Rescue of Jews in Warsaw Risks Faced by Jews on the “Aryan” Side




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Getto i gwiazdy (Wasaw: Czytelnik, 1993), 38. This author’s memoirs are also available in English: Fanny Salamia-Loc, Woman Facing the Gallows (Amherst, Massachusetts: Word Pro, 1981).

447 Joachim Schoenfeld, Holocaust Memoirs: Jews in the Lwów Ghetto, the Janowski Concentration Camp, and as Deportees in Siberia (Hoboken, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 1985), 245–47.

448 Tadeusz Bednarczyk, Życie codzienne warszawskiego getta: Warszawskie getto i ludzie (1939–1945 i dalej) (Warsaw: Ojczyzna, 1995), 235.

449 Isaiah Trunk, Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation (New York: Macmillan, 1972), 552–53.

450 Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Narodowe Siły Zbrojne: “Ząb” przeciw dwu wrogom, Revised and expanded edition (Warsaw: Fronda, 1999), 348 n.175; Zbigniew Błażyński, Mówi Józef Światło: Za kulisami bezpieki i partii 1940–1955, Third revised edition (London: Polska Fundacja Kulturalna, 1986), 138, 228.

451 Leon Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 1993), 89, 110, 115, 120, 132, 142–43 (the author mentions Jews employed by the Befehlstelle Sipo, the local SS command headquarters), 132; Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak, Getto warszawskie: Przewodnik po nieistniejącym mieście, (Warsaw: IFiS PAN, 2001), 740; Tadeusz Bednarczyk, Życie codzienne warszawskiego getta: Warszawskie getto i ludzie (1939–1945 i dalej) (Warsaw: Ojczyzna, 1995), 233, 234, 235, 241 n.11; Tadeusz Bednarczyk, Obowiązek silniejszy od śmierci: Wspomnienia z lat 1939–1944 o polskiej pomocy dla Żydów w Warszawie (Warszawa: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1982), 156–57. (In the latter book, Bednarczyk details many other cases of collaboration at 26, 28, 32, 35–36, 43, 75, 78, 94, 103, 121.)

452 Leon Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 1993), 68, 137.

453 Michael Zylberberg, A Warsaw Diary, 1939–1945 (London: Vallentine, Mitchell, 1969), 179, 188.

454 For accounts of how effectively that network functioned, see Peter Wyden, Stella: One Woman’s True Tale of Evil, Betrayal, and Survival in Hitler’s Germany (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992); and Erica Fischer, Aimée & Jaguar: A Love Story, Berlin 1943 (New York: HarperCollins, 1995).

455 Additional references to Warsaw are found in: Wiktoria Śliwowska, ed., The Last Eyewitnesses: Children of the Holocaust Speak (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1998), 20 (denunciation by a Jewish collaborator in the Warsaw ghetto); Miriam Peleg-Mariańska and Mordecai Peleg, Witnesses: Life in Occupied Kraków (London and New York: Routledge, 1991), 152 (the liquidation in Warsaw of “one of the chief Jewish stool-pigeons, Lolek Skosowski”); Eugenia Szajn Lewin, W getcie warszawskim: Lipiec 1942–kwiecień 1943 (Poznań: a5, 1989), 26, 52, 54; Barbara Stanisławczyk, Czterdzieści twardych (Warsaw: ABC, 1997), 16, 23, 24, 107. The sources on Kraków are especially copious.

456 According to Aleksander Bieberstein, the chronicler of Kraków Jewry, the “greatest threat” facing Jews on “Aryan” papers, i.e., passing as Poles, was “confidants in the service of the Germans, who most often were Jewish betrayers. … Many cases of denunciation are known where Polish rescuers lost their lives along with the Jews they hid.” Bieberstein describes at great length the activities of numerous members of the Jewish police—the Ordnungsdienst, and various other Jewish agents active both inside and outside the ghetto. In his estimation, their cruelty and ruthlessness even surpassed that of the Germans: “They were the ones who pulled Jews out of homes to their deportation, pressing them on with screams and often with beatings. They were the ones who filled up the jail cells on the basis of lists of names drawn up with their help and the help of other denouncers. They convoyed the transports of deportees and, on their own initiative, carried out searches of homes to look for those who were staying there ‘illegally.’ … The confidants spied on Jews in hiding especially members of the Jewish Fighting Organization, searched for hidden Jewish property and that given over [to Poles] for safekeeping, and listened in on conversations. Often the denunciations were trumped up and were the result of personal conflicts. Because of these denunciations hundreds of people were imprisoned or deported to Auschwitz where they died in gas chambers. … The confidants blackmailed their victims and extorted money from them, and once deprived of their money and valuables, they handed them over without the slightest scruple. There were many confidants living both inside and outside the ghetto who were not known at all and consequently were very dangerous.” See Aleksander Bieberstein, Zagłada Żydów w Krakowie (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1985), 86, 164–74, 220.

