Analysis and design of novel wideband printed antennas for through-wall microwave imaging applications




НазваниеAnalysis and design of novel wideband printed antennas for through-wall microwave imaging applications
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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF NOVEL WIDEBAND PRINTED ANTENNAS FOR THROUGH-WALL MICROWAVE IMAGING APPLICATIONS





A Thesis


Presented to the Faculty of


The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Villanova University


In Partial Fulfillment


of the Requirements for the Degree of


Master of Electrical Engineering


By


Varadarajan Komanduri


July 21, 2005


Under the Direction of Dr. Ahmad Hoorfar


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor, Prof. Ahmad Hoorfar for his guidance, suggestions, encouragement, and financial support through the duration of this thesis. It’s a privilege for me to work under his supervision and be a member of his research group. A special thanks goes to Prof. Nader Engheta of the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania whose guidance and constant friendly advice, was vital to the completion of this project.


I would like to thank my fellow graduate student and friend Mr. John McVay for all the encouragement and support in the laboratory. I sincerely acknowledge the efforts and help put forth by him during the antenna / array measurements which is vital for this project. Also, I would like to thank Dr. Konstantin Yemelyanov of the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania for collecting the data from our EM group members and writing the timely technical reports besides his busy research schedule.


I would like to thank Prof. Moeness Amin, Dr. Fauzia Ahmad, and other members of the signal processing group for all the coordination, support and needful inputs required for the execution of this project.


I would also like to thank, Mr. Bill Ailes of General Dynamics, Mr. Paul Rush of NSWCCD, Philadelphia, and Mr. Frank Plonski of NAVSEA, Philadelphia for the hardware support, particularly, fabricating the antenna and array prototypes and also extending needful assistance during the antenna / array measurements.


I would like to thank Prof. Robert Caverly and Dr. Fauzia Ahmad for serving on my MS thesis committee.


I would like to thank our current ECE department chair, Prof. Pritpal Singh for approving my MS thesis.

I also remember our former ECE chair, the late Dr.S.S. Rao for all the academic support rendered during the course of my MSEE program.


I would like to thank Dr. Sudarshan Rao Nelatury, Penn State Univ., Erie, PA, for introducing me to such a wonderful group—Prof. Ahmad Hoorfar and his research group, which has actually paved the way for my career in EM research.


Last but not least, the support and encouragement from my room mates and friends is unforgettable.


Table of contents

1 INTRODUCTION 9

2 Novel Ultrabroadband Microstrip Antennas using modified shape patches 19

3 ANALYSIS OF LOW-PROFILE PRINTED ANTENNAS IN A THROUGH-WALL SCENARIO 50

4 antenna array considerAtions for twmi application 63

5 Dual- Feed Dual Polarized Broadband Microstrip Antennas 102

6 conclusions 138

Appendix A: Acronyms & Abbreviations 141

Appendix B: Plane wave interaction and Thru-wall analysis of a thick lossy dielectric wall 142


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. TWMI microstrip receive array 12

Figure 2. An artist rendering of portable TWMI system 12

Figure 3. Illustration of Polarization Difference Imaging (PDI) 16

Figure 4. E-shaped Microstrip antenna 20

Figure 5. Return loss and VSWR of the E-shaped patch 21

Figure 6. Gain (dB) patterns of the E-shaped patch antenna 22

Figure 7. Swept Gain (dB) of the E-shaped patch antenna 24

Figure 8. Dual stacked E-shaped patch antenna 25

Figure 9. Return loss and VSWR of DSEP 25

Figure 10. Gain (dB) patterns of DSEP 26

Figure 11. Swept Gain (dB) of DSEP 27

Figure 12. Return loss (dB) and input impedance of the lower E-shaped patch of DSEP 28

Figure 13. Effect of substrate thicknesses on the return loss and the input impedance behavior of DSEP 29

Figure 14. Multi-feed microstrip antenna designs 31

Figure 15. Elevation gain patterns and VSWR of Single and Dual feed designs 32

Figure 16. VSWR and Cross- polarization level (dB) of Dual and Tri- feed designs 33

