Emerging Research Materials




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International
Technology Roadmap
for
Semiconductors


2009 Edition


Emerging Research Materials


The ITRS is devised and intended for technology assessment only and is without regard to any commercial considerations pertaining to individual products or equipment.


Table of Contents

Emerging Research Materials 1

Scope 1

Difficult Challenges 1

Introduction 3

Emerging Research Device Materials 3

Emerging Logic Materials 3

Emerging Memory Materials 17

Complex Metal Oxide Material Challenges 19

Lithography Materials 20

Resist Materials 20

EUV Resist 23

Directed Self Assembly for Lithography Extension 24

Emerging Front End Processes’ and Process Integration, Devices, and Structures’ Material Challenges and Options 26

Doping and Deposition 26

Directed Self Assembly of Useful Nanomaterials (See the Lithography Section Discussion). 27

Selective Etch and Clean/Surface Preparation 27

Selective Etch 28

Clean/Surface Preparation 28

Emerging FEP and PIDS Material and Structural Challenges and Options 28

Interconnects 28

Copper Extension Materials 28

Novel Interconnects 29

Cu and Silicide Nanowire Interconnects and Vias 31

Low κ Interlevel Dielectric 31

Assembly and Package 32

Materials For Low Temperature and Hierarchical Assembly 32

Polymer Materials For Future Packaging 33

Low Dimensional Materials For Future Packaging 35

Environment, Safety, and Health 35

Metrology 36

Characterization and Imaging of Nano-Scale Structures and Composition 36

Metrology Needs for Interfaces and Embedded Nano-Structures325, 326 36

Characterization of Vacancies and Defects in Nano-Scale Structures327 37

Wafer Level Mapping of Properties of Nanoscale ERM326, 328-331 37

Metrology Needs for Simultaneous Spin and Electrical Measurements332-337 37

Metrology Needs for Complex Metal Oxide Systems338-343 37

Metrology for Molecular Devices 38

Metrology Needs for Macromolecular Materials347-355 38

Metrology Needs for Directed Self-Assembly356-363 38

Modeling and Analysis of Probe-Sample Interactions 38

Metrology Needs for Ultra-Scaled Devices364-367 38

Metrology for ERM Environmental Safety and Health 38

Modeling and Simulation 38

Synthesis 40

Structure and Properties 40

Metrology and Characterization 41

References 42

List of Figures

List of Tables

Table ERM1 Emerging Research Materials Difficult Challenges 2

Table ERM2 Applications of Emerging Research Materials 3

Table ERM3 Challenges for ERM in Alternate Channel Applications 4

Table ERM4 Alternate Channel Material Properties 4

Table ERM5 Spin Material Properties 11

Table ERM6 ERM Memory Material Challenges 18

Table ERM7 Challenges for Lithography Materials 20

Table ERM8 FEP / PIDS Challenges for Self Assembly 26

Table ERM9 Interconnect Material Challenges 29

Table ERM10 Nanomaterial Interconnect Material Properties 30

Table ERM11 Assembly and Packaging ERM Challenges 32

Table ERM12 ITWG Earliest Potential ERM Insertion Opportunity Matrix 36



Emerging Research Materials

Scope

This chapter provides the material research community with guidance on specific research challenges that must be addressed in a laboratory setting for an emerging family of candidate materials to warrant consideration as a viable ITRS solution. Each international technology working group (ITWG) has identified needs for new materials to meet future technology requirements and assessed the potential for low dimensional materials (carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanowires, graphitic systems, and nanoparticles), macromolecules, self-directed assembled materials, spin materials, complex metal oxides, and selected interfaces. For these emerging materials, this chapter presents requirements for materials, processes, interfaces, and supporting metrology, modeling, and simulation. In the 2009 ERM, we include a critical assessment of alternate channel materials for CMOS extension. To enable this assessment, the ITRS ERM is being restructured focus on applications where different materials for the same application will be discussed in the same section. In addition, the ERM includes results of a joint ERD-ERM assessment of beyond CMOS technologies needing increased focus to accelerate progress.

The scope of emerging research materials (ERM) covers materials properties, synthetic methods, metrology, and modeling required to support future emerging research devices (ERD), lithography, front end process (FEP), interconnects, and assembly and package (A&P) needs. For ERD memory and logic devices, the scope includes planar III-V, Ge, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphitic materials, spin materials, and complex metal oxides. Furthermore, the special assessment of beyond CMOS logic identified that carbon based (carbon nanotubes and graphene) materials and devices receive increased focus, so a potential solutions table is included. Some of the evolutionary and some of the revolutionary ERD can be fabricated with conventional materials and process technologies that are already covered in other sections of the ITRS, so the ERM chapter will not cover these materials and processes. Emerging lithographic materials include novel molecules, macromoloecules, and mechanisms that exhibit the potential to enable ultimate feature patterning with resist, or self assembled technologies. FEP materials include ERM required for future device technologies including technologies to place dopants in predetermined locations (deterministic doping) as well as novel materials to support selective etch, deposition, and cleaning of future technologies. Interconnect materials include emerging materials for extending Cu interconnects (novel ultrathin barriers), novel low resistance sub-20 nm electrical contacts, interconnects, vias, and ultra-low κ inter level dielectrics (ILD). Assembly and Packaging materials include novel materials to enable reliable electrical and thermal interconnects, polymers with unique and potentially useful combinations of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties, and ultra-high power density high speed capacitors.