457 Jolanta Wrońska, “Strażnik niewygodnej pamięci” (an interview with Antoni Marianowicz), Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), August 19, 2000.

458 Antoni Marianowicz, Życie surowo wzbronione (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1995), 115, 163–65.

459 Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak, Getto warszawskie: Przewodnik po nieistniejącym mieście (Warsaw: IFiS PAN, 2001), 648.

460 Simha Rotem (“Kazik”), Memoirs of a Warsaw Ghetto Fighter: The Past Within Me (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), 70–71.

461 Yitzhak Zuckerman (“Antek”), A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 63n, 441–45, 493.

462 Gunnar S. Paulsson, Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002), 150.

463 Gunnar S. Paulsson, “Ringelblum Revisited, 1940–1945: Polish-Jewish Relations in Occupied Warsaw, 1940–1945,” in Joshua D. Zimmerman, ed., Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and Its Aftermath (New Brunswick, New Jersey and London: Rutgers University Press, 2003), 185.

464 Paweł Szapiro, ed., Wojna żydowsko-niemiecka: Polska prasa konspiracyjna 1943–1944 o powstaniu w getcie Warszawy (London: Aneks, 1992), 163.

465 Norman Davies, Europe: A History (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 1060.

466 Philip Friedman, Their Brothers’ Keepers (New York: Holocaust Library, 1978), 69.

467 István Deák, Jan T. Gross, and Tony Judt., eds., The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and Its Aftermath (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 12, 134.

468 See László Karsai, “Crime and Punishment: People’s Courts, Revolutionary Legality, and the Hungarian Holocaust,” Intermarium, The First Online Journal of East Central European Postwar History and Politics (Internet: www.columbia.edu/cu/sipa/Regional/ece/intermar.html), vol. 4, no. 1.

469 See Leszek Gondek, Polska karząca 1939–1945: Polski podziemny wymiar sprawiedliwości w okresie okupacji niemieckiej (Warsaw: Pax, 1988), 114.

470 Piotr Wróbel, “The Judenräte Controversy: Some Polish Aspects,” The Polish Review 42, no. 2 (1997): 225–32. Professor Wróbel cites numerous examples to support his thesis. For additional examples, see Stanisław Wroński and Maria Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945 (Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, 1971), 304–305; Isaiah Trunk, Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation (New York: Macmillan, 1972), 548–69.

471 This Jew also recalled an Austrian Jewish exile named Distler, who “fully and brutally cooperated with the Gestapo” in Tarnów. See William Kornbluth, Sentenced to Remember: My Legacy of Life in Pre–1939 Poland and Sixty-Eight Months of Nazi Occupation (Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1994), 67, 144.

472 Diane Armstrong, Mosaic: A Chronicle of Five Generations (Milsons Point, News South Wales: Random House, 1998), 409.

473 Władysław Bartoszewski, The Blood Shed Unites Us: Pages from the History of Help to the Jews in Occupied Poland (Warsaw: Interpress Publishers, 1970), 40.

474 Except were otherwise noted, this partial chronolgy is based on the following sources: Wacław Bielawski, Zbrodnie na Polakach dokonane przez Hitlerowców za pomoc udzielaną Żydom (Warsaw: Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce–Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, 1987; Wacław Zajączkowski, Martyrs of Charity, Part One (Washington, D.C.: St. Maximilian Kolbe Foundation, 1987); Maria Pilarska, ed., Those Who Helped: Polish Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust, Part Three (Warsaw: The Main Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against the Polish Nation–The Institute of National Memory, and The Polish Society for the Righteous Among the Nations, 1997).