Figure 17. Elevation Gain patterns (dB) of the Tri feed design 34

Figure 18. DFDS Microstrip Antenna 36

Figure 19. Return loss and VSWR of DFDS antenna 38

Figure 20. Gain (dB) patterns of DFDS antenna 39

Figure 21. Swept Gain (dB) of DFDS antenna 40

Figure 22. VSWR and Swept gain of fabricated E-shaped patch antenna prototype. 41

Figure 23. Elevation Gain (dB) patterns (E-plane) of fabricated E-patch 42

Figure 24. Elevation Gain (dB) patterns (H-plane) of fabricated E-patch 42

Figure 25. Elevation Gain (dB) patterns (X-pol, H-plane) of fabricated E-patch 43

Figure 26. VSWR and Swept gain of fabricated DSEP antenna prototype. 44

Figure 27. Elevation Gain (dB) patterns (E-plane) of fabricated DSEP 46

Figure 28. Elevation Gain (dB) patterns (H-plane) of fabricated DSEP 47

Figure 29. Elevation Gain (dB) patterns (X-pol, H-plane) of fabricated DSEP 48

Figure 30. Comparison of Designed Wideband Printed Antenna elements 49

Figure 31. Typical Antenna set up for the Through-the-Wall application 50

Figure 32. Overlay plots of VSWR of the E-shaped patch in the wall proximity for 4 different Wall-Antenna separations (d in wavelengths) 51

Figure 33. Swept Gain (dB) of E-shaped patch on the other side of the wall for d=λ/2 (optimal separation) 53

Figure 34. Gain (dB) patterns of the probe-fed E-shaped patch Antenna on the other side of wall for d = λ/2 (optimal separation) 53

Figure 35. Overlay plots of VSWR of DSEP in the wall proximity for 4 different Wall-Antenna separations (d in wavelengths) 54

Figure 36. Swept Gain (dB) of DSEP on the other side of the wall for d=λ/2 (optimal separation) 55

Figure 37 (a). Gain (dB) patterns of DSEP on the other side of wall for d = λ/2 (optimal separation) 56

Figure 38. Typical Antenna set up for the Through-the-Wall application 58

Figure 39. Overlay plots of measured VSWR of E- shaped patch in the wall proximity for 4 different Wall-Antenna separations (d in wavelengths) 59

Figure 40. Overlay plots of measured VSWR of DSEP in the wall proximity for 4 different Wall-Antenna separations (d in wavelengths) 60

Figure 41. Overlay plots of measured VSWR of DSEP in a 74mm thick plywood wall proximity for different Wall-Antenna separations (d in wavelengths) 61

Figure 42. Optimal separation 62

Figure 43. Geometry of a 2 element E-patch linear array. 64

Figure 44. Return Loss and Port Isolation (dB) of a 2 x 1 E-patch array. 65

Figure 45. Two element E-patch array with vertical flange separators. 66

Figure 46. Return Loss and Port Isolation (dB) of a 2 x 1 E-patch array. 67

Figure 47. Two element E-patch array (fine tuned) with vertical flange separators. 69

Figure 48. Return Loss and Port Isolation (dB) of a 2 x 1 E-patch array with 0.7 λo inter-element spacing. 71

Figure 49. Active element gain patterns (dB) of the 2 element E-patch array with 0.7 λo inter-element spacing. 71

Figure 50. Active element Swept Gain (dB) of the 2 element E-patch array with 0.7 λo inter-element spacing. 73

Figure 51. Layout of a 2 element DSEP array. 74

Figure 52. Return Loss and Port Isolation (dB) of a 2 x 1 DSEP array. 76

Figure 53 (a). Active element gain patterns (dB) of the 2 element DSEP array. 77

Figure 54. Active element Swept Gain (dB) of the 2 element DSEP array. 79

Figure 55. Layout of a 4 element DSEP array. 80

Figure 56. Return Loss and Port Isolation (dB) of 2 x 2 DSEP array for two different inter-element spacing. 81

Figure 57. Active element gain patterns (dB) for the DSEP sub-array with 0.65 λo inter-element spacing. 82

