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DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS, III SEMESTER.
Special paper
Total Marks 600 Choice Based Paper for other Departments in University Campus Only
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION Theory pass minimum 40% Practical pass minimum 50% Aggregate 50% SCHEME OF INSTRUCTION :Teaching Hours 4 Periods per weekTutorial 1 Period per weekPractical 6 Periods per weekDEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS ANDHRA UNIVERSITY M.Sc. Physics III Semester (w.e.f 200910 batch) P301: SOLID SATE PHYSICS. UNITI: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE: 14 Hrs Periodic array of atoms—Lattice translation vectors and lattices, symmetry operations, The Basis and the Crystal Structure, Primitive Lattice cell, Fundamental types of lattices—Two Dimensional lattice types, three Dimensional lattice types, Index system for crystal planes, simple crystal structures sodium chloride, cesium chloride and diamond structures. UNITII: CRYSTAL DIFFRACTION AND RECIPROCAL LATTICE: 14 Hrs Bragg’s law, Experimental diffraction methods Laue method and powder method, Derivation of scattered wave amplitude, indexing pattern of cubic crystals and noncubic crystals (analytical methods). Geometrical StructureFactor, Determination of number of atoms in a cell and position of atoms. Reciprocal lattice, Brillouin Zone, Reciprocal lattice to bcc and fcc Lattices. UNITIII: PHONONS AND LATTICE VIBRATIONS: 6 Hrs Vibrations of monoatomic lattices, First Brillouin Zone, Group velocity, Long wave length, Lattice with two atoms per primitive cell, Quantization of Lattice VibrationsPhonon momentum. FREE ELECTRON FERMI GAS: 6 Hrs Energy levels and density of orbitals in one dimension, Free electron gas in 3 dimensions, Heat capacity of the electron gas, Experimental heat capacity of metals, Motion in Magnetic Fields Hall effect, Ratio of thermal to electrical conductivity. UNITIV: THE BAND THEORY OF SOLIDS: 10 Hrs . Nearly free electron model, Origin of the energy gap, The Block Theorem, KronigPenny Model, wave equation of electron in a periodic potential, Crystal momentum of an electronApproximate solution near a zone boundary, Number of orbitals in a bandmetals and isolators. The distinction between metals, insulators and semiconductors TEXT BOOKS: 1.Introdcution to Solid State Physics, C.Kittel, 5^{th} edition, 2.Solid State Physics, A.J.DEKKER. ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS III Semester (w.e.f 200910 batch) P302: Lasers and Fiber opticsUNITI LASER SYSTEMS :Light Amplification and relation between Einstein A and B Coefficients. Rate equations for three level and four level systems. Laser systems: Ruby laser, NdYAG laser, CO_{2} Laser, Dye laser, Excimer laser, Semiconductor laser. UNIT – II: LASER CAVITY MODES: Line shape function and Full Width at half maximum (FWHM) for Natural broadening, Collision broadening, Doppler broadening, Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and Transverse modes. ABCD matrices and cavity Stability criteria for confocal resonators. Quality factor, QSwitching, Mode Locking in lasers. Expression for Intensity for modes oscillating at random and modes locked in phase. Methods of QSwitching and Mode locking. UNITIII OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES : Basic optical laws and Self focusing. Optical fiber modes and configurations Fiber types, Rays and Modes, Stepindex fiber structure. Ray optics representation, wave representation. Mode theory of circular stepindex wave guides. Wave equation for stepindex fibers, modes in stepindex fibers and power flow in stepindex fibers. Graded – index fiber structure, Gradedindex numerical aperture, modes in Gradedindex fibers. UNITIV FIBER CHARACTERISTICS : Signal Degradation In Fibers  Attenuation, Absorption, Scattering and Bending losses in fibers, radiative losses, Core and Cladding losses. Signal distortion in optical wave guides: Group delay, material dispersion, waveguide dispersion and intermodal dispersion. Pulse broadening in optical fibers. Power launching in Optical fibers, Sourceoutput pattern, Lensing schemes. Fibertofiber joints: Mechanical misalignment, fiber related losses, Fiber and face preparation. fiber splicing techniques, fiber connectors. TEXT BOOKS:1. Lasers Theory and Applications – K.Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak. (MacMillan) 2. Optical fiber Communications – Gerd Keiser (Mc GrawHill) REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Laser fundamentals – William T. Silfvast (Cambridge) 2. Introduction to fiber optics – Ajoy Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan (Cambridge) 3. Optical Electronics – Ajoy Ghatak and K.Thyagarajan (Cambridge) 4. Opto electronics – J. Wilson and J.F.B. Hawkes (Printice Hall) ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS, SPACE PHYSICS III Semester (w.e.f 200910 batch) P303, SP303: Digital Electronics & Microprocessors (Common for M.Sc.Space Physics and M.Sc.Physics) UNIT  IDigital Circuits (i) Number Systems and Codes: Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal number systems, Gray code, BCD code, ASCII code.(ii) Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra: OR, AND, NOT, NOR, NAND gates, Boolean theorems, DeMorgan laws.II) Combinational Logic Circuits: (i) Simplification of Boolean Expressions: Algebraic method, Karnaugh Map method, EXOR, EXNOR gates, ENCODER, DECODER, Multiplexer, Demultiplexers. (ii) Digital Arithmetic Operations and Circuits: Binary addition, Design of Adders and Subtractors, Parallel binary adder, IC parallel adder.(iii) Applications of Boolean Algebra: Magnitude Comparator, Parity generator, Checker, Code converter, Sevensegment decoder/ Driver display. UNIT  II Sequential Logic Circuits:(i) FlipFlops and Related Devices: NAND latch, NOR latch, Clocked flipflops, Clocked SC flipflop, JK flipflop, D flipflop, D latch, Asynchronous inputs, Timing problem in flipflops.(ii) Counters: Asynchronous counters (Ripple), Counters with MOD number < 2^{N}, Asynchronous down counter, Synchronous counters, Updown counter, Presettable counter. (iii) Registers: Shift Register, Integrated Circuit registers, Parallel In Parallel Out (PIPO), SISO, SIPO, PISO (iv) Applications of Counters: Frequency Counter and Digital clock. A/D and D/A Converter Circuits: D/A Converter, Linear weighted and ladder type, An integrated circuit DAC; AnalogtoDigital Conversion, Digital Ramp ADC, Successive Approximation Method, Sample and Hold Circuit, Digital Voltmeter. UNIT  III Intel 8085 Microprocessor: Architecture, Functional diagram, Pin description, Timing Diagram of Read Cycle, Timing diagram of write Cycle. Programming the 8085 Microprocessor: (i) Addressing Methods, Instruction set, Assembly language programming. (ii) Examples of Assembly Language Programming: Simple Arithmetic  Addition/Subtraction of two 8bit/16bit numbers, Addition of two decimal numbers, Masking of digits, word disassembly. (iii) Programming using Loops: Sum of series of 8bit numbers, Largest element in the array, Multiple byte addition, Delay subroutine. UNIT  IV Data Transfer Technique: Serial transfer, Parallel transfer, Synchronous, Asynchronous, DMA transfer, Interrupt driven Data transfer. 8085 Interfacing: I/O Interfacing: Programmable Peripheral Interfacing, 8255, Programmable Peripheral Interval Timer 8253, Programmable Communication Interface 8251, DAC 0800 and ADC 0800 interfacing. TEXT & REFERENCE BOOKS:
P.R.Sridhar