475 Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, and Rada Ochrony Pomników Walki i Męczeństwa, Obozy hitlerowskie na ziemiach polskich 1939-1945: Informator encyklopedyczny (Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1979), 230.

476 Stanisław Wroński and Maria Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945 (Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza, 1971), 361.

477 Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu–Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Warsaw), volume 35 (1993): 188–89.

478 Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Jews in Poland: A Documentary History (New York: Hippocrene, 1993), 118.

479 Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu–Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Warsaw), volume 35 (1993): 188–89.

480 Ibid., 186–87.

481 Ibid., 191–92.

482 Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Jews in Poland: A Documentary History (New York: Hippocrene, 1993), 121.

483 Głos Pracy (PZW), number 20, May 13, 1943. Cited in Paweł Szapiro, ed., Wojna żydowsko-niemiecka: Polska prasa konspiracyjna 1943–1944 o powstaniu w getcie Warszawy (London: Aneks, 1992), 163. See also Wacław Piekarski, Obwód Armii Krajowej Sokołów Podlaski “Sęp”, “Proso” 1939–1944 (Warsaw: n.p., 1991), 25–27.

484 Głos Pracy (PZW), number 20, May 13, 1943. Cited in Paweł Szapiro, ed., Wojna żydowsko-niemiecka: Polska prasa konspiracyjna 1943–1944 o powstaniu w getcie Warszawy (London: Aneks, 1992), 163. See also Wojciech Gozdawa-Gołębiowski, “Powiat węgrowski w latach okupacji niemieckiej 1939–1944,” in Arkadiusz Kołodziejczyk and Tadeusz Swat, eds. Węgrów: Dzieje miasta i okolic w latach 1941–1944 (Węgrów: Towarzystwo Miłośników Ziemi Węgrowskiej, 1991), 357–58.

485 Testimony of Irene Opdyke in Carol Rittner and Sondra Myers, eds., The Courage to Care: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust (New York: New York University Press, 1986), 48.

486 Tadeusz Bednarczyk, Obowiązek silniejszy od śmierci: Wspomnienia z lat 1939–1944 o polskiej pomocy dla Żydów w Warszawie (Warszawa: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1982), 54 (1986 edition).

487 Ibid., 147.

488 Stanisław Wroński and Maria Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945 (Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza, 1971), 433. This is based on the testimony of Feiwel Auerbach, who, along with 30 other Jews, received extensive help from the Polish villages of Huta Werchobuska and Huta Pieniacka.

489 Tadeusz Bednarczyk, Obowiązek silniejszy od śmierci: Wspomnienia z lat 1939–1944 o polskiej pomocy dla Żydów w Warszawie (Warszawa: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1982), 146–47 (1986 edition).

490 Interview with Szymon Datner in Małgorzata Niezabitowska, Remnants: The Last Jews of Poland (New York: Friendly Press, 1986), 247–50.