Figure 58. Typical Antenna Array set up for the TWMI application. 83

Figure 59. VSWR of one of the elements of the DSEP sub-array in the wall proximity. 84

Figure 60. Mutual coupling between the adjacent elements in the DSEP sub-array. 85

Figure 61. Active element Swept gain of the DSEP array in the wall proximity (d=1.25λo). 86

Figure 62. Layout of the DSEP 8 x 1 array and fabricated prototype 87

Figure 63. Return Loss and Port Isolation of the elements in 8 x 1 DSEP array 89

Figure 64 (a). Active element (element #1) gain patterns (dB) of the 8 x 1 DSEP sub-array. 90

Figure 65. Active element broadside swept gain (dB) of the 8 x 1 DSEP sub-array. 92

Figure 66 (a). Return Loss (dB) and Port Isolation (dB) of elements 1 & 2 in the array in the concrete block proximity. 94

Figure 67 (a). Return Loss (dB) and Port Isolation (dB) of elements 1 & 2 in the array in the plywood wall proximity 96

Figure 68. Sub-array aperture synthesis scheme 99

Figure 69. Mutual coupling analysis of a 2 x 2 array in isolation (free space) 100

Figure 70. Dual-polarized Antenna Design I. 104

Figure 71. Antenna Design I: Return loss (dB) and Polarization Isolation (dB) at the input ports. 104

Figure 72 (a). Antenna Design I : Gain patterns (dB) when both ports excited 105

Figure 73. Dual-polarized Antenna Design II. 107

Figure 74. Antenna Design II: Return loss (dB) and Polarization Isolation (dB) at the input ports. 108

Figure 75 (a). Antenna Design II : Gain patterns (dB) when both ports excited 108

Figure 76. Dual-polarized Antenna Design III. 110

Figure 77. Antenna Design III: Return loss (dB) and Polarization Isolation (dB) at the input ports. 111

Figure 78. Antenna Design III : Gain patterns (dB) when both ports excited 112

Figure 79. Dual-polarized Antenna Design IV. 113

Figure 80. Antenna Design IV: Return loss (dB) and Polarization Isolation (dB) at the input ports. 114

Figure 81 (a). Antenna Design IV : Gain patterns (dB) when both ports excited 114

Figure 82. Dual-polarized Antenna Design V. 116

Figure 83. Antenna Design V: Return loss (dB) and Polarization Isolation (dB) at the input ports. 117

Figure 84 (a). Antenna Design V : Gain patterns (dB) when both ports excited (in-phase) 118

Figure 85 (a). Antenna Design V : Gain patterns (dB) when both ports excited (180° out-of- phase excitation) 119

Figure 86 . Dual polarized Aperture coupled Stacked Patch antenna (DP-ASP) 122

Figure 87 . Return Loss and Polarization Isolation of DP-ASP 123

Figure 88 . Swept gain (dB) of DP-ASP when both ports excited. 124

Figure 89 (a). Gain (dB) patterns of DP-ASP when both ports excited. 125

Figure 90. Front-to-Back ratio (dB) of DP-ASP when both ports excited. 126

Figure 91 . Swept gain (dB) of DP-ASP when one of the ports terminated to a matched load. 127

Figure 92 . Gain patterns (dB) of DP-ASP when one of the ports terminated to a matched load. 128

Figure 93. Front-to-Back ratio (dB) of DP-ASP when one of the ports terminated to a matched load. 129

Figure 94. Layout of a 8 x 2 DSEP array. 131

Figure 95. Return Loss (dB) of 8 x 2 DSEP array. 132

Figure 96. Port Isolation (dB) of 8 x 2 DSEP array. 132

Figure 97. Polarization Isolation (dB) at the input ports of 8 x 2 DSEP array. 133

Figure 98 (a). Active element gain patterns (dB) for the 8 x 2 DSEP sub-array. 134

Figure 99. Comparison of designed Dual-polarized antennas 136

Figure 100. Characteristics of designed wideband antennas for TWMI application. 138

Figure 101. Through-The-Wall propagation of a normal incident plane wave 144

Figure 102. Insertion Loss (dB) for different wall thickness. 144



CHAPTER 1

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