Regional implications of the israeli-turkish strategic partnership




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Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1998), pp. 229-31.

7. Newspot (the official organ of the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 18 November 1993.

8. 'We Have Done a Lot', Newsweek, 11 August 1997.

9. Ilnur Cevik, 'Interview with the Israeli PM', Turkish Daily News, 3 September 1998.

10. Near East Report, 26 January 1998, p. 6.

11. Balancing threats as main reason for alliance formation was suggested by Walt, The Origins of Alliances, while the preservation of the status as a rationale in creating alliances was noted by Randall L. Schweller, 'Bandwagoning for Profit: Bringing the Revisionist State Back In', International Security, vol. 19, no. 1 (Summer 1994), p. 79.

12. Efraim Inbar and Shmuel Sandler, 'The Risks of Palestinian Statehood', Survival, vol. 39, no. 2, Summer 1997, pp. 23-41.

13. Efraim Inbar and Shmuel Sandler, 'Israeli Deterrence Strategy Revisited', Security Studies, vol. 3, no. 2 (Winter 1993/94), pp. 330-58.

14. Ha'aretz, 13 June 2000, p. A3.

15. Cevik Bir, 'Reflections on Turkish-Israeli Relations and Turkish Security', Policywatch, no. 422, 5 November 1999, p. 1.

16. Interview with Cypriote officials. Turkish planes that trained in Israel were suspected of exercising how to attack SAM sites. In November 1998, two Israeli Mossad agents were caught with surveillance equipment in Cyprus fuelling rumors about Israeli assistance to Turkey.

17. For Israeli attitudes toward use of force, see Inbar, 'Contours of Israel's New Strategic Thinking', pp. 51-57.

18. Ely Karmon, 'A Solution to Syrian Terrorism', Middle East Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, (June 1999), pp. 23-32.

19. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman, 'Inter-Arab Relations', in Bruce Maddy-Weitzman (ed.), Middle East Contemporary Survey (MECS) 1996 (Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1998), p. 78. For Arab attitudes toward Turkish-Israeli relations, see Ofra Bengio and Gencer Ozcan, 'Old Grievances, New Fears: Arab Perceptions of Turkey and Its Alignment with Israel', Middle Eastern Studies, forthcoming; see also Nadia E El Shazly, 'Arab Anger at New Axis', The World Today, vol. 55, no. 1 (January 1999), pp. 25-27.

20. See BBC Summary of World Broadcasts (SWB), ME/2582 MED/7, 10 April 1996; Syrian Times, 7 May 1997; SWB, ME/3112 MED/17, 30 December 1997; SWB, ME/3335 MED/15, 18 September 1998; Ha’aretz, 13 September, 1999, p. A3. The Arab League also condemned Turkish incursions into Northern Iraq to chase PKK terrorists. See Daily Report, FBIS-NES-95-058, 27 March 1995, p.2.

21. Bengio and Ozcan, 'Old Grievances, New Fears: Arab Perceptions of Turkey and Its Alignment with Israel'.

22. Ibid.

23. Moustafa Kamel Mohamed, 'Turkey. Capabilities, Trends and Role', Strategic Papers (Cairo: Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1996), p. 28.

24. Ha’aretz, 30 April 1996.

25. Ha’aretz, 3 June 1997.

26. SWB, ME/3138 MED/25, 30 January 1998.

27. Jerusalem Post, 7 January 1998.

28. SWB, ME/2927 MED/7 24 May 1997; ME/3352 MED/3-4, 8 October 1998.

29. Abdel Monem Said Aly, 'Egypt-US Relations and Egyptian Foreign Policy', Policywatch, No. 448, 24 March 2000, p. 2.

30. Syria Times, 15 January 1998.

31. See James Bruce, 'Alliance with Turkey Inflames Old Foes', Jane’s Defence Weekly, 19 June 1996.

32. Defense News, 8-14 September 1997.

33. For the tensions between the two states, see Fawaz A. Gerges, “Egyptian-Israeli Relations Turn Sour,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 74, no.3, May/June 1995, pp. 69-78.

34. Turkish Probe, 11 January 1998, p. 2.

35. SWB, ME/3337 MED/8, 21 September 1998.

36. Turkish Daily News, 15 April 1996.

37. SWB, ME/3112 MED/3, 30 December 1997; Jerusalem Post, 7 January 1998. The 'Great Satan' epitaph was reserved for the US.

38. SWB, ME/3332 MED/2, 15 September 1998.

39. For this forum, see Bruce Maddy Weitzman and Joseph Kostiner, 'The Damascus Declaration: An Arab Attempt at Regional Security', in Efraim Inbar (ed.), Regional Security Regimes: Israel and Its Neighbors (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), pp. 107-26.