491 An American Methodist missionary who lived in occupied Warsaw wrote that, in September 1941, “driven by hunger, small Jewish children went begging daily outside the ghetto for anything they could get. One day I was passing the ruins of Graniczna Street, when ahead of me appeared a group of Jewish children, each carrying a small sack of garnered booty. I watched them sneak towards a gap in the incomplete ghetto wall. Before it stood a Polish policeman; behind it, on the inside, a Jewish one. Simultaneously, the two walked away, and in a flash most of the children had disappeared through the gap into the ghetto. The policemen returned. The few little ones who were still outside receded waiting for the next opportunity. A man who had stopped beside me said, ‘This goes on night and day. The policemen do what they can.’” See Hania and Gaither Warfield, Call Us to Witness: A Polish Chronicle (New York and Chicago: Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, 1945), 321. Indeed, on August 25, 1941, the Schupo commander for the Warsaw District, Colonel Alfred Jarke, rebuked the Polish police for remaining “passive and inactive” when the German police resorted to shooting at Jews to maintain order. Jarke threatened the Polish police with punishment “with all the means” at his disposal if they did not initiate action before the German police did. See Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak, Getto warszawskie: Przewodnik po nieistniejącym mieście (Warsaw: IFiS PAN, 2001), 208–209; Gunnar S. Paulsson, Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002), 146. The “Blue” police refused to take part in executions of Jews; some of them were even executed by the Germans because of their insubordination. See Zbigniew Zaniewicki, Pięć groźnych lat (1939–1941) (London: Polska Fundacja Kulturalna, 1982), 110; 157; Michał Grynberg, ed., Words To Outlive Us: Voices from the Warsaw Ghetto (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2002), 320. Mary Berg records in her diary entry of June 3, 1942, that the Polish police were ordered to shoot 110 Jews in the prison on Gęsia Street in Warsaw, but refused. They were forced to watch the execution. “One of the eyewitnesses told me that several Polish policemen wept,” she noted, and “some of them averted their eyes during the execution.” See Mary Berg, Warsaw Ghetto: A Diary (New York: L.B. Fischer, 1945), 154. During the revolt in the Warsaw ghetto in April 1943, scores of Polish police failed to report for duty to guard the ghetto wall. See Dariusz Libionka, “ZWZ-AK i Delegatura Rządu RP wobec eksterminacji Żydów polskich,” in Andrzej Żbikowski, ed., Polacy i Żydzi pod okupacją niemiecką 1939–1945: Studia i materiały (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2006), 90–91.

492 Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Revised and Definitive Edition (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985), volume 2, 593–94. Philip Friedman estimates that out of the 40,000 Dutch Jews who tried to survive by passing, 15,000 survived. See his Their Brothers’ Keepers (New York: Holocaust Library, 1978), 63.

493 Livia Rothkirchen, “Czech Attitudes towards the Jews during Nazi Regime,” Yad Vashem Studies, volume 13 (1979): 314. According to Rothkirchen, barely 424 Jews survived in hiding (p.315).

494 Philip Friedman, Their Brothers’ Keepers (New York: Holocaust Library, 1978), 37.

495 For example, the Polish-Jewish journalist Hanna Krall identified 45 Poles who helped to shelter her. See Polityka [Warsaw weekly], April 20, 1968. David Landa writes: “In our case more than ten families were involved in keeping us alive, beside those who provided for our financial needs.” See David J. Landau, alias Dudek, Janek and Jan, Caged: A Story of Jewish Resistance (Sydney: Macmillan, 2000), 210.

496 Norman Davies, “Poles and Jews: An Exchange,” The New York Review of Books, April 9, 1987. See also Mark Paul, Neighbours On the Eve of the Holocaust: Polish-Jewish Relations in Soviet-Occupied Eastern Poland, 1939–1941 (Toronto: PEFINA Press, 2004), avalaible on line at <http://www.kpk.org/KPK/toronto/sovocc.pdf>.

497 Polin: A Journal of Polish-Jewish Studies (Oxford: Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies), volume 2 (1987): 341.

498 Voice of America interview, “Czy Polacy są antysemitami?”Głos Polski [Toronto weekly], May 14, 1994.

499 Norman Davies, God’s Playground: A History of Poland (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), volume 2, 264–65.

500 István Deák, “The Incomprehensible Holocaust: An Exchange,” The New York Review of Books, December 21, 1989; István Deák, “Legends of King Christian: Another Exchange,” The New York Review of Books, September 27, 1990.

501 George H. Stein, The Waffen SS: Hitler’s Elite Guard at War, 1939–1945 (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1966); Kurt Georg Klietmann, Die Waffen-SS: Eine Dokumentation (Osnabrück: Der Freiwillige, 1965), 499–515.

502 István Deák, “Memories of Hell,” The New York Review of Books, June 26, 1997.

503 Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 87–88.

504 Leni Yahil, The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1969), 261–65, 269.

505 István Deák, “Who Saved Jews? An Exchange,” The New York Review of Books, April 25, 1991.

506 Debórah Dwork and Robert Jan van Pelt, Holocaust: A History (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2002), 153.

507 Mordecai Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem; New York: Collins, 2007), 105–109 (Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz).

508 Daniel Blatman, For Our Freedom and Yours: The Jewish Labour Bund in Poland, 1939–1949 (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2003), 28.

