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MARKS DISTRIBUTION

(ACCORDING TO AUTONOMY)

FOR ALL THEORY COURSES: -






  1. On semester evaluation of all theory courses total: 100 marks




I. Mid semester exam:

20 marks

II. Mid semester exam:

20 marks

Continues Evaluation Test (CET):

20 marks

Attendance:

20 marks

Teacher’s assessment:

20 marks


2) End semester (final examination) of all theory courses

Total: 100 marks

3) Total of on semester + end semester evaluation

is of : 200 marks

4) To pass a theory course student should obtain

Minimum: - 40 marks in on semester evaluation.

: - 35 marks in end semester evaluation.

Total: - 80 marks out of 200.


Criterion for passing and failing the theory course: -

  1. If students fails in on semester evaluation despite passing in aggregate one will have to repeat that course.

  2. If student pass in on semester evaluation but fails in end semester exam he/ she will be permitted to appear in supplementary examination.

  3. If student is pass both in on semester evaluation and end semester evaluation but fails in total then he/ she would have to appear in supplementary exam.

  4. If attendance in a course is below 75%, the student shall not be permitted to appear in the End- Semester Examination.





Distribution

FOR ALL PRACTICAL (LABORATORY) COURSES: -



I) On semester evaluation of all practical (laboratory) courses would be of total: 120 marks.



Performance of class practical:

60 marks

Reports of practical:

60 marks


II) End semester evaluation (final lab exam + oral or viva test)

Total: 80 marks

III) Total of on semester evaluation final lab examination + end semester evaluation is of : 200 marks

IV) To pass a lab course student should obtain

Minimum: - 48 marks in on semester evaluation.

28 marks in end semester evaluation.

Total- 80 marks out of -200

Criterion for passing and failing the lab course is just like theory course.




Distribution




CALCULATION OF SEMESTER GRADE POINT AVERAGE: -


Semester grade point average (SGPA) is the weighted average of the grade for the subjects registered in a Semester and is computed as follows:




denotes the Credits (or Units) assigned to the ith subject and denotes the Grade Point Equivalent to the Letter Grade obtained for the ith subject.


Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is the weighted average of the grades of the subjects for the registered in the semester.
N. C. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ISRANA

SCHEME OF STUDIES AND EXAMINATION

B.Tech. -BIOTECHNOLOGY

4th Year (Semester–VII) 2011-12


Sr. No.

Course no.

Subjects





Teaching Schedule


Contact

Hours


Credits

L
T
P

1

NC-BT-401

Bioinformatics

3

1

-

4

4

2

NC-BT-403

Stem Cells And Healthcare

3

-

-

3

3

3

NC-BT-405

Essentials of Virology

3

-

-

3

3

4

NC-BT-407

Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology

3

-

-

3

3

5




Departmental Elective *

3

-

-

3

3

6

NC-BT-409

Project

-

-

6

6

3

7

NC-BT-411

Bioinformatics Lab

-

-

3

3

2

8

NC-BT-413

Seminar


2

-

-

2

1

9

NC-ESc-401

Soft Skills & Analytical Ability -II


1

-

2

3

2



Total


18

1

11

30

24


*Departmental Elective:

NanoBiotechnology (NC-BT-415)

OR

Biosensor (NC-BT-417)

7th Semester B. Tech (Bio-Technology)

BIOINFORMATICS

NC-BT-401

L T End Semester Examination: 100 Marks 3 1 On Semester Examination: 100 Marks

Note: - 1. There are NINE questions in a set of question-paper. All questions carry equal marks.

  1. Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers

the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units

UNIT I

1. Information Theory And Biology:

Entropy and information- Shannon's formula-divergence from equiprobability and independence, elementary ideas about Mark off Chains and Ergodic process, redundancy concepts - applications to DNA and protein sequences.

