The ilo was founded in 1919, in the wake of a destructive war, to pursue a vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon decent treatment of working people. The Ilo became the first specialized agency of the un in 1946




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To: "'Tony Gosling'"

Subject: RE: OCR Copy


When I made this I noticed something called the I.L.O. I never heard of it and it peaked my interest. In it the Political group discussed the I.L.O. and the United Nations(March 22,1943) & PB-47 Suggestions for Adapting the I.L.O. for Greater Usefulness (August 7, 1942)


I didn’t know what the I.L.O. was. I googled it and their website says http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm :


The website says :


The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. Its main aims are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue in handling work-related issues.


In promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, the organization continues to pursue its founding mission that labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of decent jobs and the kinds of economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress.


Origins and history


The ILO was founded in 1919, in the wake of a destructive war, to pursue a vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon decent treatment of working people. The ILO became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946.


The Council on Foreign Relations was also founded in 1919 right after the Paris Peace Conference. I have not researched the CFR I.L.O. connection but my guess is that it was and still is a creature of the CFR. Wikipedia says : The ILO was established as an agency of the League of Nations following the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Labour_Organization


The League of Nations was part of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points. The founding fathers of the CFR were members of a group called the Inquiry which wrote the 14 points. Also present at the Paris Peace Conference were Members of the RIIA who would meet with members of the Inquiry after the Paris Peace Conference was over and create the CFR.


THE WAR AND PEACE STUDIES


OF THE


COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS


1939 -1945


-

THE HAROLD PRATT HOUSE

FIFTY-EIGHT EAST SIXTY-EIGHTH STREET

New York

1946


COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

R. C. leffingwell President


isaiah bowman Vice-President

frank altschul Secretary


allen W. dulles Vice-President

clarence E. hunter Treasurer


walter H. mallory Executive Director


hamilton fish armstrong

william A. M. burden

john W. davis

lewis W. douglas

stephen duggan

thomas K. finletter


George O.. may

philip D. reed

WlNFIELD W. RlEFLER WllI'l'NEY H. SHEPARDSON

mvron C. taylor

john H. williams


Copyright, 1946, by Council en Foreign Relations, Inc. Printed in the United Stales of America


As THE foreign responsibilities of the United States increase, the participation of its citizens in influencing its foreign policies should increase also. Without such participation there are bound to be violent fluctuations in public opinion (as happened, for example, in the years 1918-1920), with consequent abrupt reversals of foreign policy. The channels of communication between people and government should be open in both directions and they should be used as fully and frequently as practicable.

Recognizing this, alert policy-making officials of government will always be on the lookout for analyses and judgments of private citizens and agencies known to have special competence and believed to be acting from disinterested motives. This will be true particu­larly in times of crisis, when they are overwhelmed with the work of day-by-day decision and action. But while independent private agencies should be free to undertake studies and to report their findings without fear or favor, government officials must remain free to accept or disregard them; for it is they who are charged with responsibility for action and are held accountable to the public for mistakes. Thus the link­age between government and outside agencies should be informal and loose, each retaining full independence.

The wartime activities of the Council on Foreign Relations offer an unusual instance of collaboration between government agencies and a private institu­tion. Since it is difficult, even in a democracy, for

[1]


private citizens to participate in the formulation of foreign policy, the Council's experience may be con­sidered of interest not merely to Council members but of general interest in relationship to a broad problem of government.

The wartime work of the Council necessarily was confidential; and the management is glad now to be able to report on it to the Council membership. It originated in a visit which Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Editor of Foreign Affairs, and Walter H. Mallory, Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Rela­tions, paid to the Department of State on September 12, 1939, to offer such aid on the part of the Council as might be useful and appropriate in view of the out­break of the war in Europe. There was no doubt that even if the United States avoided being drawn into the war, its interests would become profoundly en­gaged as the conflict progressed; and certainly they would be directly affected by the eventual peace set­tlements. The Department already was greatly over­worked as a result of the crisis, and adequate govern­ment funds for increased staff were not immediately available. The Council representatives suggested that, particularly pending the time when the Department itself was able to assemble a staff and begin research and analysis on the proper scale, the Council might undertake work in certain specific fields, without, of course, any formal assignment of responsibility on the one side or restriction of independent action on the other. Specifically, they proposed that the Council form groups of experts to proceed with research un-

[2]

der four general heads­Security and Armaments Problems, Economic and Financial Problems, Politi­cal Problems, and Territorial Problems. In this way the Council's long experience in assembling and con­ducting such groups would be put to use and the De­partment would be provided with a cross-section of expert opinion to supplement its own official informa­tion and opinion.

The Department officers welcomed the Council's suggestion and encouraged the Council management to proceed with the formulation of a more detailed plan. This was done in consultation with Department officials. The Rockefeller Foundation was then approached for a grant of funds to put the plan into operation. When assurances had been received that the funds were available, the personnel of the groups was selected and on December 8, 1939, an organiza­tion meeting was held in Washington, at the home of Assistant Secretary of State George S. Messersmilh.