509 On the fate of Danish Jews see the various exchanges in response to István Deák’s September 28, 1989 article “The Incomprehensible Holocaust,” published on December 21, 1989, March 29, 1990, and September 27, 1990, and April 25, 1991; Poul Borschenius, The History of the Jews (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956), vol. 5, 57; Leni Yahil, The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1969, 261–65, 269; Gunnar S. Paulsson, “The ‘Bridge over the Øresund’: The Historiography on the Expulsion of the Jews from Nazi-Occupied Denmark,” Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 30 (1995): 431–64; Emmy E. Werner, A Conspiracy of Decency: The Rescue of the Danish Jews During World War II (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2002), 64, 102, 152; Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Third edition, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003), vol. 2, 589–99; Saul S. Friedman, A History of the Holocaust (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2004), 325.

510 (New York: Holocaust Library, 1991).

511 István Deák, “Holocaust Heroes,” The New York Review of Books, November 5, 1992.

512 Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Third edition (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003), vol. 2, 584–89; Saul S. Friedman, A History of the Holocaust (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2004), 327–29.

513 Baard Herman Borge, “Quisling’s Mayors: The Führer principle in Norwegian municipalities during World War II,” in Bruno De Wever, Herman Van Goethem, and Nico Wouters, eds., Local Government in Occupied Europe (1939–1945) (Gent, Belgium: Academia Press, 2006), 118–19.

514 For a survey of conditions in Holland see Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Third edition (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003), vol. 2, 600–32.

515 Mordecai Paldiel, Sheltering the Jews: Stories of Holocaust Rescuers (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996), 15.

516 Suzanne D. Rutland, “A Reassessment of the Dutch Record During the Holocaust,” in John K. Roth and Elisabeth Maxwell, eds., Remembering for the Future: The Holocaust in an Age of Genocide (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave, 2001), vol. 1, 527–42.

517 Marnix Croes, “Gentiles and the Survival Chances of Jews in the Netherlands, 1940–1945: A Closer Look,” in Beate Kosmala and Feliks tych, eds., Facing the Nezi Genocide: Non-Jews and Jews in Europe (Berlin: Metropol, 2004), 41–72, especially 56, 61.

518 Pim Griffioen and Ron Zeller, “Anti-Jewish Policy and Organization of the Deportations in France and the Netherlands, 1940–1944: A Comparative Study,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 20, no. 3 (Winter 2006): 437–73.

519 Based on a review of Bob Moore’s Victims and Survivors: The Nazi Persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands 1940–1945 (London: Arnold; New York: St. Martin’s, 1997). This review by Henry L. Mason was published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 199.

520 See, for example, Martin Gilbert, The Righteous: The Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust (Toronto: Key Porter, 2003), 320–55; Mordecai Paldiel, Sheltering Jews: Stories of Holocaust Rescuers (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996), 15, 169, 170; Mordecai Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem; New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 53, 56, 98, 172, 208, 215, 251, 254, 519, 554.

521 Ad van Liempt, Hitler’s Bounty Hunters: The Betrayal of the Jews (Oxford and New York: Berg, 2005).

522 Dienke Hondius, “Welcome in Amsterdam? Return and Reception of Survivors: New research and Findings,” in John K. Roth and Elisabeth Maxwell, eds., Remembering for the Future: The Holocaust in an Age of Genocide (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave, 2001), vol. 3, 135–41.

523 Marnix Croes, “The Holocaust in the Netherlands and the Rate of Jewish Survival,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 20, no. 3 (Winter 2006): 474–99.

524 Michael R. Marrus, The Holocaust in History (Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1987), 70–72.

525 Michael R. Marrus, “France: The Jews and the Holocaust,” in Israel Gutman, ed., Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (New York: Macmillan; London: Collier Macmillan, 1990), vol. 2, 509–13. See also the entry for the infamous French assembly and detention camp in the Paris suburb of Drancy in vol. 1, 404–406. For another survey of conditions in France see Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Third edition (New Have and London: Yale University Press, 2003), vol. 2, 645–703.

526 Pim Griffioen and Ron Zeller, “Anti-Jewish Policy and Organization of the Deportations in France and the Netherlands, 1940–1944: A Comparative Study,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 20, no. 3 (Winter 2006): 437–73.

