Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand




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НазваниеDepartment of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
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Sapote



Scientific Name and Introduction: The sapote, zapote, mamey, mamey colorado, mamey sapote, chico-mamey, marmalade-fruit, marmalade-plum, grosse sapote (Pouteria sapota Jacq., H.E. Moore & Stearn, syn. Colocarpum sapota (Jacq., Merr., Calocarpum mammosum, Pierre., Achras mammosa L., Lucuma mammosa, Gaertn., Vitellaria mammosa, Radlk., and Achradelpha mammosa, Cook) is ovoid to ellipsoid in shape, 7 to 15 cm long and 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The skin is thick and woody with a russet-brown and somewhat scurfy surface. The pulp of mature fruit is soft and smooth to finely granular in texture, salmon pink, orange, and red or reddish-brown in color. The pulp has a sweet, almond-like flavor and low fiber content, creamy texture and rich flavor. Fruit weigh 0.3 to 3 kg and contain a large elliptical seed that has a shiny, hard, dark-brown surface with a light-brown hilum on the ventral side.


Quality Characteristics and Criteria: Inferior or improperly ripened mamey sapotes will develop a pronounced squash-like flavor.

Horticultural Maturity Indices and Harvesting: Fruit are harvested when the flesh begins to turn red, and mature when the newly exposed layer is turned from green to pinkish-brown, orange, or red. Immature fruit will fail to soften, and their pulp will turn dark-brown and inedible. Harvesting must be done carefully to avoid mechanical damage. Twist the fruit until it breaks from the stem. Poles with knifes at the end are also used to harvest fruit. Fruit should not be allowed to fall on the ground.



Grades, Sizes and Packaging: Fruit are packed in 3 kg capacity fiberboard, flat boxes using sleeves or excelsior (McGregor, 1987).


Optimum Storage Conditions: Storage-life is 2 to 6 weeks at 13 to 18 °C (55.4 to 64.4 °F) with 85 to 90% RH.


Ethylene Production and Sensitivity: The fruit is climacteric and is one of the most prolific producers of ethylene at > 100 µL kg-1 h-1 at 20 °C (68 °F) (Kader, 1992).


Physiological Disorders: Fruit are chilling sensitive. Symptoms include brown spots on the skin, poor color development, and development of off-flavor.


Star Apple



Scientific Name and Introduction: The star apple, caimito, sweetsop, or anon (Chrysophyllum cainito L.) is apple-size fruit, commonly round, sometimes ovate, heart-shaped or conical, with a smooth and waxy skin. They appear as a star when cross-sectioned. Fruit have a soft flesh, yellowish green in color, with a mild sweet flavor. The pulp is white or creamy white, with numerous embedded small, shiny, dark brown seeds.


Harvesting: Fruit should be matured on the tree, but picked before fully ripe. Fruit picked immature will be astringent and contain a sticky white latex. Fruit left to ripen on the tree are often split open, especially during the rainy season.


Packaging: Fruit are tray-packed in fiberboard boxes of 4.5 kg capacity (Mcgregor, 1987).


Pre-cooling: Pre-cooling should be done by hydro-cooling or forced-air.


Optimum Storage Conditions: Star apple intended for cold storage are picked at the half-ripe stage, cured in a well-ventilated room for 2 days and held at 3 to 6 °C (37.4 to 42.8 °F) with 90% RH for about 3 weeks.


Chilling Sensitivity: Fruit are slightly sensitive to chilling injury.


Ethylene Production and sensitivity: Ethylene production at 20 °C (68 °F) is 10 to 100 nL kg-1 h-1. The fruit does not respond much to treatment with ethylene (Pratt and Mendoza, 1980).


Respiration Rates: The star apple is a non-climacteric fruit. The respiration rate at 20 °C (68 °F) is 25 to 50 mg (13 to 25 µL) CO2 kg-1 h-1. Heat evolution is 1600 to 4400 BTU per ton per day, equivalent to a respiration rate of 7 to 20 mg CO2 kg-1 day-1 at 3 to 6 °C (37.4 to 42.8 °F) (Pratt and Mendoza, 1980).


Postharvest Pathology: The most important pests include the annona seed borer and the ambrosia beetle. The annona seed borer lays eggs in the seeds of very young fruits; insects develop in the seeds and emerge as adults when the fruit matures.


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