8085 /8080A” – Ramesh. S. Gaonkar. ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc.^{ }PHYSICS AND M.Sc. SPACE PHYSICS III Semester (w.e.f 200910 batch) (Common for M.Sc. Space Physics and M.Sc. Physics) P304 , SP 304  RADAR SYSTEMS & SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONUNIT  I Radar Systems: Fundamental – A simple RADAR – overview of frequencies – Antenna gain Radar Equation – Accuracy and Resolution – Integration time and the Doppler shift (Ch 1 of Text Book 1) Designing a surveillance radar – Rader and surveillance – Antenna beam – width consideration – pulse repetition frequency – unambiguous range and velocity – pulse length and sampling – radar cross section – clutter noise (Ch 2 of Text Book 1) Tracking Radar – Sequential lobbing – conial scanning – Monopoles Radar – Tracking accuracy and Process – Frequency Agility – Radar guidance (Ch3 of Text Book 1) UNIT  II Signal and Data Processing – Properties of clutter – Moving Target Indicator Processing Shareholding – Plot extraction – Tract Association, Initiation and Tracking (Ch 5 of Text Book 1) Radar Antenna – Antenna parameters – Antenna Radiation Pattern and aperture distribution – Parabolic reflector – cosecant squared antenna pattern – effect of errors on radiation pattern – Stabilization of antennas (Ch7 of Text Book 2). UNIT  III Satellite Communication Satellite System – Historical development of satellites – communication satellite systems – communication satellites – orbiting satellites – satellite frequency bands – satellite multiple access formats (Ch1 of Text Book 3). Satellite orbits and inclination – Look angles, orbital perturbations, space craft and its subsystems – attitude and orbit control system – Telemetry, Tracking and Command – Power system – Transponder – Reliability and space qualification – launch vehicles (Ch2 & 3 of Text Book 4) UNIT  IV Multiple Access Techniques – Time division multiple access – Frequency division multiple access – Code division multiple access – Space domain multiple access (Ch 7 of Text Book 4). Earth Station technology – Subsystem of an earth station – Transmitter – Receiver Tracking and pointing – Small earth station – different types of earth stations – Frequency coordination – Basic principles of special communication satellites – INMARSAT VSAT, GPS, RADARSAT, INTELST (Ch 10 & 11 of Text Book 4). Text Books:
ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS AND M.Sc. SPACE PHYSICS III Semester (w.e.f 200910 batch) P 305 : DIGITAL ELECTONICS LabI Digital electronics 1. Verification of Gates: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX –OR, EX – NOR gates 2. Encoder and Decoder 3 Multiplexer and De multiplexer 4. Adders: Half adder, Full Adder, Paraller Adder 5. Flip Flops ( 7400,7402,7408,7446) 6 Decade Counter (IC 7490) 7. Seven segment Decoder/ Driver (7490,7447) 8 .UP/DOWN Counter IC 74193 9. Digital Comparator ( 7485) 10 Micrprocessor 8085 Addition/ subtraction of 8 bit numbers Sum of series of 8 – bit numbers ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS III Semester (w.e.f 200910 batch) P 306: PRACTICALS : Solid State Physics LabLIST OF EXPERIMENTS (Any six of the following) 1. LATIC DYNAMICS – STUDY OF PHONON DISPERSION CHARACTERESTICS. 2. DETERMINATION OF DIELECTRIC CONSTANTDETERMINATION OF GUIDE WAVELENGTH OF AN XBAND TEST BENCH AND DETERMINATION OF DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF BENZENE. 3. HALL EFFECT: DETERMINATION OF HALL COEFFICIENT AND ESTIMATION OF CARRIER CONCENTRATION 4. ESR STUDIES AND DPPH DETERMINATION OF ‘G’ VALUE OF AN ELECTRON
10.STUDY OF MAGNETIC HYSTERESIS LOOPS OF FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS (BH CURVE) Department of Physics, A.U ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES (Choice Based Paper to be offered in the Dept., of Physics during 3^{rd} Semester for Other Dept., students in AU Campus only) (W.e.f. 2009 – 2010 admitted batch) Unit I Concepts of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, wave and particle properties of electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, absorption laws, electronic transitions, optical and molecular spectra, molecular energies, Raman spectra, photoelectric effect, photoelectric cells, Compton effect, radiation sources, detectors, lasers References : 1)Instrumental methods of analysis, Willard, Merritt, Dean, Settle (CBS Pub.) 2)Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, H. Kaur (Pragati Prakasan Pub.) Unit II : Ultrasonic techniques Acoustic Plane wavesElastic behavior of fluids, plane wave equation, velocity of sound in fluids, energy density acoustic intensity, specific