527 Teresa Prekerowa, Zegota: Commission d’aide aux Juifs (Monaco: Éditions du Rocher, 1999), 285.

528 Joseph Rothschild, Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II, Second edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 28. (The peak strength and accomplishments of the Polish underground occurred in 1944–1945; by that time, however, the Holocaust of Polish Jews was essentially over.)

529 Robert J. Soucy, “Review of Donna F. Ryan, The Holocaust & the Jews of Marseille,” H-France, H-Net Reviews, January, 1999. URL: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=22816917014155.

530 Robert Gildea, Marianne in Chains: In Search of the German Occupation, 1940–1945 (London: Macmillan, 2002), 355.

531 Julian Jackson, France: The Dark Years, 1940–1944 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 356.

532 Julian Jackson, France: The Dark Years, 1940–1944 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 370, 355; Robert Gildea, Marianne in Chains: In Search of the German Occupation, 1940–1945 (London: Macmillan, 2002), 288.

533 Renée Poznanski, “French Public Opinion and the Jews during World War II: Assumptions of the Clandestine Press,” in Beate Kosmala and Feliks tych, eds., Facing the Nezi Genocide: Non-Jews and Jews in Europe (Berlin: Metropol, 2004), 117–35, also 11.

534 Jean-Philippe Schreiber, “Belgium and the Jews Under Nazi Rule: Beyond the Myths,” in David Bankier and Israel Gutman, eds., Nazi Europe and the Final Solution (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority and The International Institute for Holocaust Research, 2003), 480.

535 Mordecai Paldiel, Churches and the Holocaust: Unholy Teaching, Good Samaritans, and Reconciliation (Jersey City, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 2006), 134.

536 Philip Friedman, Their Brothers’ Keepers (New York: Holocaust Library, 1978), 69.

537 Jean-Philippe Schreiber, “Belgium and the Jews Under Nazi Rule: Beyond the Myths,” in David Bankier and Israel Gutman, eds., Nazi Europe and the Final Solution (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority and The International Institute for Holocaust Research, 2003), 478.

538 “Guernsey officials put Jews into Nazi hands, records show,” The Toronto Star, January 6, 1993; Madeleine Bunting, The Model Occupation: The Channel Islands under German Rule, 1940–1945, Revised paperback edition (London: HarperCollins, 1996). For a more benign evaluation, see Linda Holt and Ward Rutherford, “‘The Model Occupation’ – Setting the Record Straight,” Channel Islands Occupation Review, vol. 25 (1997): 49–72; Hazel R. Knowles Smith, The Changing Face of the Channel Islands Occupation (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

539 Hazel R. Knowles Smith, The Changing Face of the Channel Islands Occupation (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 166–67.

540 David Fraser, The Jews of the Channel Islands and the Rule of Law, 1940–1945: ‘Quite contrary to the principles of British justice’ (Brighton and Portland: Sussex Academic Press, 2000).

541 For conditions in Lithuania see: Knut Stang, Kollaboration und Massenmord: Die litauische Hilfspolizei, das Rollkommando Hamann und die Ermordung der litauischen Juden (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1996), 156–71; Christoph Dieckmann, “The Role of the Lithuanians in the Holocaust,” in Beate Kosmala and Feliks Tych, eds., Facing the Nazi Genocide: Non-Jews and Jews in Europe (Berlin: Metropol, 2004), 149–68; Alvydas Nikžentaitis, Stefan Schreiner, and Darius Staliūnas, The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2004).

542 Krisztian Ungváry, “Robbing the Dead: The Hungarian Contribution to the Holocaust,” in Beate Kosmala and Feliks Tych, eds., Facing the Nazi Genocide: Non-Jews and Jews in Europe (Berlin: Metropol, 2004), 231–61, especially 231–33.

543 Gábor Kádár and Zoltán Vági, “Plunder and Collaboration: Fnancial Aspects of a Genocide,” in Beate Kosmala and Feliks Tych, eds., Facing the Nazi Genocide: Non-Jews and Jews in Europe (Berlin: Metropol, 2004), 263–88, especially 263–64.