General responsibility for the War and Peace Studies rested with the Council's Committee on Studies, but actual direction was in the hands of a Steering Committee, composed at the start as follows:

norman H. davis, Chairman

hamilton fish armstrong, Vice Chairman

walter H. mallory, Secretary

paul F. jones, Administrative Secretary

isaiah bowman

allbn W. dulles

alvin H. hansen

whitnby H. shepardson

jacob Viner

[3]

Individual group members were chosen because of special experience and competence to deal with par­ticular subjects. Each group was headed by a Rappor­teur and had the assistance of a Research Secretary. Subjects were assigned for special investigation to individual group members, and occasionally to out­side experts. After a draft statement had been pre­pared, it was brought before the group, discussed thoroughly, sometimes at several successive meetings, and then put into final form for transmission to Wash­ington for use by the appropriate officials in the De­partment. Accompanying it was a digest of the dis­cussion.

The Rapporteurs received a nominal honorarium and the Research Secretaries were compensated for the time they spent on this work according to usual academic schedules of pay. The members of the groups served without remuneration. All of them, it should be added, understood that the nature of their work precluded them from receiving any public recognition or reward.

A complete list of the persons who participated in the work of the groups appears in Appendix A. The original Rapporteurs and Research Secretaries were as follows : Security and Armaments Group, Rapporteur Alien W. Dulles, Research Secretary William M. Franklin; Economic and Financial Group, Rap­porteurs Alvin H. Hansen and Jacob Viner, Research Secretaries Arthur R. Upgren and William Diebold, Jr.; Political Group, Rapporteur Whitney H. Shep-ardson, Research Secretary Walter Langsam; Terri-

[4]

torial Group, Rapporteur Isaiah Bowman, Research Secretary Philip E. Mosely.

As the work progressed, the original structure of the project was changed in only one major respect. In 1941, it appeared desirable to investigate the claims of different European nations, the relationship be­tween the individual national claims, and their bear­ing both on the current foreign policy of the United States and on the eventual postwar settlement. Accordingly, in May of that year the Council organized a fifth group, independently of the other groups, aided by a special grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The procedure of this group was different from that of the others. At each meeting competent political and economic representatives of a particular nation or group of nations presented their aims and aspirations. The Rapporteur and Research Secretary had worked out a careful agenda with them beforehand. Full records were kept of the discussion, and these were sent to the State Department, together with written memoranda submitted by dissident spokesmen on the same or related topics. The work of this group was particularly commended by the State Department, and in 1942 it therefore was integrated into the War and Peace Studies project as the Peace Aims Group. A full list of all members of this group appears in Appendix A. The Rapporteur was Hamilton Fish Armstrong, and Philip E. Mosely was the first Re-search Secretary.

In February of 1941 the relationship between the Council and the Department of State was modified.

[5]

The Department, as had been foreseen, established a Division of Special Research, which organized its work along lines similar to that of the Council, i.e. it was divided into Economic, Political, Territorial and Security sections. Leo Pasvolsky was appointed Di­rector of Research. All of the Research Secretaries serving with the Council groups were subsequently engaged by the Department to participate in its new Division. The Council was glad to release them for this purpose, on the proviso that they be permitted to continue serving part-time as Research Secretaries of their respective Council groups. The arrangement made it easier for the Council to select the problems particularly in need of study and to fix a timetable for dealing with them to the best advantage.

The cooperative relationship between the Depart­ment and the Council was further strengthened in 1942, when the Department organized an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies, with Secre­tary Cordell Hull as Chairman and Under Secretary Sumner Welles as Vice-Chairman.* Dr. Pasvolsky was appointed its Executive Officer. Several experts from outside the Department were brought in as members of this Committee, among them Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin V. Cohen, Norman H. Davis, and James T. Shotwell, all of whom had been participating in the Council's work for the Department. The Advisory Committee was divided into several subcommittees. Mr.

"Report to the President on the Results of the San Francisco Conference," Introduction, pp. 20-31 (Department of State, Publication 1345, June »6, 1945).

[6]

Davis, who served as chairman of the Steering Com­mittee of the Council project from its inauguration in 1940 till his death on July 2, 1944, presided over the Subcommittee on Security Problems. Mr. Cohen, of the Council's Economic and Financial Group, was a member of the Subcommittee on Economic Problems, of which Myron C. Taylor was chairman. Dr. Bowman, Rapporteur of the Council's Territorial Group, presided over the Subcommittee on Terri­torial Problems. Mr. Armstrong, Vice-Chairman of the Council's Steering Committee, was a member of the Subcommittee on Political Problems and of the Subcommittee on Territorial Problems.

Parenthetically, it might be mentioned that the par­ticipation of Council members in the work for the Department described above led in many cases to other work related to the organization of peace and the settlement of postwar problems. For example:

Among the Research Secretaries, Philip E. Mosely, Re­search Secretary of the Territorial Group, was taken by Secretary Hull to Moscow in 1943, when the representa­tives of Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and China issued the Moscow Declaration, the text of which had been elaborated previously in the Department's Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies. Later Mr. Mosely was released from the Research Secretary­ship of the Council's Territorial Group to become political adviser to the American member of the European Ad­visory Commission in London. Walter R. Sharp, Research Secretary of the Political Group, served as Secretary-General of the United Nations Food Conference at Quebec in 1945. Grayson Kirk, Research Secretary of the

[7]

Security Group, was an expert at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference and was Executive Officer of Commission III at San Francisco. Dwight E. Lee, Research Secretary of the Council's group on Peace Aims, was Assistant Secre­tary of Committee i, Commission III, at San Francisco.

Of the Rapporteurs, Dr. Bowman was a member of the U. S. Delegation at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, was named Special Adviser to the Secretary of State, became a member of the Department's Policy Committee and served as Adviser to the American Delegation at the San Fran­cisco Conference.
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