acoustic impedance. Transmission phenomenontransmission from one fluid medium to another reflection at the surface of a solid, transmission through three media normal incidence and oblique incidence. Resonators & filters Helmholtz resonator, acoustic impedance, acoustic analogue. Ultrasonic & sonar transducerspiezoelectric effect equivalent electrical circuit, generalized theory, quality factor, piezoelectric relations. Architectural acousticsclassical Ray theory decay of sound in live room & dead rooms. Applications of Ultrasonics References: 1)Fundamentals of AcousticsKinsler & Fray Wiley Eastern.Limited 2) Ultrasonics , Jack Blitz 3) Physical UltrasonicsBeyer & Letcher Academic Press Unit III : Magnetic Resonance Techniques 1)Electron Spin Resonance: Basic Concepts, gfactor and nuclear hyperfine interaction,, essential features of an ESR spectrometer, Applications of ESR: in Physical Sciences and biological systems. 2)Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Basic principles, continuous wave and pulsed NMR, Fourier Transform NMR, measurement of spin lattice and spin spin relaxation times, proton and C13 NMR, basic pulsed Fourier Transform NMR spectrometer, 2D NMR, applications of NMR in physical and biological sciences, basic features of MRI. 3)Nuclear quadrupole resonance: Basic principle and applications References 1)Electron Paramagnetic Resonance : Elementary Theory and ractical Applications, J.A.Weil, J.R.Bolton and J.E.Wertz (Wiley) N.Y, 1994 2) Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions, R.R.Ernst, G.Bodenhausen and A.Wokun,(Oxford)1987 (3)Basics of NMR, Joseph. P. Hornack, Free Online Text (4)Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Constants, E.A.C. Lucken (A.P ) 1969 Unit IV : Structural characterization techniques Xray diffraction, indexing pattern of cubic crystals and noncubic crystals (analytical methods), crystal structure identification and determination of lattice parameters. Fundamentals of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), major components in SEM and TEM, study of crystal structure using TEM, study of microstructure using SEM. References : 1)Elements of Xray Diffraction, B.D. Cullity, AddisonWesley Publishing Co. Inc., USA (1977). 2)Physical Methods of Materials Characterization (Second Edition), PEJ Flewitt and RK Wild, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK. ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS, IV SEMESTER.
Special paper
Total marks 600 SCHEME OF EXAMINATION Theory pass minimum 40% Practical pass minimum 50% Aggregate 50% SCHEME OF INSTRUCTION :Teaching Hours 4 Periods per weekTutorial 1 Period per weekPractical 6 Periods per weekANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS. IV ^{ }SEMESTER (w.e.f 20092010 admitted batch) P401: ADVANCED QUANTUM MECHANICS . UNIT  I Linear Vector Spaces in Quantum Mechanics: Vectors and operators, change of basis, Dirac’s bra and ket notations. Eigen value problem for operators. The continuous spectrum. Application to wave mechanics in one dimension. (Merzbacher Sec. 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7) UNIT  II Quantum Dynamics : The equation of motion, Quantization postulates, canonical quantization, Constants of motion and invariance properties. Heisenberg picture. Harmonic Oscillator. (Merzbacher . Sec. 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.6, 15.7) UNIT  III Development of timedependent perturbation theory. The golden rule for constant transistion rates. (Merzbacher. Chapter. 18 relevent parts) Addition of two angular momenta. Tensor operators. WignerEckart theorem. Matrix elements of vector operators. Parity and time reversal symmetries. (Merzbacher . Section. 16.6, 16.8, 16.10, 16.11) UNIT  IV Scattering: Concept of differential crosssection. Scattering of a wave packet. Born approximation. Partial waves and phase shift analysis. (Merzbacher. Section. 11.1, 11.2, 11.4, 11.5) . Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Klein – Gordon equation, Dirac equation for a free particle, Equation of continuity, Spin of a Dirac particle, Solutions of free particle Dirac equation, Negative energy states and hole theory TEXT BOOKS: 1. “ Quantum Mechanics” by R.D. Ratna Raju 2.“Quantum Mechanics “ by E. Merzbacher Reference Books: 1.” Quantum Mechanics” by Thankappan 2. “Quantum Mechanics” by Biswas ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS IV ^{ }SEMESTER (w.e.f 20092010 batch) P.402 : PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS UNIT  I THERMAL PROPERTIES: Anharmonic crystal interactionsthermal expansion, thermal conductivity, lattice thermal resistivity, umklapp processes, and imperfections. OPTICAL PROPERTIES : Lattice Vacancies, Diffusion, Color Centers—F Centers, other centers in alkali halides, Alloys, Orderdisorder transformations, Elementary theory of Order. UNIT  II MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Fundamentals of Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, study of crystal structure using TEM, study of microstructure using SEM. UNIT  III RESONANCE METHODS: Spin and an applied field—the nature of spinning particles, interaction between spin and a magnetic field, population of energy levels, the Larmor precession, relaxation times—spin spin relation, spinlattice relaxation, Electron Spin Resonance: Introduction, gfactor, experimental methods. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance—equations of motion, line width, motional narrowing, hyperfine splitting, Nuclear Gamma Ray Resonance: Principles of Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Line Width, Resonance absorption, Mossbauer Spectrometer, Isomer Shift, Quadrupole Splitting, magnetic field effects, Applications. UNIT  IV 5ELECTRICAL AND MAGENTIC CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES: DC & AC Conductivity, Curie temperature, Saturation Magnetization and Susceptibility OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY: Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy and Applications. TEXT BOOKS: Solid State Physics, 5^{th} edition, C.Kittel Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy CN Banwell Mossbauer Effect and its Applications VG Bhide . ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc PHYSICS, and SPACE PHYSICS IV ^{ }SEMESTER (w.e.f 20092010 batch) P 403 , SP 403 COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS (Common for M.Sc. Space Physics and M.Sc Physics) UNIT 1. CW Modulation: Amplitude Modulation (AM): 8 periods Introduction, Amplitude modulation, modulation index, Frequency spectrum, Average powerfor sinusoidal AM, Amplitude modulator and demodulator circuits, Double side band suppressed carrier ( DSBSC) Modulation, Super heterodyne receiver. Single Side Band Modulation (SSB): 4 periods SSB principles, Balanced Modulator, SSB generationAngle Modulation: 8 periods Frequency modulation (FM), sinusoidal FM, Frequency spectrum for sinusoidal FMfrequency deviation, modulation index, Average power in sinusoidal FM, FM generation Phase Modulation: Equivalence between PM and FM, FM detectors: Slope detector, Balanced slope detector, Foster – Seley discriminator, Ratio detector, Amplitude limiter, FM receiver. UNIT 2. Pulse Modulation: Digital Line Codes: Symbols, Functional notation for pulses, Line codes and wave forms: RZ, NRZ, Polar, Unipolar, AMI , HDBn and Manchester codes, Mary encoding, Differential encoding 8 periods Sampling theorem, Principles of pulse Amplitude Modulation ( PAM) and Pulse Time Modulation( PTM) ,Pulse code modulation ( PCM), quantization, Nonlinear quantization, companding, differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), Delta Modulation(DM) . Digital Carrier Systems: 8 periods ASK, PSK, FSK and DPSKUNIT 3. Special Communication Circuits : 6 periods Tuned amplifiers :Single tuned amplifierHybrid π – equivalent for the BJT, Short circuitcurrent gain for the BJT in CE and CB amplifiers, CE and CB tuned amplifiers,Cascode amplifier.Mixer Circuits : Diode mixer, IC balanced mixer. Filters : Active filters, Ceramic, Mechanical and crystal filters. Oscillators: Crystal oscillator, Voltage controlled oscillator, phase locked loop( PLL). UNIT 4. Noise in Communication Systems: 8 periods Thermal Noise, Shot Noise, Partition noise, Signal  to – Noise ratio, Noise factor, Amplifier input noise in terms of F, Noise factor of amplifiers in cascade (Friss formula), Noise temperature, Noise in AM, Noise in FM systems. Noise in pulse modulation systems: Intersymbol interference (ISI) , eye diagrams. Text Books: 1. Electronic Communications D. Roody and John Coolin 2. Electronic Communications Systems G. Kennedy 3. Modern Analog & Digital Communications B.P. Lathi. ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS and M.Sc. SPACE PHYSICS,IV ^{ }SEMESTER (w.e.f 20092010 batch) (Common for M.Sc. Space Physics and M.Sc Physics) P404 , SP404 : ANTENNA THEORY AND RADIOWAVE PROPAGATIONUNIT  I RadiationPotential functions of electro magnetic fields. Potential function for sinusoidal oscillations. Fields radiated by an alternating current element. Power radiated by a current element and radiation resistance. Radiation from a quarter wave monopole or a half wave dipole. EM field close to an antenna and far field approximation. (Chapter 10 in Jordan and Balmain 6 Hrs. Antenna FundamentalsDefinition of an antenna. Antenna properties – radiation pattern, gain, directive gain and directivity. Effective area. Antenna beam width and band width. Directional properties of dipole antennas. (Chapter 11 in Jordan and Balmain and Chapter 2 in Kraus) 6 Hrs. UNIT  IIAntenna ArraysTwo element array. Linear arrays. Multiplication of patterns and binomial array. Effect of Earth on vertical patterns. Mathematical theory of linear arrays. Antenna synthesis – Tchebycheff polynomial method. Wave polarization. (Chapter 11 and 12 in Jordan and Balmain and Chapter 4 in Kraus) 12 Hrs. ImpedanceAntenna terminal impedance. Mutual impedance between two antennas. Computation of mutual impedance. Radiation resistance by induced emf method. Reactance of an antenna. Biconcal antenna and its impedance. (Chapter 14 in Jordan and Balmain and Chapters 8.1 –8.5 in Kraus) 6 Hrs. UNIT  IIIFrequency Independent (FI) AntennasFrequency Independence concept. Equiangular spiral. Log Periodic (LP) antennas. Array theory of LP and FI structures. (Chapter 15 in Jordan and Balmain and Chapter 15 in Kraus) 4 Hrs. Methods of excitation and Practical AntennasMethods of excitation and stub matching and baluns. Folded dipole, loop antennas. Parasitic elements and YagiUda arrays and Helical antenna. Complementary screens and slot antennas. Radiation from a rectangular horn antenna. ( Chapter11.15 in Jordan and Balmain and Chapters 6.1 – 6.4 ,7.1 – 7.8 and 13 in Kraus) 10 Hrs. UNIT  IVRadio Wave PropagationElements of Ground wave and Space wave propagation. Tropospheric propagation and Troposcatter. Fundamentals of Ionosphere. Sky wave propagation – critical frequency, MUF and skip distance. (Chapter 16 and 17 in Jordan and Balmain) 6 Hrs. BOOKS1.”Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems” by E.C.Jordan and K.G.Balmain 2.”Antennas” by J.D.Kraus. (Second Edition) ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc PHYSICS, IV ^{ }SEMESTER (w.e.f 20092010 batch) P 405 : MICROPROCESSOR LAB1.Decimal addition of 8 – bit numbers 2 Addition of two 16 – bit numbers 3 Multibyte addition 4.Sum of series of 16 – bit numbers 5.Word Disaasembly 6. Largest number in an array 7. Ascending order of array of 8  bit number 8. Interfacing of 8255 PPI: generation of square wave and rectangular waves 9. Interfacing of 8253 programmble timer: Mode 1, Mode2, Mode3, Mode 4, Mode5 10 0800 DAC interfacing : generation of square, triangular and stair case wave forms ANDHRA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS M.Sc. PHYSICS IV ^{ }SEMESTER (w.e.f 20092010 batch) P 406 : COMMUNICATION LAB LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
17. MEASUREMENT OF GAIN ,FRONT TO BACK RATIO,BEAM WIDTH OF RADIATION PATTERN IN HALF WAVE DIPOLE 18.FIVE ELEMENT YAGI UDA ANTENNA 19.HELICAL ANTENNA 20.CUT –PARABOIDAL REFLECTOR ANTENNA 