544 Knut Stang, Kollaboration und Massenmord: Die litauische Hilfspolizei, das Rollkommando Hamann und die Ermordung der litauischen Juden (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1996), 156–71; Christoph Dieckmann, “The Role of the Lithuanians in the Holocaust,” in Beate Kosmala and Feliks Tych, eds., Facing the Nazi Genocide: Non-Jews and Jews in Europe (Berlin: Metropol, 2004), 149–68. See also the following essays in Alvydas Nikžentaitis, Stefan Schreiner, and Darius Staliūnas, The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2004): Yitzhak Arad, “The Murder of the Jews in German-Occupied Lithuania, (1941–1944)” (pp. 175–203); Arūnas Bubnys, “The Holocaust in Lithuania: An Outline of the Major Stages and their Results” (pp. 205–221); “Lithuanian Participation in the Mass Murder of Jews in Belarus and Ukraine, 1941–44” (pp. 285–96).

545 Dieter Pohl, “The Murder of Ukraine’s Jews under German Military Administration and in the Reich Commissariat Ukraine,” in Ray Brandon and Wendy Lower, eds., The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2008), 54–55.

546 Frank Golczewski, “Shades of Grey: Reflections on Jewish-Ukrainian and German-Ukrainian Relations in Galicia,” in Ray Brandon and Wendy Lower, eds., The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2008), 139.

547 Bernhard Chiari, “Has There Been a People’s War? The History of the Second World War in Belarus, 60 Years After the Surrender of the Third Reich,” in Bruno De Wever, Herman Van Goethem, and Nico Wouters, eds., Local Government in Occupied Europe (1939–1945) (Gent, Belgium: Academia Press, 2006), 236. It should be noted that many local German Mennonites were found in prominent positions as rayon heads, city mayors or police heads. Ibid., 254.

548 Ibid., 256.

549 “The Chief Rabbi of Israel Speaks: Anti-Semitism Is Something Totally Illogical,” The Jewish Press (Brooklyn), August 13, 1993.

550 Said on Dutch television in 1979. Cited in Stewart Stevens, The Poles (St. James’s Place, London: Collins/Harvill, 1982), 317.

551 David Landau, “We Can’t Fight the Whole World,” The Jerusalem Post, September 8, 1989. The interview with Shamir reads: Question: “Doesn’t it amaze you that in Poland, where hardly a Jew is left, there should still be a powerful anti-Semitic presence?” Answer: “They suck it in with their mother’s milk! This is something that is deeply imbued in their tradition, their mentality.”

552 Said on April 20, 1993, during state visit to Poland to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Reported in The New York Times on April 21, 1993 (“Gore Congratulates Poland on Its Democracy”).

553 Said in a Radio Free Europe (Munich) interview broadcast to Poland on January 7, 1989. See Władysław T. Bartoszewski, The Convent at Auschwitz (London: Bowerdean Press, 1990), 30.

554 Cited in Marc Hillel, Le massacre des survivants: En Pologne après l’holocauste (1945–1947) (Paris: Plon, 1985), 99.

555 Piotr Szczepański (Zbigniew Romaniuk), “Pogromy, mordy i pogromiki,” Kurier Poranny (Białystok), April 12, 1996 (Wydanie AB).

556 Cited in Małgorzata Niezabitowska, Remnants: The Last Jews of Poland (New York: Friendly Press, 1986), 249.

557 Cited in Marek Arczyński and Wiesław Balcerak, Kryptonim “Żegota”: Z dziejów pomocy Żydom w Polsce 1939–1945, 2nd edition (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1983), 264.

558 Eva Hoffman, Shtetl: The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Polish Jews (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997), 245.

559 Shimon Redlich, Together and Apart in Brzezany: Poles, Jews, and Ukrainians, 1918–1945 (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2002), 22.

560 This article first appeared in Polish under the title “Ani niedźwiedzi, ani lasu ani nic: Tragedia getta
warszawskiego,” in Zeszyty Historyczne (Paris), volume 150 (1996): 3–21.

561 The same curious phenomenon appears to have been repeated in other ghettos. For example, forty members of the 150-strong underground movement in the Kielce ghetto survived the German occupation, whereas nearly all of the population of the ghetto perished. See Michał Grynberg and Maria Kotowska, eds., Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945: Relacje świadków (Warsaw: Oficyna Naukowa, 2003), 189.

