Андрианова Л. Н., Багрова Н. Ю., Ершова Э. В. Книга для чтения по английскому языку для заочных технических вузов




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Exercise 4. Decode the abbreviations:



PC, ROM, CPU, RAM, CD-ROM, RW disс, BASIC.


MEMORIZE (запомните):



Process //, n

технологический процесс, прием, способ; обработка информации

Process // , v

обрабатывать, подвергать процессу

обработки (с изменением качества).

Processor /'/

обрабатывающее устройство, процессор




Exercise 5. Discuss the computer architecture using a scheme:


A computer system consists of


Exercise 6. Study the Grammar Box section and learn the grammar rules concerning the Participle.







GRAMMAR BOX: PARTICIPLES

1.

N + Participle I (-ing) – функция определения

the languages operating (КАКИЕ ? – действующие)


the word meaning … (означать)

the device reading … (читать)

the device printing … (печатать)

the screen showing … (показывать)

the tools changing(изменять)


2.

N + Participle II (-ed, 3 ф.) (функция определения)

the system developed ( КАКАЯ ? – разработанная)


the information accepted…

(принимать)

the instruction called a program…

(называть)

the cards punched

(перфорировать)

the data output…

(выводить)

the process performed…

(выполнять)

the devices used

(применять)

the text printed…

(печатать)

the text translated…

(переводить)

the instruction read…

(читать)

the application installed

(устанавливать)


3.

N + Participle I (-ing) Passive – функция определения

Devices being used ( КАКИЕ ? – применяемые )


the operation being performed

the applications being installed

the instructions being given

the text being printed

flash cards being inserted


DISCUSSION:


What computers can do in particular areas?

Here are some ideas:

In factories, computers are used to control machinery, robots, production lines, lists of products, etc.

In Formula I, computers are used to design and construct racing cars. Computers help engineers to design the car body and the mechanical parts. During the races a lot of microprocessors control the electronic components of the car and monitor the engine speed, temperature and other actual information.

In entertainment

In libraries…


WHAT ARE THE SPEAKERS’ JOBS?

  1. I use my computer to do the usual office things like write memos, letters, faxes and so on, but the thing I find really useful is electronic mail. We are an international company and we have offices all over the world. We’re linked up to all of them by e-mail. With e-mail I can communicate with the offices around the world very efficiently. It’s really changed my life.



  1. Well, I use computers for almost every aspect of my job. I use them to design electrical installations and lighting systems: for example the program will tell you how much lighting you need for a particular room, or how much cable you need, and it will show where the cable should go. I also use the computer to make drawings and to keep records. We have to test our installations every five years and the information is stored on computer.


Check, if you know the following verbs:


To consist, to include, to make up, to contain, to execute, to increase, to install, to perform, to compose of, to turn on, to turn off, to store, to hold, to keep to start up, to operate, to attach, to enable, to allow, to print, to provide.




TEXT B




IWB





    1. a) Translate the text in a written form using a dictionary:



IWB – interactive whiteboards – are innovative tools providing efficient training in a classroom. IWB is made “interactive” by being linked to a computer which uses special IWB software. Three essential components needed to use in IWB are the whiteboard itself, a computer which has IWB software installed and a data projector (or beamer) which projects the image from the computer screen onto the whiteboard. What makes the IWD different from a normal whiteboard is that the teacher uses the special pen to manipulate content on the whiteboard itself rather than (а не using the mouse to manipulate images on the computer screen.


The latest IWB can also be used with a wireless tablet PC (a smaller hand-held computer) instead of a large desktop or laptop computer.

The interactive whiteboard itself comes in different sizes, measured diagonally across. The most common size is 190 cms (75 inches) across, and the teachers tend to agree that the bigger the board, the more effective it is, as images are more clearly displayed on a larger board.

The main advantage of an IWB used with a computer and data projector over a computer and data projector used on their own is that you can write on the IWB with your pen or finger and interact with what on the screen from the front of the class rather than having to look down to your computer and using the mouse to control the screen.


    1. b) Rretell the text, using the following keywords:

innovative tools, special software, three main components, data projector, to project the image, a wireless tablet PC, different sizes.





TEXT C (с портретом)


NORBERT WIENER(1894 – 1964)

TEXT C




NORBERT WIENER


(1894 – 1964)




Read the text below and find the answers. Write them down in a chart.