This year’s ERM chapter includes the following material families: III-V and Ge materials, low dimensional materials, macromolecules, self assembly mechanisms and self-assembled materials, spin materials, interfaces, complex metal oxides, and heterointerfaces. Many of these materials exhibit potential to address projected requirements in multiple application areas. Table ERM2 in the Introduction section maps families of ERMs to potential applications identified by the above Focus ITWGs. Future editions of this chapter also will comprehend and evolve projected ERM requirements for targeted functional diversification related applications.

Difficult Challenges

The Difficult Challenges for Emerging Research Materials is summarized in Table ERM1. Perhaps ERM’s most difficult challenge is to deliver material options, with controlled and desired properties, in time to impact insertion decisions. These material options must demonstrate the potential to enable high density emerging research devices, lithographic technologies, interconnect fabrication and operation at the nanometer scale, and packaging options. This challenge, to improve the control of material properties for nanometer (nm) scale applications, requires collaboration and coordination within the research community. Accelerated synthesis, metrology, and modeling initiatives are needed to enhance targeted material-by-design capabilities and enable viable emerging material technologies. Improved metrology and modeling tools also are needed to guide the evolution of robust synthetic methods for these emerging nanomaterials. The success of many ERMs depend on robust synthetic methods that yield useful nanostructures, with the required control of composition, morphology, an integrated set of application specific properties, and compatibility with manufacturable technologies.

To achieve high density devices and interconnects, ERMs must assemble in precise locations, with controlled directions, dimensions, and compositions. Another critical ERM factor for improving emerging device, interconnect, and package technologies is the ability to characterize and control embedded interface properties. As features approach the nanometer scale, fundamental thermodynamic stability considerations and fluctuations may limit the ability to fabricate nanomaterials with tight dimensional distributions and controlled useful material properties. For novel nanometer scale materials emerging within the research environment, methodologies and data also must be developed that enable the hierarchical assessment of the potential environment, safety, and health impact of new nanomaterials and nanostructures.

The difficult challenges listed in Table ERM1 may limit the progress of the emerging research materials considered in this chapter. Significant methodology development is needed that enables material optimization and projected performance analysis in different device structures and potential application environments. Hence, the importance of significant collaboration between the synthesis, characterization, and modeling communities cannot be over stated. Material advances require an understanding of the interdependent relationships between synthetic conditions, the resulting composition and nanostructure, and their impact on the material’s functional performance. Thus, characterization methods must be sufficient to establish quantitative relationships between composition, structure, and functional properties. Furthermore, it must enable model validation and help to accelerate the design and optimization of the required materials properties. The need for validated models requires strong alignment between experimentalists and theorists when establishing a knowledge base to accelerate the development of ERM related models and potential applications.

Table ERM1 Emerging Research Materials Difficult Challenges

Difficult Challenges ≤16nm

Summary of Issues

Integration of alternate channel materials with high performance

III-V has high electron mobility, but low hole mobility

Germanium has high hole mobility, but electron mobility is not as high as III-V materials

Demonstration of high mobility n and p channel alternate channel materials co-integrated with high κ dielectric

Demonstration of high mobility n and p channel carbon (graphene or carbon nanotubes) FETs with high on-off ratio co-integrated with high κ dielectric and low resistance contacts

Selective growth of alternate channel materials in desired locations with controlled properties and directions on silicon wafers (III-V, Graphene, Carbon nanotubes and semiconductor nanowires)

Achieving low contact resistance to sub 16nm scale structures (graphene and carbon nanotubes)

Ge dopant thermal activation is much higher than III-V process temperatures

Growth of high κ dielectrics with unpinned Fermi Level in the alternate channel material

Control of nanostructures and properties

Ability to pattern sub 16nm structures in resist or other manufacturing related patterning materials (resist, imprint, self assembled materials, etc.)

Control of CNT properties, bandgap distribution and metallic fraction

Control of stoichiometry, disorder and vacancy composition in complex metal oxides

Control and identification of nanoscale phase segregation in spin materials

Control of surfaces and interfaces

Control of growth and heterointerface strain

Control of interface properties (e.g., electromigration)

Ability to predict nanocomposite properties based on a “rule of mixtures”

Data and models that enable quantitative structure-property correlations and a robust nanomaterials-by-design capability

Controlled assembly of nanostructures

Placement of nanostructures, such as CNTs, nanowires, or quantum dots, in precise locations for devices, interconnects, and other electronically useful components

Control of line width of self-assembled patterning materials

Control of registration and defects in self-assembled materials

Characterization of nanostructure-property correlations

Correlation of the interface structure, electronic and spin properties at interfaces with low-dimensional materials

Characterization of low atomic weight structures and defects (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphitic structures, etc.)

Characterization of spin concentration in materials

Characterization of vacancy concentration and its effect on the properties of complex oxides

3D molecular and nanomaterial structure property correlation

Characterization of properties of embedded interfaces and matrices

Characterization of the roles of vacancies and hydrogen at the interface of complex oxides and the relation to properties

Characterization of transport of spin polarized electrons across interfaces

Characterization of the structure and electrical interface states in complex oxides

Characterization of the electrical contacts of embedded molecule(s)

Fundamental thermodynamic stability and fluctuations of materials and structures

Geometry, conformation, and interface roughness in molecular and self-assembled structures

Device structure-related properties, such as ferromagnetic spin and defects

Dopant location and device variability



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