Учебно-методическое обеспечение и информационное обеспечение дисциплины




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THE BRITISH CIVIL SERVICE


To examine the current civil service means looking at its recent past, a developing present and an uncertain future. We begin by describing the traditional structure of the service.

The British Civil Service has been defined by the following characteristics. First, it is a non-political body. Civil servants are not appointed by political representatives and are disqualified from being elected either to the House of Commons or the European Assembly. The service is therefore able to serve governments of any political persuasion.

Second, it is permanent; whereas politicians come and go, the civil servants remains. Civil servants enjoy security of tenure and once appointed cannot easily be removed. They advise ministers on policy and it is the minister that is answerable in parliament for government policy. This convention of ministerial responsibility means civil servants remain anonymous, a third characteristic of the service.

The ‘efficient body of permanent officers’ became the civil service of the 20th century.The basic structure was in place by the 1920s, although since then there has been growth in the service, particularly in the post-war period when there was extensive development of the welfare state and public service provision. It was established as career service, in which people expected to stay for a lifetime and the senior civil service in particular is regarded as a lifelong profession.

With lifetime employment, standardised recruitment and mobility between departments, the service developed its own culture and values. Traditionally civil servants have been highly respected for their sense of public duty, for their honesty, impartiality and judgement. Their training took place within the workplace which encouraged the development of these service-wide values. Consequently, the service was characterised by conformity, uniformity and cohesion.

Civil servants work for government departments which are headed by government ministers or secretaries of state. These departments have developed in an ad hoc manner and they differ greatly in size as well as character. In the mid-nineties there are about 30 major departments together with some 40-50 minor ones. Some smaller departments were merged into giant departments and these are still a feature of the civil service today.

Central departments such as the Treasury, the Department for Education and Employment, the Department of Health, and the Ministry of Defence are represented in cabinet by a senior minister.

Administrative civil servants are of two types: generalists and specialists. Traditionally generalists have dominated the service and are awarded higher status than specialists. A generalist is someone who has received a general education (who has a degree in history, classics, etc.) whereas a specialist is someone with a particular training (as an economist, a lawyer, an accountant, etc.) from whom specialist, technical advice may be sought. Especially for senior posts, it is felt training should come ‘on the job’. To specialist an education may be too narrow. The’elite’ graduates who enter the civil service as trainees expect to be moved around departments throughout their career to develop an ‘all around’ approach to policy making and advice.

The senior civil service consists (starting from the bottom) of 2 levels of ‘Principal’ and 5 levels of ‘Secretary’(Assistant, Executive, Under, Deputy and Permanent). At the top of the civil service hierarchy there is the ‘Permanent Secretary’ who manages the department and is chief policy adviser to the departments’ minister. The senior civil service also now includes those Chief Executives of the Next Steps agencies who are of the required grade.

Senior civil Servants tend to be male, white and to come from the middle class. They are, educationally and socially, the elite – a fact which has led to the argument that these servants are unable to understand the problems of ordinary people. There are two key areas of bias towards this elite: first, in the recruitment of Oxbridge graduates, and second, within the civil service itself, towards people on the fast stream and against civil servants recruited from outside the scheme.

The fast stream refers to the process of recruitment of university graduates to the civil service, with opportunities for ‘fast-track’ training and promotion. The graduates undergo a rigorous process of aptitude tests followed by interviews and finally they have to face a panel of the Civil Service Selection Board, then they are picked by the various departments.

Below the senior posts is the administrative group comprising three levels of executive officers and two levels of clerical positions. Each civil servants ‘reports’ to a higher office. There are also ‘industrial’ civil servants who work in The Royal Mint, the Property Services Agency.

Women make up nearly half of the number of civil service staff but they are concentrated at the bottom of the hierarchy in clerical and secretarial posts.

Despite the reputation of civil servants for honesty and sense of public duty, the service suffers from inertia, rigid rules, inefficiency, remoteness and self-preservation. There have been many attempts at reform. During the 18 years the reforms were refined and consolidated.

