety, the environment, assets, mission, and publicity.

Critical Assets. The adversary could cause each undesired event to occur in several ways. A structured approach is needed to identify critical components for prevention of the undesired events.

A logic model, like a fault tree, can be used to identify the critical components. The critical components and their locations become the critical assets to protect. There is the top-level portion of a generic fault tree for facilities.


Disrupt Mission of a Facility

1. Disruption of Operations

2. Crime Against Person(s)

3. Negative Publicity or Embarrassment

4. Theft of Assets

5. Destruction of Property


The next step is to categorize undesired events or loss of critical assets. The proposed categories of consequences are similar to those used by the Department of Defense per Military Standard 882C.

The consequence values and categories are described below. The goal is to estimate the relative consequence value associated with each undesired event.


Consequence Category - Consequence Value

Catastrophic-results in death(s), total mission loss, or severe environmental damage - Very high

Critical-results in severe injury/illness, major mission loss, or major environmental damage - High

Marginal-results in minor injury/illness, minor mission loss, or minor environmental damage - Medium

Negligible-results in less than minor injury/illness, less than minor mission loss, or less than minor environmental damage - Low


What are the first steps of the cost/benefit risk analysis?

Where can the information for the description of the facility be found?

What for is a generic fault tree made?

What do the consequence values imply?


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