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Over the first year of this project, comparison of methods that have been routinely used by the participants will be compared, with particular focus on justification for use of the particular method. Additionally, an exhaustive review of literature will be done. The review of methods used by the participants and of those in the literature will allow the development of a review document to be published by the multi-state project participants. Furthermore, this review will allow the development of collaborative inter-laboratory studies to investigate the various variables (factors) associated with the testing methods. The factors or variable that must be evaluated to develop a standardized method are given in Table 1.
The inter-laboratory studies will be conducted by Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. It is anticipated that the first annual project meeting will be devoted to the review indicated above, and subsequently to a prioritization of the factors to be evaluated. Annual plans of work (POWs) will consist of experiments to be carried out by the participants to collect essential data for each factor. Subsequently, data will be interpreted by the participants so that recommendations can be made. The annual meetings will serve as a primary means of exchanging and comparing data.
The last phase of the project will be an overall evaluation of the developed method(s) with various treatments and food commodities. It is anticipated that one single protocol will not be fully applicable to all commodities, and that minor modification will be needed to apply the central protocol. Thus, this latter evaluation will be essential to development of final recommendation on a standardized testing procedure.
Aim 2. Validation of the effectiveness HACCP Systems in Food Processing Plant Environments
To develop time/temperature formulas that can be used to develop user-friendly charts for processors to establish CCPs, extensive review of literature for prediction equations for thermal properties of meat products, for unsteady-state heat transfer in meat or similar processing environments and for microbial activity (e.g. cell growth, toxin production, etc.) under various environmental conditions will be done at the University of Nebraska by Food Engineers. An integration of various relationships into models predicting microbial activity based on processing environmental conditions and type of meat product, and construction of a database for several processing scenarios will be done to develop the preliminary time/temperature formulas.
To ensure that the preliminary formulas are accurate, validation (correlation) of prediction models with actual time, temperature and activity measurements made in a laboratory setting at the University of Nebraska. Further validation (correlation) of prediction models with actual time, temperature and activity measurements made in a full-scale processing setting in food processing environments in Nebraska, Virginia and Iowa, North Carolina and Mississippi. All data generated will be sent to the University of Nebraska for analysis and to correlate predicted models with actual observations. Simple, easy to use, time/temperature and activity charts (in English and Spanish) for selected meat products and organisms will be developed and distributed to the meat industry and regulatory agencies.
In order to determine the correlation between temperature loss in a food product and the impact room temperature has on that product, temperature data will be collected in both laboratory settings and in food processing plant environments. Room temperature and product temperature will be recorded. Data collected in Virginia will be sent to UNL for statistical calculations. Food Engineers at UNL will utilized data collected at food processing facilities in Nebraska and Virginia to develop formulas that can be used in the food industry to determine when a corrective action should be taken.
Another approach we will use to validate that hazards are being controlled will by direct microbial evaluation before and after CCPs in the process, HACCP implementation, and/or corrective actions are taken. Microbial analysis can be used to validate the microbiological adequacy of the processes of food production. Because the food processing industry is so varied, a number of processing plants, HACCP systems, CCPs and corrective actions need to be examined to fulfil the need for validated HACCP plans.
Scientists in Nebraska, Virginia and Iowa, North Carolina and Mississippi will identify HACCP issues specific to the food processors that they have close ties with. Many of the needs will be dictated by USDA or FDA recommendations to provide “statistically sound scientific evidence” to support the HACCP plan. Microbial data including counts of total aerobic organisms, coliform/generic E. coli, psychrotropic organisms, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and acid tolerant organisms will be collected. Pathogen information will be collected at the plant’s request/permission. Data collected will be shared among the cooperating states to prevent duplication of work and to develop one document that can be used by food processors and regulatory agencies.
The member ship of the Regional technical Committee includes:
An executive committee consisting of Chairman, Vice Chairman, and Secretary, elected by the Technical Committee members, is designated to conduct business of the Technical Committee between meeting and to perform other duties assigned by the Technical Committee. The term of office for each Executive Committee member is two years. The progression is Secretary, Vice chairman to Chairman, for a total of six years.
The duties of the Technical Committee will be to coordinate planning and work of the project and make such recommendations as are necessary through the Administrative Advisor to the Southern Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors. The functions of the chair will be to preside over meeting and edit the annual report. The recording secretary shall take minutes at the annual meeting and distribute these to members of the committee within a month of the meeting.
The Technical Committee will meet annually to review progress, develop research plans and coordinate research efforts in order to maintain the Committee’s focus on the objectives identified in the project. During the annual meeting, the research coordinators from each of the lead states (Table 1) will summarize for the entire Regional Technical Committee the plan of work for the next year in the specified research areas in meeting the goals of each objective. In addition to the annual meeting, the coordinators are responsible for maintaining active communication with their cooperating stations principal investigator in order to maintain a current knowledge base of research accomplishment within the specified problem area. This linkage will enhance the research effectiveness and productivity, reduce duplication and unnecessary work, and strengthen the regionality among cooperating stations.