2. Databases:

a.) Sequence Databases: the nucleotide and protein sequence databases: introduction, primary and secondary databases, the database, the gene bank flat file, its content. Submission to NCBI database.


b) Structure Databases: Introduction to structures, PDB (Protein Data Bank) Molecular Modeling database at NCBI, structure file formats, visualizing structural information, database structure viewers, cn3D, Rasmol.

UNIT – II


  1. Sequence Analysis Using Software Resources:

Information retrieval from biological database, retrieving database entries, the retrieve server, integrated information retrieval, The Entrez system, Integrated information axis: the query/server, sequence database beyond NCBI, medical databases.


4. Phylogenetic Analysis:

Elements of phylogenetic models, phylogenetic data analysis: alignment, substitution model building, tree building and tree evaluation, building the data model (alignment), determining the substitution model, tree-building methods, searching for trees, rooting trees, evaluation trees and data, phylogenic software (PHYLIP), phylogenetics on the web, some simple practical considerations.


UNIT III

5. Sequence Alignment And Database Searches:

Various formats of sequences, the modular nature of proteins, optional alignment methods, substitution scores and gap penalties, statistical significance of alignment, database similarity searching, FASTA, BLAST- BLASTX, BLAST P, BLAST N against different databases, low-complexity regions, repetitive elements, practical aspects of multiple sequence alignment, progressive alignment methods, motifs and patterns. CLUSTALW, CLUSTALX. tree building exercises using NCBI databases.

UNIT –IV


6. Genome Bioinformatics:

Genome sequencing, raw genome sequence data, expressed sequence tags, polymorphism, comparative genomics, genome annotation, Genomics and research: pharmaceutical and agricultural, RH maps, synteny & conserved domains.


7. Informatics And Automation in Genome Mapping:

Finding LTRS, prediction of promoter regions, genes sequence and codes, fundamentals of bio molecular, prediction of protein secondary and tertiary structures, Related software.


References:


  1. Bioinformatics by Andreas D.Boxevanis. Wiley Interscience, 1998.

  2. Bioinformatics: Sequence and genome analysis by David W.Mount, Cold Spring Harbor, 2001.

  3. Biocomputing Informatics And The Genome Projects by Smith D.W., Academic Press, 1993.

  4. Bioinformatics: A Biologists Guide to Computing and the Internet. by Stuart M. Brown, NKU Medical Center, NY USA, 2000.

  5. Molecular Evolution Computer Analysis of Protein And Nucleic Acid Sequences, Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 183, Academic Press, 1990.

  6. Biological Sequence Analysis by Durbin, Eddy, Krogh, And Mitchison. Allied Publishers Ltd. 1998.

  7. Computational Methods for Macromolecular Sequence Analysis by R F Doolittle. Academic Press, 1996.

  8. Computational Methods in Molecular Biology. S.L. Salzberg, D B Searls, SK Kasif Eds, Elsevier, 1998.

  9. Bioinformatics: The Machine Learning Approach by Baldi & Brunak II Edn (2003)

  10. Statistical Methods in Bioinformatics An Introduction by Warren J. Ewens & Gregory R Grant, Springer,2004



7th Semester B. Tech (Bio-Technology)

STEM CELL IN HEALTH CARE

NC-BT-403


L T End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3 0 On Semester Examination: 100 Marks

Note: - 1. There are NINE questions in a set of question-paper. All questions carry equal marks.

2. Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units


UNIT – I

1. Cell Diversification in Early Animal Embryo:

Process of fertilization & stages of development in Eukaryotes, pluripotency & formation of three germ layers, cellular mechanism relating to these developments.


UNIT –II

2. Stem cell differentiation:

The process of stem cell differentiation leading to the formation of epidermal cells, Skeletal muscles. Transformation of stem cell into gametes/ fertilization entity.


UNIT-III

3. Hemopoietic Stem Cells:

Classification and manifestation of Hemopoietic stem cell disorders, plastic hemopoietic stem cell disorders, myelo dysplastic, myelo proliferative disorders, complications involved in gene therapy, blood transfusion & marrow transplantations, preservation & clinical use of blood, hemapheresis & Apheresis procedures, xenoplantation.


