Universiteit Gent Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Vakgroep plantaardige productie




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Chapter 7: Blueprint for Action


Integreren van kleine landbouwproducenten met commerciële landbouwactiviteiten in Sub-Sahara Afrika Gevalstudie Zuidelijk en Oostelijk Afrika


Linking Small-scale Farmers to Commercial Sector Activities

The Case of Southern and Eastern Sub-Sahara Africa


Beleidsvoorbereidend onderzoek 2000

VLIR - Universiteit Gent


Prof. Dr. ir. Patrick Van Damme & ir. Tinneke Dirckx




Universiteit Gent


Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen

Vakgroep plantaardige productie


Laboratorium voor Tropische en Subtropische Plantenteelt en Etnobotanie

Acknowledgements




This report arose from discussions and meetings with people from a wide variety of organisations and communities to all of whom we are very grateful as they gave time to discuss with us and to patiently answer our questions. Without the kindness shown by these people, this research would not have been possible.


We want to thank everyone who read our text and gave suggestions to make it more useable.


A special word of thank is saved for VlIR that financed this research and gave us the chance to participate in this interesting and fascinating research.

As we would not have been able to finish this research without the support of family and friends, who had to miss us when we were abroad executing this research or during the evenings we spent writing, the least we can do to show them our gratitude is to send them a great ‘thank you very much’.


We hope that this report will give people (farmers, government, business community, donors, NGOs,…) ideas and some guidance in the search to transform agriculture into a more profitable and modernised sector in order to alleviate rural poverty in Southern and Eastern Africa, and more specifically in Tanzania and Zambia.


Table of Contents





Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………….….…

I



Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………....….

II



List of Abbreviations and Expressions...……………………………………….…..

1



Introduction……………………………………………………………………………....

3



1. Methodology…………..……………………………………………………………....

4



2. Importance of Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Countries……………………..….

6



3. Status of Agricultural Production and Marketing in Tanzania and Zambia…………..…………...………………………………………...…………………


11


3.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….

11

3.1.1. Profile of Zambia…………………………………………………………….

12

3.1.2. Profile of Tanzania…………………………………………………………...

14

3.1.3. Definition of Small-scale Farmer…………………………………………….

15


3.2. Agricultural Production …………………………………………………………

15


3.3. Current Status of Agribusiness and Agricultural Marketing…………………

17

3.3.1. Organisation of Stakeholders………………………………………………...

17

3.3.2. Marketing…………………………………………………………………….

18

3.3.3. Infrastructure…………………………………………………………………

21

3.3.4. Information…………………………………………………………………..

23

3.3.5. Input Supply………………………………………………………………….

24

3.3.6. Research and Extension……………………………………………………...

25

3.3.7. Technology and Processing………………………………………………….

27

3.3.8. Financial Institutions…………………………………………………………

28

3.3.9. Policies: Legislation, Supervision and Statistics…………………………….

32

3.3.10. Conclusion………………………………………………………………….


33



4. Which Crops/Commodities to Promote………………………………………….

34


4.1.Criteria for Crops/Commodities to Promote……………………………………

34

4.2. Potential Crops/Commodities for Agricultural Diversification and development………………………………………………………………………..



36

5. Contract Farming…………………………………………………………………….

54


5.1. Definition………………………………………………………………………….

54


5.2. Types of Contract Farming………………………………………………………

56


5.3. Composing the Contract…………………………………………………………

57


5.4. Advantages of Contract Farming………………………………………………..

59


5.5. Major Problems Encountered by Companies and Growers…………………...

60

5.5.1. Factors Undermining Sustainability of Contract Farming Schemes

60

5.5.2. Problems and Risks for Growers

61


5.6. How to Make Contract Farming Succeed………………………………………

64

5.6.1. Issues Concerning Companies

65

5.6.2. Issues Concerning Farmers

70

5.6.3. Role for NGOs and Official Donor Organisations

71

5.6.4. Role for Governments

75







6. Farmers Organisations……………………………………………………………...

77


6.1. Definition……………………………………………………………………...…..

77


6.2. Features of Successful Farmers' Organisations…………………………...……

79

6.2.1. Range of Activities Undertaken

79

6.2.2. Internal features

79

6.3. Contract Farming and Farmers' Organisations…………………………...…..

80


6.4. Role for Donors…………………………...…..…………………………...……..

81


6.5. Good Practises for Group Formation…………………………...…..………….

82


6.6. Situation for Zambia…………………………...…..…………………………….

83


6.7. Situation for Tanzania…………………………...…..…………………………..



88

7. Blueprint for Action………………………………………………………………….

90













References ……………………………………………………………………………….

96








Annex I Mission Reports





Annex II Detailed Maps of Tanzania and Zambia





Annex III Cultivation of Selected Crops





Annex IV Passports of Organisations/Companies visited





Annex V Zambian Agricultural Situation





Annex IV Tanzanian Agricultural Situation







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