40. 'Turkish-Israeli Links Criticized', Jane’s Defence Weekly, 2 July 1997.

41. Eyal Zisser, 'Hafiz al-Asad Discovers Islam', Middle East Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 1 (March 1999), pp. 49-56.

42. For the relations between the two countries, see Hussein J. Agha and Ahmad S. Khalidi, Syria and Iran: Rivalry and Co-operation (London: RIIA/Pinter, 1995); Anoushivaran Ehteshami and Raymond A. Hinnebusch, Syria and Iran: Middle Powers in a Penetrated System (London: Routledge, 1997).

43. Asher Susser, Jordan as a Pivotal State (Washington DC: Washington Institute, 2000), pp. 37-44.

44. Susser, Jordan as a Pivotal State, pp. 69-70; See also Walt, The Origins of Alliances, p. 205.

45. Quoted in George E. Gruen, 'Turkey and the Middle East after Oslo I', in Robert O. Freedman (ed.), The Middle East and the Peace Process.

The Impact of the Oslo Accords (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida), p. 197.

46. Khairi Janbek, 'A Jordanian View', Perceptions, vol. 3, no. 3, September-November 1998, pp. 131-32. The author served as press advisor to the Crown Prince of Jordan.

47. Turkish Probe, 8 March 1998, p. 7.

48. Newspot, no. 20, March-April 2000, p. 15.

49. Turkish Daily News, 15 September 1998, p. 2.

50. Turkish Probe, 26 April 1998, p. 2.

51. Turkish Daily News, 28 June 1996, p. 1.

52. Ha’aretz, 5 November 1999, p. B5.

53. Private communications.

54. Barry Rubin, 'The Arab-Israeli Conflict is Over', Middle East Quarterly vol. 3, no. 4 (September 1996), pp. 3-13; Avraham Sela, The Decline of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Middle East Politics and the Quest for Regional Order (Albany: SUNY Press, 1998); Efraim Inbar, 'Arab-Israeli Coexistence: The Causes, Achievements and Limitations', Israel Affairs, vol. 6, nos. 3&4, (Summer 2000), pp. 256-70.

55. This term was coined by Geofrey Kemp and Robert Harkavy, Strategic Geography and the Changing Middle East (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Brookings Institution Press, 1997), p. 113.

56. Zalmay Khalilzad, 'A Strategic Plan for Western-Turkish Relations', in Zalmay Khalilzad, Ian Lesser and F. Stephen Larabee, The Future of Turkish-Western Relations (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000), pp. 82-86.

57. See Zalmay Khalilzad et al., The Implications of the Posible End of the Arab-Israeli Conflict for Gulf Security (Santa Monica: RAND, 1997).

58. Private communications.

59. Laurent Ruseckas, 'Turkey and Eurasia: Opportunities and Risks in the Caspian Pipeline Derby', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 225-26. See also Brent Sasley, 'Turkey's Energy Politics in the Post-Cold War Era', MERIA, vol.2, no. 4 (December 1998).

60. Greece refused to implement its own December 1994 military agreement with Israel, which called for co-operation in various areas.

61. Christian Science Monitor, 3 March 1998.

62. See interview with Greek Defense Minister Akis Tzohatzopulos, Jerusalem Post, 12 October 1999, p. 1.

63. Jerusalem Post, 17 May 2000, p. 13.

64. Ha’aretz, 15 May 2000, p. B4.

65. Ian O. Lesser, Turkey: In Search of a Post-Cold War Role (Santa Monica: RAND, 1988), p. 93.

66. Efraim Inbar and Shmuel Sandler, 'Security in the Eastern Mediterranean: The Imperative for Co-operation among Cyprus, Greece, Israel and Turkey' Middle East Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 1 (March 2001).

67. Cevik Bir, 'Reflections on Turkish-Israeli Relations and Turkish Security', Policywatch, no. 422, 5 November 1999, p. 1.

68. Turkish Daily News, 11 April 1996.

69. Quoted in Hillel Kuttler, 'U.S. Backs Israeli-Turkish Co-operation', Jerusalem Post, 11 May 1997.

70. Ian O. Lesser, 'Western Interests in a Changing Turkey', in Khalilzad, Lesser, Larabee, The Future of Turkish-Western Relations, pp. 66-67

71. Jerusalem Post, 3 April 2000, p. 4.

72. Dov Waxman, 'Turkey and Israel: A New Balance of Power in the Middle East', Washington Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 1 (Winter 1999), p. 31.



Prof. Efraim Inbar is the Director of the Begin-Sadat (BESA) Center for Strategic Studies at Bar-Ilan University.



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