Direct Quotations

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When you complete any assignment you will provide a bibliography which states which references you have read and cited in your work. There are many different styles of referencing and the School of Education uses the style known as Harvard British. The following guide shows you how to reference different formats (books, chapters, journal articles, web pages and so on) within the text of your assignment and at the end in a bibliography.

In addition to this guide on how to manually reference there is a web based bibliographic software package available to all University staff and students called RefWorks. This software will allow you to search our library catalogue and electronic resources and save details of references. You can then automatically create a bibliography in the style of your choosing, using all or some of the references you have saved. For full details, or to organise a demonstration please contact Claire Molloy


The instructions below refer to citing from a book, a journal article, a report and so on though the examples given are from books.

Indirect Quotations

If you decide to indirectly refer to an author within your essay there are two ways you can do this. For example:

The author’s name can be included within the sentence:

'It has been said by Schon (1991) that professionals are beginning to experience a crisis in confidence.'

or it can be put in brackets:

'Teachers should be aware of the context of their class and what outcomes they wish to achieve.' (Kyriacou, 1997)

NOTE: the year of publication is always referred to along with the author's name. Both of these combined will allow anyone reading your work to refer to your bibliography and find the complete details of the relevant reference. Remember every published item referred to in your text should be listed in the bibliography at the end of the assignment. Examples are given later in this guide.

Direct Quotations

Although you should do it sparingly, you can quote directly from an author within your text. In other words take exactly word for word what s/he said in their text and put it into yours. You must quote as you do with an indirect quote but in addition add the page number the exact quote came from:

"Young learners learn the functions of negation very early. However, it takes some time before they learn the grammar rules which enable them to express the variety of negative functions." (Siraj-Blatchford and Clarke, 2000, p.55)

You will notice in the above reference there are two authors. If there are more than two you will name them all individually in your bibliography (see later for examples) but within the text you will name two authors followed by et al. e.g. (Joyce, B., Calhoun, E. et al., 2002)

Secondary Referencing - citing work referred to by another author

It may be the case that you refer to work that has been cited by another author. In other words you may read In Janet Moyle's The Excellence of Play (1994) that she has quoted Hale-Benson (1982) but you have not read that work. You should quote as follows:

Moyles (1994) cites the work of Hale-Benson (1982) where he has stated…


Hale-Benson (1982, cited by Moyles 1994) stated that…


Moyles (1994, citing Hale-Benson 1982) states that…

You will then put the Janet Moyles book in your bibliography as you have read and referred to that, but not the Hale-Benson as you have not read it.

Referencing personal communications, emails, lectures etc.

There may be occasions when someone has communicated with you and there is no published source from which you can cite his or her comments. As there is no published work that your reader can use to find the item and read it for themselves it is not referenced at the end of the work in a bibliography. You only cite the personal communication in the text. For example:

Teachers find it increasingly difficult to get support from their headteacher's over matter of discipline. (Joe Bloggs 18th January, 2004, personal email to the author.)

There is some debate over whether or not you should cite lectures in your work. In theory your lecturer should provide details of where s/he got his or her details from, in other words reference their work. Often in a lecture this does not happen. They should give you a reading list and the materials on that should have been used to provide the lecture. You should speak to your tutor if you wish to quote from a lecture and remember to follow the general rule of referring to the author and dating the piece.

Referencing Acts of Parliament

You may quote from Acts of Parliament within your text and you do so by quoting the title of the Act and the year; (Special Educational Needs and Disability Act, 2001). You do not need to add the Act to your bibliography.

Referencing non-English authors

From time to time you will have to reference non-English names. The following is a general guide:

  • German Names

Sometimes German names are preceded with 'von' or 'van'. In general, the particle is dropped in favour of citing the family name alone e.g. Beethoven is not normally referred to as 'van Beethoven'.

In a bibliography you can use:

Beethoven, L. van (1817) or,

Beethoven van, L. (1817)

  • Dutch and Belgian Names

Dutch names can have a variety of particles though the most common is 'van' or 'van der'. They normally appear with a lower case e.g. Ruud van Nistelrooij. In comparison in Belgium the particle almost always has a capital e.g. Paul Van Look. In contrast to German names the Dutch participle is used when commenting in the text e.g. 'van Nistelrooij scored a cracker against Arsenal', but as with German names the particle is dropped in an alphabetical list:

Gogh, V., van (1891) or,

Gogh van, V. (1891)

Look, P., Van (2002) or

Look Van, P. (2002)

American names of Dutch descent often have been assimilated within the surname e.g. Ray DeVries and would be referenced as DeVries, R. (2000).


Harvard British is the style in which when we quote from an author in our text we place his/her name in parenthesis with the year. In the bibliography the author's name is in capitals (though it is not in the text!) and the title of a book or journal in italics (a journal article is not in italics). Some like to place the year of publication in parenthesis. This is not a requirement of Harvard British standard and is a personal preference of some tutors. You would be best to check this with your own tutor. In the following examples the year has been placed in parenthesis.

  1. A book with one author

SCHON, D. A., (1991). The Reflective Practitioner. How Professionals Think in Action. Aldershot: Ashgate Arena.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of book (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

  1. A book with two authors

SIRAJ-BLATCHFORD, I. and CLARKE, P., (2000). Supporting Identity, Diversity and Language in the Early Years. Buckingham: Open University Press.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS. and AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of book (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

  1. A book with more than two authors

JOYCE, B., CALHOUN, E. and HOPKINS, D., (2002). Models of learning - tools for teaching. 2nd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS. and AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of book (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

  1. When there is more than one book by the same author in the same year

If there is more than one book by the same author published in the same year you will need to differentiate between them by adding a letter after the year as below:

AINSCOW, M., (1999a). Effective practice in inclusion and special and mainstream schools working together. London: Department for Education and Employment.