UNIT-IV

  1. Concept of stem cells & their applications:

Stem cells & their unique properties, Embryonic stem cells, Adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, epidermal stem cells & their applications hepatic stem cells & their role in liver regeneration, stem cell treatments, ethical issues of stem cell research.


  1. Stem cell therapy:

Potential of stem cell therapy for various diseases, eg. AIDS/HIV, Alzhemier’s disease, Anaemia, Anti-ageing, Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis.


References:


  1. Developemental Biology by R.M.Twyman, Viva Books Pvt. Ltd., 2001

  2. Hematology, William J. Willams, Ernest Beutler, Allan JU.Erslev, Marshall A. Lichman.

  3. Essential Cell Biology, Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Kieth Roberts and Jamnes D. Watson, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, 2nd Edition, 2003.

  4. Stem Cell Biology by Marshak, Cold Spring Harbar Symposium Publication, 2001.

  5. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Kieth Roberts and Peter Walter, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, 4th Edition, 2003.

  6. Molecular and Cell Biology- Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems by Willam D. Stansfield, Jaime S.Colorne and Raul J. Cano. Tata McGraw Hill Publisher, 2004.



7th Semester B. Tech (Bio-Technology)

ESSENTIALS OF VIROLOGY

NC-BT-405



L T End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3 0 On Semester Examination: 100 Marks

Note: - 1. There are NINE questions in a set of question-paper. All questions carry equal marks.

2. Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units


UNIT-I

  1. Viral Diversity: Viruses of Prokaryotes

Overview of viruses, Virulent Bacteriophage & T4, Temperate Bacteriophage, lambda Bacteriophage. RNA Bacteriophages; Icosohedral single stranded DNA Bacteriophages, Filamentous single stranded DNA Bacteriophages- T7, Mu: Double Stranded transposable DNA Bacteriophage. Life Cycle of Bacteriophages and their use in genetic analysis.


UNIT-II

  1. Viral diversity- Viruses of Eukaryotes:

Plant viruses-Geminivirus, TMV, caulimovirus, RNA viruses, Animal viruses -Positive strand

RNA virus- Poliovirus and Coronavirus. Negative strand RNA Viruses- Rabies & Influenza.

Double stranded RNA Viruses- Reoviruses. Double stranded DNA Viruses-Herpesvirus, Pox

Virus and Adenovirus. Viruses with reverse transcriptase- Retroviruses and Hepadnaviruses.


UNIT-III

3. Viral Genetics: Viral Replication & Multiplication ,Growth & Quantification: The virus

host, Quantification of virus. Virus replication: General features of viral replication, virus multiplication- attachment and penetration, production of viral nucleic acid and protein, the Baltimore classification scheme & DNA Viruses, positive & negative stranded DNA viruses, Reverse transcription, viral protein.


UNIT-IV

4. Applications of Virology:

Viruses and transgenic plants and animals. Overview of Tumor Viruses.

Viral Vaccines: Conventional Vaccines. New Generation Vaccines including DNA Vaccines

with examples Interferon’s-Production and mode of action, Antiviral drugs.


References:

  1. Brock: Biology of Microorganisms. By Madigan and Martinko. 11th Ed. 2005. Prentice Hall- Pearson Publications. New Jersey, US..

  2. Microbiology. Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Kreig, N.R. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.

  3. Introduction to Modern Virology. Dimmock, N.J. and Primrose, S.B.4th Ed. Blackwell Science Publications, Oxford.

  4. Medical Virology. Morag, C & Tinbury, M.C. Churchil Livingstone, London.

  5. Functionals of plant virology. Mathew, R.E. Academic Press. San Diego, US.



7th Semester B. Tech (Bio-Technology)

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

NC-BT-407



L T End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3 0 On Semester Examination: 100 Marks


Note: - 1. There are NINE questions in a set of question-paper. All questions carry equal marks.

2. Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units


UNIT-I

Intellectual Property Rights :

Scope and Meaning of Intellectual Property & Intellectual Property Rights, Rational, advantages, disadvantages of intellectual property protection. Role of Intellectual Property Protection in fostering research & economic development.


IPR issues relevant for India, authorities and their functions, consequences and options of reinforced IPP (Intellectual Property Protection) for developing countries, Management of intellectual property.


UNIT-II

Patents and procedure for filing applications:

Patentable and non-patentable subjects matters, reasons for inclusion and exclusion. Novelty, public domain and other requirements for patenting. Procedure for filing a patent application. Rights, responsibilities and obligation of patent holder. Protection of patent and fighting piracy.


UNIT-III

Patenting a biological material:

Patenting of living organisms, higher plants and animals, transgenic, organisms, patenting of genes and isolated DNA sequences, Protection of plant varities in UPOV, Suei generies system, plant variety protection and farmer rights Authorities of India.

Conservation and use of genetic resources.


UNIT-IV

Other categories of Intellectual Property Protections: 

Other categories of Intellectual Property Protection including copyrights, designs, trade secrets, trademarks, geographical appellations.

International conventions, treaties, GATT, TRIP’s and WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organisation).


References:

1. Biotechnology by John E. Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

2. Biotechnology: An Introduction by Susan R. Barman.

3. Elements of Biotechnology by P.K.Gupta, rastogi Publications, 2003

4. A Textbook on Biotechnology by H.D.Kumar, East West Press Pvt. Ltd.

5. Modern Concepts of Biotechnology by H.D.Kumar, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1998.


7th Semester B. Tech (Bio-Technology)

BIOINFORMATICS LABORATORY


NC-BT-411


P On Semester Examination: 120 Marks

3 End Semester Examination: 80 Marks


List of Experiments:


1. Computer basics

2. Searching biological database for relevant information

3 Restriction mapping

4. Sequence (FASTA & BLAST) searches.

5. usage of CLUSTAL W & CLUSTAL X

6 Evolutionary studies/ Phylogenic analysis.

7 Identification of genes in genomes.

8. Protein databank retrieval and visualization.

  1. Secondary structure prediction of proteins.

  2. Validation of 3D structures.

  3. Usage of web servers for data analysis.

.


References:


  1. Bioinformatics- A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins by Andreas D. Baxevanis and B.F.Francis Ouellette, 2nd Edition, A John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publications, 1998.

  2. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis by David W. Mount, Cold Spring Harbor, 2001.

  3. Biocomputing Informatics and the Genome Projects by Smith D.W., Academic Press, 1993.

  4. Bioinformatics: A Biological Guide to Computing and the Internet, by Stuart M. Brown, NYU Medical Center, NY USA.2000.

  5. Molecular Evolution- Computer analysis of protein and nucleic acid sequences, Methods in Enzymology, Vol.183, Academic Press, 1990.

  6. Biological Sequence Analysis by Durbin, Eddy, Krogh and Mitchison. Allied Publishers Ltd.,1998.

  7. Computational Methods for Macromolecular Sequence Analysis by R.F. Doolittle, Academic Press, 1996.

  8. Computational Methods in Molecular Biology, by S.L.Salzberg, D.B.Searls, S. Kasif eds, Elsevier, 1998.

  9. Bioinformtaics: The machine learning approach by Baldi & Brunak II Edn., 2003.

  10. Statistical Methods in Bioinformatics- An Introduction by Warren J Ewens & Gregory R Grant, Springer, 2004.

  11. Bioinformatics Computing by M.D.Bryan Bergeron, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 2003.

  12. Bioinformatics – Methods and Protocols by Stephen Misener and Stephen A. Krawtetz, Humana Press.






ELECTIVE-I

7th Semester B. Tech (Biotechnology)

NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY

NC-BT-415


L T End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3 0 On Semester Examination: 100 Marks


Note: - 1. There are NINE questions in a set of question-paper. All questions carry equal marks.

2. Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units


UNIT-I

1. Bionanotechnology  –  An  Overview:  What  can  engineers  learn  from  biology?  From biotechnology to Bionanotechnology, Bionanomachines in action. Molecular recognition: How molecular recognition underlies cellular communication, material transfer into and within cells, and biotransformations. Information: How information is stored in the cell and how it isread?


UNIT-II

2. Biomolecular  Design  and  Biotechnology:  Molecular  Modeling  and  Biomolecular structure determination. Structural Principles of Bionanotechnology: Natural Bionano-machinery, Hierarchical strategy, raw materials, Protein folding, self assembly and self- organization, molecular recognition and flexibility.


UNIT-III

3. Functional  Principles  of  Bionanotechnology:  Information  driven  Nano  assembly, Energetics,  chemical  transformation,  regulation,  Biomolecular  motors,  Biomolecular sensing, self replication and machine - phase Bionanotechnology



UNIT-IV

4. Applications of Bionanotechnology : Basic capabilities, DNA computers, hybrid

materials, artificial life and biosensors.  Nano Medicine & Drug Delivery,


References:


  1. Goodsell, David S. 2004. Bionanotechnology- Lessons from Nature. John Wiley & Sons, INC., Publication.

  2. Niemeyer C.M.  &  Mirkin, C.A. 2004. Nanobiotechnology- Concepts, Applications and Perspectives, Wiley-VCH Verlag.




  1. Avouris, P., Klitzing, K. Von, Sakaki H. & Wiesendanger, R. 2003.  Nano Science

& Technology Series.  Springer.


ELECTIVE-I

7th Semester B. Tech (Bio-Technology)

BIOSENSORS

NC-BT-417


L T End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3 0 On Semester Examination: 100 Marks


Note: - 1. There are NINE questions in a set of question-paper. All questions carry equal marks.

2. Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units

UNIT – I


1. Introduction:

History of Biosensors, types of biosensors, chemical biosensors & commercial biosensors, advantages & future use of biosensors.


2. Cell based biosensors using microelectrode:

Measurement of cellular activity, planar array for cultured cell systems, impedance techniques,


3. Biosensors for determination of metabolites:

Glucose determination, Ethanol determination, Determination of glycerol & triglycerides.


UNIT – II

  1. Whole cell Bacterial Biosensors:

Reporter genes, containment sensing components, arsenic sensing biosensors, methods for using whole cell biosensors, advantages.


  1. Micro machined Biosensors:

Immunoassays, Atomic Force Microscopy, interaction between biomolecules, cantilever-based sensors, FABS.


UNIT – III

  1. Long period grafting Biosensors:

Introduction, Antibody-Antigen binding forces, Polymer Films, Ligand Immobilization, Mass transfer.


  1. Fiber Optics Sensors:

Extrinsic & intrinsic sesors, coating based sensors, New sesing schemes- Microbent sensors, SERS sensors, SPR sensors & applications.


UNIT – IV

  1. Biochips & Applications: DNA chips, proteomics technologies in modern Biomedical

Sciences, Applications.


9. Applications of Biosensors: Applications in food industry- Biacore System, Assay Development, Application in Environmental monitoring.


References:

  1. Introduction to Bio-analytical Sensors by Alice J Cunningham New York, John Wiley, 1998.

  2. Applied Biosensors by Doland L.Wise, 1989

  3. Bisensors- Rajmohan Joshi, Isha Books, Delhi

  4. Biosensors- Fundamental & Applications- Isao Karube, Oxford university Press, 1987

  5. Biosensors and their applications by C Yang Victor & TNgo That, Plenum Press NY, 2000.

  6. Biosensors- An Introduction by R.Eggins Brain..

  7. Biosensors by Jon Cooper and Tony Cass, Oxford university Press, 2004.




B.Tech (Bio- Tech.) 7th Semester, Syllabus 2011-12

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