Community Policing and Problem Solving

НазваниеCommunity Policing and Problem Solving
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Community Policing and Problem Solving

Strategies and Practices

Fifth Edition


University of Nevada, Reno


Reno, Nevada, Police Department

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458


Peak, Kenneth J.,

Community policing and problem solving: strategies and practices / Kenneth J. Peak,

Ron W. Glensor —5th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-13-239257-7

1. Community policing. 2. Crime prevention—United States—Citizen participation. 3. Police administration. 4. Police-community relations. 5. Community policing—United States. 6. Police administration—United States. I. Glensor, Ronald W. II. Title.

HV7936.C83P43 2008

363.2’3—dc22 2006051017

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  1. 98765432

ISBN-13: 13-23^257-0

ISBN-10 D-13-23T257-7

To Kathryn Ann—our family’s heart, core, and cheerleader—and to our newest grandchild, Dominic William Miller.


To my wife, Kristy; my son, Ronnie; my daughter, Breanne; Derek Jones; and my beautiful granddaughter, Addison.


Brief Contents

chapter jHE Evolution of Policing: Past Wisdom

  1. and Future Directions 1

chapter COPPS: Engaging a Changing Society 36 2

chapter COPPS: Problem Oriented Policing 67




chapter Crime Prevention: Creating Safe Communities


chapter Information Technology: Tools for the Task


chapter From Recruit to Chief: Changing 0 the Agency Culture 142

chapter Planning and Implementation: Translating ^7 Ideas into Action 166

chapter Evaluation of COPPS Initiatives 192 8


chapter Training for COPPS: Approaches

and Challenges 215

chapter Police in a Diverse Society 241 10

chapter COPPS on the Beat: Drugs, Gangs,

  1. and Youth Crimes 267


chapter More COPPS on the Beat: Selected Issues

and Problems 288

chapter COPPS: Selected American Approaches 310


chapter COPPS Abroad: Foreign Venues 335


chapter The Future: Bright or Bleak? 362


appendix Award-Winning Problem-Solving Case Studies


appendix Community Survey in Fort Collins, Colorado 386


appendix Strategic Plan Survey in Portland, Oregon 391



Preface xvii

About the Authors xxiii

Foreword xxv

chapter the Evolution of Policing: Past Wisdom and Future Directions 1

  1. Introduction 2 British Contributions 2

Policing in America: The Political Era 4

Early Beginnings 4 • Politics and Corruption 7 • Emergence of Professionalism 8

The Professional Era 8

Movement Toward Reform 8 • New Developments and Calls for Reform 9

  • Crime Commissions and Early Police Studies 11 • Professional Crime Fighter

  • Problems with the Professional Model 15 • Changing Wisdom of Policing:

More Recent Studies of Police Work 17 • Viewing of “Sacred Cow” Police Methods with Caution 18 • Time for a New Approach 20

The Community Problem-Solving Era 21

Team Policing, Foot Patrol, and Shattered Myths 21 • Principles of the New COPPS Model 22 • Why the Emergence of COPPS? 23 • Well Entrenched: Three Generations of COPPS 24 • Sharing of History via the Internet 25

COPPS and Homeland Security 28

New Threats and New Measures 28

Role of COPPS 29 Summary 30 Items for Review 31 Notes 31

chapter COPPS: Engaging a Changing Society 36

  1. Introduction 37

What Is Community? 37

Basic Ingredients 37 • Communitarianism 39 • Social Capital 40 • Volunteerism

Partners in Community Justice 42

Community and Restorative Justice 42 • Police 43 • Courts 45 • Corrections 48

  • Community Service Centers 48 • E-Govemment 49

Where All These Roads Have Led: Community Policing 51

Basic Principles 51 • Differences Between Community Policing and Traditional Policing 52

Unique Challenges: Engaging a Changing Nation 54

Demographics: Who We Are and How Immigration Influences Us 54 • Graying of America: Implications and Concerns 57 • A Generational Divide and Its Effects on Policing 58 • High Technology 59