Copies of the Annual Progress Report, including major accomplishments of contributing project and minutes of the annual meeting will be distributed each year.
Enhancing Food Safety Through Control of Food-borne Disease Agents
Regional Administration Advisor Date
Chairman, Regional Directors Date
Cooperative State Research, Education, Extension Service
Table 1. Objectives and Procedures. Coordinating station is designated first and is in bold.
Objective 1: Pre-harvest reduction of food borne pathogens in animals and the environment
Aim 1: Development and optimization of therapeutic methods to eliminate or reduce E. coli O157:H7 from cattle.
States: AL, NY, KY, NE
Aim 2: Preventative natural barriers to the colonization of food borne pathogens
States: KY, AL, NY, MN. NE
Aim 3: Defining food borne pathogen survival in manure and manure-amended soil use for fruit and vegetable production
States: NY, AL, KY, IA, MN
Aim 4: Development of Methods to detect pathogens in pre-harvest environments and monitor rates of development and transfer of resistance to antibiotics.
States: MN, NE, AL, KY, NY
Objective 2. Chemical and Physical Decontamination in Food Processing Plant Environments
Aim 1. Develop Method for Determining the Efficacy of Pathogen Reduction (Decontamination) Treatments for Raw Food Commodities
States: AL, KY, NC, AR, IA, MS, VA, SC, MN, NE
Aim 2. Validation of the effectiveness of HACCP Systems in Food Processing Plant Environments
States: NE, VA, NC, IA, MS
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Enhancing Food Safety Through Control of Food-borne Disease Agents
State Committed Annual Input1 Objectives2
SY PY TY
Alabama 2.0 0.6 2.1 Obj. 1 Aim 1, 2, 3, 4 Obj. 2, Aim 1, 2
Arkansas 0.5 0.0 0.2 Obj. 2, Aim 2,3
Iowa 0.1 0.0 0.2 Obj 1, Aim 3, Obj. 2 Aim 1, 2
Kentucky 0.1 0.15 0.15 Obj. 1, Aims 1,2, 3, 4 Obj. 2, Aim 1
Michigan 0.5 0.5 0.5 Obj. 1 Aim 4
Minnesota 0.1 0.2 0.2 Obj. 1 Aim 2,3 and Obj. 2 Aim. 1
Mississippi 0.1 0.0 0.0 Obj. 1 Aims 1, 2
Nebraska 0.5 0.2 0.3 Obj. 1 Aim 1,4 Obj. 2 Aim 2
New York 0.1 0.2 0.2 Obj. 1 Aim 1, 2, 3, 4
North Carolina 0.4 0.2 0.2 Obj. 2 Aim 1,2
South Carolina 0.2 0.0 0.0 Obj. 2 Aim 1
Tennessee 0.1 0.1 0.1 Obj. 2 Aim 1,2
Virginia 0.3 0.0 0.0 Obj. 2, Aims 1, 2
Total 5.0 2.15 4.15
1SY = scientist years, PY = professional years, TY = technical years
2As listed in Table 1
Enhancing Food Safety Through Control of Foodborne Disease Agents
Project Leaders (*), Participants, Location, Area of Specialization, and Discipline
Participants____________________State________Institution1_______________Area of Specialiazation__________Discipline_____
D.E. Conner*, J.M. Barbaree, J. AL Alabama AES microbiology, poultry, beef Animal Science,
Weese, Chen-i Wei, S.B. Price Poultry Science,
J. Wright, Fred DeGraves Food Science
M.G. Johnson* AR Arkansas AES poultry, microbiology, Food Science,
J. Dickson* IA Iowa AES microbiology Food Science
M.C. Newman* KY Kentucky AES microbiology Animal Science
John Linz*, Linda Mansfield
Robert Walker, John Kaneene MI Michigan AES meat science, food Veterinary Sci.
Diez-Gonzales, F.* MN Minnesota AES microbiology Food Science
Pre-harvest Food Safety
D.L. Marshall*, MS Mississippi AES muscle food safety/seafoods Food Science
P. Curtis*, K. Keener NC North Carolina AES poultry and egg Food Science,
B.W. Sheldon Fruits and vegetables Poultry Science
M.M. Brashears*, C. Weller NE Nebraska AES microbiology, HACCP Food Science
Randy Worobo* NY New York AES Food Safety Food Science
S. Barefoot*, T.A. Hughes, R.F. SC South Carolina AES microbiology, HACCP Food Science,
Testin, F.H. Barron Microbiology,
Michael Davidson TN Tennessee AES microbiology Food Science
S.S. Sumner*, M. Pierson,
C.R. Hackney VA Virginia AES microbiology, Food Science
1AES – Agriculture Experiment Station
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