Department of English and American Studies

Скачать 372.24 Kb.
НазваниеDepartment of English and American Studies
Размер372.24 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

4. Recipes as Means of Communication

Communication is by the Oxford Dictionaries defined as “the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium [and] the successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings.” From this definition it is obvious that communication requires at least two participants, an addresser and an addressee, as well as a message to be conveyed. As far as recipes or cooking instructions are concerned all these requirements are fulfilled. Recipes are in this very simple and basic model the representation of the message that is to be sent, the author of the recipe is the addresser and the person who reads or hears the recipe is the addressee. In the discipline of linguistics many communication models with different levels of complexity have been introduced. Many of them investigate or try to explain why the message that the addresser wants to convey is usually not the same as what the other participant receives. One of these models is the Organon model by Karl Bühler who discusses the relationship of a so-called “Zeichen,” or “Sign” in English, towards the sender, the receiver as well as the objects and states of affairs which it represents. The focus of other works resides mainly in the communicative situation, for example the setting and the relationship of the addresser towards the addressee. These were among others discussed in Roman Jakobson’s (1960) Closing statements: Linguistics and Poetics.

4.1 Encoding/Decoding

By semiotic definition Karl Bühler’s “Sign” can be labeled as a coded message. “Contemporary semioticians refer to the creation and interpretation of texts as ‘encoding’ and ‘decoding’ respectively” (Chandler 2001). The addresser is in this model the participant who encodes a message while it is the addressee’s task to decode the message he receives yet “‘decoding’ involves not simply basic recognition and comprehension of what a text 'says' but also the interpretation and evaluation of its meaning with reference to relevant codes” (Chandler 2001). On the other hand an addressee who is not acquainted with the code the addressor employs will not be able to decode, thus understand, the full extent of the message. A pragmatic Communication model by German linguists A. Linke, M. Nussbaumer and P. R. Portmann illustrates how the interpretation of a situation is originally influenced by both their world and language knowledge. This model, depicted in Fig. 1, also shows that it is shared knowledge of both the world and the language that allow successful communication on a certain situation in the first place.

Fig. 1:

(Linke 1996)

This model, however, presumes the existence of two speakers who are able to discuss their views and share their knowledge in order to come to the same findings. The direction of communication in the scope of recipes in the written form on the other hand is usually one-sided in the same manner as that of advertisements. This means that if the addressee of recipes is supposed to be able to decode as much as possible from the original encoded message a code should be employed which the addressee can relate to through his experience with the common code of the given field.

4.2 Languages as Different Codes and the Impossibility of Translation

Obviously if a procedure is being described in two different languages or dialects a different code is being used. A speaker of Swahili for example will hardly understand instructions written or spoken in Chinese unless he has learned to understand the Chinese language, because the message is encoded in a way that exceeds his experience. However, if he had a translator he would probably understand the semantics of the instructions. The problem there is that he does not know which translation strategy the translator has used and thus how close the message, which he can decode from the translation, is to the message the original addresser has encoded. “Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist” (Lupyan 2010). Messages encoded in different languages do not just differ by vocabulary which if replaced would make a message easy to decode in another language. Supporters of the principle of linguistic relativity would even go as far as to argue that the way of thinking differs greatly among speakers of different languages. Whether true or not translators always have to make a choice whether they will “preserve the original exotizing setting [or choose an] adaption of the setting to the target culture” (Shi 2006). On the one hand by the adoption of the target culture parts of the original message may get lost, on the other hand a preservation of the original setting and thus parts of the original code may also preserve the incomprehensibility of the message for the addressee.

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15


Department of English and American Studies iconDepartment of English and American Studies

Department of English and American Studies iconDepartment of English and American Studies

Department of English and American Studies iconMasaryk university in brno faculty of Arts Department of English and American Studies

Department of English and American Studies icon101 American Idiom: Understanding and Speaking English Like an American by Harry Collis and Mario Russo published by Mc Graw Hill

Department of English and American Studies iconAddress: American Studies Program

Department of English and American Studies iconDepartment of Communication Studies

Department of English and American Studies iconThe Department of Social Studies

Department of English and American Studies iconDepartment of Educational Policy Studies

Department of English and American Studies iconDepartment of Government & International Studies

Department of English and American Studies iconDepartment of Politics and International Studies

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2014
обратиться к администрации
Главная страница