AINSCOW, M., (1999b). Understanding the development of inclusive schools. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publicationa). Title of book (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publicationb). Title of book (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

  1. A corporate author

SCOTTISH OFFICE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT (SOED)., (1991). National Guidelines Mathematics 5-14. Edinburgh: SOED

CORPORATE AUTHOR (In parenthesis you can put any well used acronym)., (Year of publication). Title of book or report (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

  1. Referencing a report

A report is referenced just as if it were a book by either an author or corporate body e.g.

HM INSPECTORATE OF EDUCATION., (2002). ICT: into the classroom of tomorrow: an interim report by HM Inspector of Education on the implementation of the New Opportunities Fund ICT training of teachers and school librarians in Scotland. Edinburgh: HM Inspectorate of Education.

AUTHOR's NAME OR CORPORATE NAME., (Year of publication). Title of book or report (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. Report number if there is one.

7. A chapter from a book or contribution to a book

FIELDING, S., (2002). No one else to vote for? Labour's campaign. In: A. GEDDES and J. TONGE, eds. Labour's second landslide. The British General Election 2001. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of book. In: INITIALS, AUTHOR’S SURNAME and INITIALS, AUTHOR’S SURNAME (followed by ed. or eds. for an editor or editors), Title of book (in italics). Edition, if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

  1. A journal article

CARR, M., and KURTZ, B.E., (1991). Teachers’ perceptions of students’ metacognition, attributions and self-concept. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61 (2), 197-206.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS and further authors if appropriate., (Year of publication). Title of the article. Name of Journal (in italics), volume number (in bold), (part number), page numbers.

9. Newspaper Article

It should be relatively easy to reference a newspaper article if you have the newspaper to hand. Sometimes it is difficult to attribute an author to the piece and in such cases the name of the newspaper should be quoted:

WARD, L., (2004). Parents 'should pay for schools'. The Guardian, Wednesday 4th February, p.10

If you can find the issue number of the newspaper this should be placed between the newspaper title and the date.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS if known, otherwise name of newspaper., (Year of publication). Title of the article. Name of Newspaper (in italics), part number if known then day and month, page numbers preceded with p.

10. Reference to a Thesis

FINLAY, G., (2003). Perceptions of Circle Time. Thesis (BEd Honours). University of Aberdeen.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of thesis. Designation (and type). Name of institution to which submitted.

11. Reference to a Conference Paper

When you have a paper from a conference it may or may not have come from an official published collection of the whole conference. More often than not you will have got the paper from a web site and you can add the URL and when you accessed it following the instructions under 'A Reference from a Web page' below.

AINSCOW, M., (1995). Education For All: Making it Happen. Keynote speech presented to International Special Education Congress. (ISEC) 1995, April 10-13. Birmingham, UK.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of paper/contribution. In: INITIALS, SURNAME, of editor of proceedings, if applicable followed by ed. Title of Conference Proceedings, including the date and place of

the conference. Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers of contribution.


AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (Year of publication). Title of paper/contribution. Title of Conference Proceedings, including the date and place of the conference.


WWW address

[Date Accessed: DD/MM/YYYY]

Note no full stop at end of WWW address

12. A reference from a web page

With web addresses it can be very difficult to attribute authorship, publisher or a publication date. Reference what you can and leave the author blank or write Anon. If you don't know the date just say undated and if the publisher and place of publication cannot be found simply leave blank:

BBC. (Undated). The Romans. BBC Schools.


[Date Accessed: 05/02/2004]

AUTHOR, (year of publication). Title. Edition if known. Place of Publication: Publisher.


WWW address

[Date Accessed: DD/MM/YYYY]

Note no full stop at end of WWW address

It is always a good idea to keep a paper or electronic copy of the page you referred to just in case it has disappeared when your marker goes back to find it!

13. Multimedia such as CD-ROM and DVD

There is no one standard style for referencing multimedia. You must make sure you give enough detail for any reader of your work to be able to find the same material. You reference a CD-ROM when it is a work in its own right, not when it is a database.

AHLBERG, J. and AHLBERG, A., (1997). The Jolly Post Office. [CD-ROM] London: DK Multimedia.

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., (if ascertainable). (Year of publication). Title of item. [type/format of medium] Place of publication (if ascertainable): Publisher. (if ascertainable)

14. Reference to a broadcast on TV, Film, DVD or Video

As with other unusual media, just make sure you have all the details down to allow someone else to find the item you are referring to:

How we used to Live: All Change, Episode 4 Leisure. TV. Channel 4 Schools. 29th January 2004.

Awakenings. Film. Directed by Penny Marshall. USA: Columbia/TriStar, 1990.

Etre et Avoir. DVD. Directed by Nicholas Philibert. France: Maia Films, 2003.

Title of item. Number of episode for series. Type/format of medium. Director for films/Channel of broadcast for TV programmes. Place of publication (if ascertainable): Distributor/Studio. (if ascertainable) Date of broadcast for TV/Date of Release for Film/DVD/Video. This doesn't appear in parentheses.

Contact details

If you wish to arrange a RefWorks tutorial, or to discuss your bibliography please contact:

Claire Molloy, Information Advisor, Education and Social Science

Tel: 01224 274813 or email:

Last updated: 24th August 2004




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