The changes have dramatically altered both the structure and function of the British Civil Service in the 1990s. We now look at these revolutionary reforms in four distinct areas:

  • First, changes in structure, with the break up of the civil service hierarchy into Next Step Agencies (they called so because they were the ‘next step’ in a continuing programme of civil service reform. They are headed by Chief Executives who are given control over their recruitment, pay grading and structure, and they operate within a broad framework of objectives, budgets and performance targets set by ministers.);

  • Second, changes in function, with the impact of ‘new public management’ replacing the traditional public administration;

  • Third, change in ownership, with the impact of markets and privatization in the civil service;

  • Fourth, changes in culture, with the replacement of public service ethics with managerial values.

МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА ПО РАБОТЕ С ТЕКСТОМ


The British Civil Service”

(для студентов среднего уровня)


Цель работы – обучение ознакомительному и просмотровому видам чтения.

Студенты выполняют упражнения, которые помогут извлечь содержащуюся в тексте основную информацию и использовать материал текста в соответствии с конкретным коммуникативным заданием.

Skimming Reading

    1. Read the text quickly and try to understand what it is about and what information is of primary importance or new to you.

    2. Write a list of international words used in the text.



  1. Scanning Reading

    1. Read the text again.

    2. Pick out an idea or a phrase, which you think is most informative or most interesting, from each part of the text.



  1. Vocabulary and Word Study

    1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text.



- to disqualify from - лишать права

- tenure - пребывание в должности

- impartiality - беспристрастность

- conformity - согласованность

- uniformity - единообразие

- cohesion - сплоченность

- in ad hoc manner - в специальной манере

- Permanent - непременный секретарь

- the Royal Mint - королевский монетный двор

- remoteness - слабость

- aptitude test - тест на пригодность



    1. Complete the following sentences by translating the words and phrases in brackets.

  1. Civil servants (лишены права) being elected either to the House of Commons or the European Assembly.

  2. It was established as career service, in which people expected to (остаются на этом посту до конца своей жизни).

  3. The senior civil service in particular is regarded as a (пожизненной профессией).

  4. Consequently, the service was characterised by (согласованностью, единообразием, сплоченностью).

  5. These departments have developed (в специальной манере).

  6. Some smaller departments were (слились) giant departments.

  7. The service suffers from (инертности, жестких правил, бездейственности, слабости и самосохранения).

    1. Find the related nouns in the text.

to persuade - to secure- to govern –

to grow - to develop- to employ –

to recruite - to judge - to train –

to conform - to defend - to account –

to manage - to argue - to promote –

to alter - to own - to perform –

    1. Find the related adjectives in the text.

answer - minister - extension –

tradition - respect - management –

clerk - secretary - revolution –

hierarchy –

    1. Find the related nouns in the text.



ПРИМЕРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ ДОКЛАДОВ

НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ


6-я неделя семестра


  1. Hammurabi’s Code of Laws.

  2. Laws of Babylon.

  3. The Foundation of the British Law: The Great Charter (Magna Carta) 1215.

  4. The Foundation of the British Law: Habeas Corpus Act.

  5. The Petition of Right (1628).

  6. The Bill of Rights (1689).

  7. Code of Napoleon.

  8. The US Declaration of Independence (1776).

  9. The US Bill of Rights (1791).

  10. The US Presidents.

  11. The System of Checks and Balances in the USA.

  12. Jury Service – an Important Job and a Rewarding Experience.


12-я неделя семестра


  1. Famous Crimes and Criminals.

  2. The Purpose of State Punishment.

  3. Capital Punishment: History. For and Against.

  4. The History of Police Forces.

  5. Penal and Correctional Institutions throughout History.

  6. European Prison Rules (1990s).

  7. Women in Law.

  8. Philosophers of Law.

  9. Criminology and Criminalistics.


17-я неделя семестра


  1. Growth of International Law.

  2. Law and Economic Crimes in Europe.

  3. .Are you suited to being a lawyer?

  4. Adam Smith on the Laws of Property.

  5. Body Parts: Property Rights and the Ownership of Human Biological Materials.

  6. Protecting Intellectual Property.

  7. Home Ownership in Different Forms.

  8. Ownership of Property in the Soviet Union and Russia.

  9. The US Complete Internal Revenue Code.

  10. Comparison of the Institutions and Rules of the Russian Civil Code with their Foreign Analogues (the US Civil Code).
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