Shifts in Crime 59

Violent Venue 60 • Fear of Crime 61 Summary 62 Items for Review 63 Notes 63

chapter COPPS: Problem Oriented Policing 67

Introduction 68 Problem Solving 68

Early Beginnings 68 • Basic Principles 69 • Broader Role for the Street Officer 70

S.A.R.A.: The Problem-Solving Process 71

Scanning: Problem Identification 71 • Analysis: Heart of Problem Solving 72

  • Response: Formulation of Tailor-Made Strategies 78 • Assessment: Evaluation of Overall Effectiveness 79

Difficulties with Problem Solving 83

Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving: COPPS 85

Basic Principles 85 • Definition 85 Choice of Approach: Tailoring Strategies to Neighborhoods 86

Which Strategy Where? 86 • Differing Types of Neighborhoods 87

A Winning Example: The Oakland Airport Motel Program 89 Summary 90 Items for Review 91 Notes 91

chapter Crime Prevention: Creating Safe Communities 94

Introduction 95 A Brief History 96 Today's Shifting Emphasis 100 Needed: Community Partnerships 101 Crime Prevention and COPPS 101

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design 103

Role of Designing Out Crime 103 • Second-Generation CPTED 105 • Obstacles to Adopting CPTED 107

Situational Crime Prevention 108

Issues and Problems 111

Implementation of Programs 111 • Displacement of Crime 112 • Evaluation of Results 114

Crime Prevention: What Works and What Doesn't 114

What Prevents or Reduces Crime 114 • What Does Not Appear to Be Successful 115

  • What Holds Promise 115 Summary 116

Items for Review 117 Notes 117

chapter Information Technology: Tools for the Task 120

Introduction 121 Crime Analysis 122

Street-Level Criminology 122 • The Basics: Computer-Aided Dispatch, Mobile Computing, and Records Management 122 • Strategic and Tactical Crime Analysis 124 • Crime Pattern Geomapping 125 • CompStat 128 • Other Applications: Geographic Profiling and Hot Spots 135 • Global Positioning System (GPS) 136 • Internet/Intranet and COPPS 136 • Surveys 137

  • Counterterrorism Analysis 138

Wanted: The "Right Stuff" to Be a Crime Analyst 138

Summary 139 Items for Review 139 Notes 140

chapter From Recruit to Chief: Changing the Agency Culture 142

Q Introduction 143

Change Theories 143

Formula for Change 143 • Lewin’s Process Model for Change 144

Change in Police Organizations 146

Lessons Learned 146 • “Bombshell” Technique 147 • Change in Organizational Values 147

Change to COPPS 148

Potential for Resistance and Conflict 148 • “We’re Too Busy to Change” 149

Roles of Key Leaders 150

Chief Executives 150 • Middle Managers 151 • First-Line Supervisors 153 • Ways to “Recapture Officers’ Time” for Problem Solving 153

Role of the Rank-and-File Officers 158

Recruitment for COPPS 159 Case Studies 160

Fresno, California: Departmental Reorganization 160 • Boston, Massachusetts: Revitalization of the Force 161 • Hayward, California: Hiring, Training, and Evaluation of Personnel 162 Summary 163 Items for Review 163 Notes 163

chapter Planning and Implementation: Translating Ideas into Action 166

7 Introduction 167

Strategic Thinking 167

Strategic Management 168

Strategic Planning 169

Basic Elements 169 • Planning Cycle 169 • Environmental Scanning: A Needs Assessment 170

Planning Document: A Guide for Implementation 171

Elements and Issues 171

Implementation of COPPS—Method 173

Implementation of COPPS—Principal Components 174

Leadership and Administration 174 • Human Resources 177 • Field Operations 178

  • External Relations 181 • Synthesis of Principal Components 182 • An Example: Montgomery County, Maryland 182

General Obstacles 187

Ten Ways to Undermine COPPS 187 Summary 189 Items for Review 189 Notes 190
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