  1. What disciplines did N.Wiener study?

  2. In what countries did he study ?

  3. What project played an important part in his development of the science of cybernetics?

  4. What is cybernetics ?

  5. In what branches of science did N.Wiener work?

  6. What modern sciences use today the ideas of Norbert Wiener ?




Norbert Wiener, the famous applied mathematician, was born in 1894 in the USA and died in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1964. His father was a professor of Slavonic languages at Harvard. Norbert was a very intelligent child and his father was determined to make him a famous scholar. This is indeed what he became, being awarded a PhD by Harvard at the age of 18. He also studied Philosophy, Logic and Mathematics at Cambridge and Göttingen.

His first important position was that of Instructor of mathematics at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 1919, followed by that of Assistant Professor in 1929 and of Professor in 1931. Two years later, in 1922, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (USA), from which he resigned in 1941. In 1940 he started to work on a research project at MIT on anti-aircraft devices, a project that played an important part in his development of the science of cybernetics.

The idea of cybernetics came to Wiener when he began to consider the ways in which machines and human minds work. This led to the idea of cybernetics, which is the study of the ways humans and machines process information, in order to understand their differences. It often refers to the machines that imitate human behaviour. The term was coined from the Greek kubernetike which means the art of the steersman (the skill of the captain when controlling the ship). This idea made it possible to turn early computers into machines that imitate human ways of thinking, particularly in terms of control (via negative feedback) and communication (via transmission of information).

Norbert Wiener was also deeply attracted to mathematical physics. This interest originated in the collaborative work that he did with Max Born in 1926 on quantum mechanics. But Wiener’s interests were not limited to logic, mathematics, cybernetics or mathematical physics alone, as he was also familiar with every aspect of philosophy. In fact, he was awarded his doctorate for a study on mathematical logic that was based on his studies of philosophy. In addition to that, in a very different field, he wrote two short stories and a novel. Wiener also published an autobiography in two parts: Ex-Prodigy: My Childhood and Youth and I am a Mathematician.

Due to his involvement in many different disciplines, Wiener was able to draw on many resources in his varied research, thus making him an incredibly successful applied scientist. Wiener was one of the most original and significant contemporary scientists and his reputation was securely established in the new sciences such as cybernetics, theory of information and biophysics.


NOTES:


Awarded a PhD by Harvard   – получил степень доктора философии (высшая научная степень, третья после степеней бакалавра и магистра) в Гарвардском университете   – одном из самых престижных и старинных университетов США.

Cambridge -  – один из самых старинных и престижных университетов Великобритании.

Göttingen – знаменитый университет в Германии, знаменитый своей школой естественных наук и богатейшей библиотекой.

MIT – Массачусетский технологический институт – один из первых и самых престижных политехнических вузов США.

To resign – уйти с должности

Steersman -  – рулевой

in terms of, viaпосредством, через

collaborative work – сотрудничество

due to his involvement in many different disciplines – благодаря увлеченности различными дисциплинами

applied scientist - ученый, занимающийся прикладными проблемами (ср. applied mathematician)

securely established - надежно подтверждена


Exercise 1. The chart for your written answers:


1

N.W. studied the following disciplines:



2

N.W. studied at such countries as :



3

The important project was



4.

Cybernetics is



5

N.W. worked in the different branches:




6

His ideas are used today in




Exercise 2. Listen to the text and add information to the chart:



In 1894




In 1964




In 1912




In 1919




In 1926




In 1929




In 1931




In 1940




In 1941




HELP: In eighteen ninety four …, In nineteen sixty four…,


  1. Choose the correct answer:


1. Norbert Wiener died

a) in the USA

b) in Germany

c) in Sweden


2. . Norbert Wiener began to think seriously about cybernetics

a) when he was at MIT

b) when he was a science instructor

c) after he resigned


3. An example of cybernetics in action is

a) a television

b) a computer

c) an airplane


4. Wiener wrote a book about

a) himself

b) mathematics

c) philosophy


  1. 4) Discuss with your partner the biography of Norbert Wiener.


Use the expressions: to my mind; I think: as far as I know; It seems to me;

I’d like to note that …

.




WORDS TO BE REMEMBERED IN UNIT 2:


Software, hardware, chip, main memory, CPU, to contain, to consist of, to compose, cybernetics, to include, to exclude, to install, to perform, to operate, to process, to store information, to input, to output, to print, keyboard, device, to provide, access, accessible, www, web, digital.



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