562 Yitzhak Zuckerman (“Antek”), A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 412.

563 Reuben Ainsztein, Jewish Resistancce in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe (London: Paul Elek, 1974), 624.

564 Reuben Ainsztein, Jewish Resistancce in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe (London: Paul Elek, 1974), 602.


565 In fact, the Home Army engaged a Jew whom they had freed from the Gęsiówka Street prison camp to help penetrate the city sewers during the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944. See Norman Davies, Rising ’41: ‘The Battle for Warsaw’ (London: Macmillan, 2003), 269.

566 For example, in March 1943, an SS warehouse at 31 Nalewki Street was set on fire and two Germans were shot in the ghetto. Yitzhak Zuckerman claims this was the work of the ŻOB, and bemoans the retaliation that ensued (170 Jews from nearby houses were shot): “This enraged the people against us. Many of us also regretted it.” Yitzhak Zuckerman (“Antek”), A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 316. Yisrael Gutman, the leading Jewish historian on this topic and a former ŻOB member, does not assign credit to the ŻOB for these accomplishments, and ŻZW sources maintain that it was they who torched the SS storage depot at 31 Nalewki Street. See Chaim Lazar Litai, Muranowska 7: The Warsaw Ghetto Rising (Tel Aviv: Massada–P.E.C. Press, 1966), 198–99.

567 Israel Gutman provided the following description: “Anielewicz chose a dozen fighter with pistols … The fighters were to join the lines going to the Umschlagplatz, and at a certain point on the way and at a given signal, they were to burst out of the lines and attack the German guards escorting the queue. … the signal was given and the battle began. Each Jewish fighter assaulted the nearest German. Even on a one-to-one basis, this was not a battle between equals. The Jews were armed with a few pistols and limited ammunition, while the Germans had semiautomatic rifles and ample ammunition. The Jews had the momentary advantage of surprise… After a few minutes, the Germans recovered from the shock of being attacked, and the initial forces were soon augmented by reserves. Most of the Jewish fighters fell in battle. … Another group led by Yitzhak Zuckerman defended themselves from a house in Zamenhof Street. They had entrenched themselves in an apartment, and when the Germans entered to search, the fighters opened fire. … According to some of the participants, two Germans were wounded. At the end of this defensive action, in which a Jewish fighter was killed, the group retreated to a house on Muranowska Street.” See Israel Gutman, Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), 182–83.

568 This is confirmed by Yisrael Gutman, The Jews of Warsaw, 1939–1945: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1982), 349. Marek Edelman describes the fighting thus: “But no, they did not scare us and we were not taken by surprise. We were only awaiting an opportune moment. Such a moment presently arrived. The Germans chose the intersection at Miła and Zamenhofa Streets for their bivouac area, and battle groups barricaded at the four corners of the street opened concentric fire on them. Strange projectiles began exploding everywhere (the hand grenades of our own make), the lone machine-gun sent shots through the air now and then (ammunition had to be conserved carefully), rifles started firing a bit farther away. Such was the beginning.” He compares this to the ŻZW fighting: “At the same time heavy fighting raged at Muranowski Square. Here the Germans attacked from all directions. The cornered partisans defended themselves bitterly and succeeded, by truly superhuman efforts, in repulsing the attacks. Two German machine-guns and a quantity of other weapons were captured. A German tank was burned, the second tank of the day.” See Marek Edelman, “The Ghetto Fights”, in The Warsaw Ghetto: The 45th Anniversary of the Uprising (Warsaw: Interpress, 1988), posted online at .


569 According to Simha Rotem, “When the second aktsia began on January 18, 1943, I and my companions in the ZOB were determined to fight, but we had almost no weapons, except for a few scattered pistols. Our group of a few score members, including Zivia Lubetkin, possessed an arsenal of sticks, knives, iron bars, and anything that came to hand. We holed up in the attic waiting for the Germans to come, but they didn’t. In other places, where there were weapons, there was shooting, which amazed the Germans. A few of them were killed and their weapons were taken as loot…” See Simha Rotem (“Kazik”), Memoirs of a Warsaw Ghetto Fighter: The Past Within Me (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), 18–19.



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