Андрианова Л. Н., Багрова Н. Ю., Ершова Э. В. Книга для чтения по английскому языку для заочных технических вузов




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Exercise 6.




a) Make up the sentences and name the main inventions of the 20th century.




What of them do you enjoy?

What was invented at the year of your birth?




b) Write down 6-10 sentences and discuss the information. Find the necessary information in the Internet.





  1. electric typewriter

  2. airconditioner, speedometer, crayon.

  3. skyscraper.

  4. novocaine.

  5. animated cartoon.

  6. vacuum cleaner, plastic.

  7. cellophane, electric razor, paper cup.

  8. cigarette lighter.




  1. superconductivity.

  1. artificial kidney, crossword puzzle, assembly line.

  2. traffic light, zipper.

  3. radiotelephone

  1. electric food mixer.

  2. short wave radio.




  1. tea bag, submachine gun.

  2. lie detector.

  3. self-winding watch.

  4. TB vaccine.

  5. frozen food, spiral-bound notepad.

  1. talking movies, liquid-fuel rocket.

  2. tape recorder.

  3. black and white television




  1. cyclotron, scotch tape, supermarket

  2. electric guitar, FM radio, freon

  3. color cartoon film

  4. electron microscope

  5. radar

  6. beer can, Kodakchrome film

  1. xerography, radiotelescope

  2. fluorescent lighting

  3. DDT, helicopter




  1. colour television

  2. aerosol can

  3. nuclear reactor

  4. all electronic calculating device

  1. atomic bomb, microwave oven

  2. mobile phone

  3. transistor

  4. cable television

  5. super music amplifier




  1. credit card

  2. super glue

  3. sex-change operation, answering machine

  4. DNA

  5. vertical – take off plane

  6. lego, optic fiber, synthetic diamond

  7. computer hard disk

  8. IBM, sputnik, high speed dental drill

  9. modem, ultrasound

  10. electrocardiograph.




  1. breast implant, fiber-tip pen, halogen lamp, laser.

  1. audiocassette, laser eye surgery.

  2. instant color film, videodisc.

  3. acrylic paint, touch-tone phone, liquid crystal display.

  4. potable video recorder, hologram, soft contact lenses.

  5. fuel injection for autos.

  6. heart transplant.

  7. computer with integrated circuits

  8. lunar landing.




  1. floppy disk.

  2. dot-matrix printer, space station, liquid crystal display.

  3. word processor, compact disk.

  1. laser printer, personal computer.

  2. ink-jet printer, VHS system for video recording.

  3. Apple II, fiber-optic communication

  4. test-tube baby.

  5. Rubik’s cube.




  1. hepatitis –B

  2. MS-DOS, space shuttle.

  1. cellular-phone, network, computer virus.

  2. Macintosh computer, Random Access Memory

  3. genetic fingerprinting.

  4. digital audiotape.

  5. 3-d videotape.

  6. contact lenses.

  7. high definition television.




  1. Pentium processor

  2. microwave

  1. web TV

  2. cloning



Exercise 7. Translate the text in a written form using a dictionary:

HOLOGRAPHY


Holography is a technique by which the image of a three dimensional object is recorded on film so that when the film is illuminated under the proper conditions, a three dimensional image of the object is created.

Holography was invented by Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-born physicist. He was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1971. The development of the laser in the 1960s greatly improved the holograms.


Exercise 8. Listen to the tasks and write down the numbers.




TEXT B





1926 – TELEVISION IS DEVELOPED



Read the text below and find the answers:


  1. Who and when applied for patent for a mechanical television?

  2. With what corporation did the scientist work?

  3. Who and when demonstrated a television receiver?

  4. Who developed electronic television in Asia?

  5. When was the first television station built?


Television is the greatest invention of the XX century. Today many of us cannot imagine our life without TV/

John Logie Baird (1888-1946) applied for a patent for a mechanical television in 1923. He made successful experiments in transmitting images in 1926, and in 1930 he worked with the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to begin mechanical television broadcasting. He also tried, rather unsuccessfully, to mass-market his television transmitter.

In 1923 Vladimir Zworykin (1889-1982), Russian born engineer, also applied for a patent. His was for a television camera that converted optical images into electric pulses. On November 18, 1929, at a convention of radio engineers, Zworykin demonstrated a television receiver containing his “kinescope”, a cathode-ray tube. That same year Zworykin joined the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Camden, New Jersey. As the director of their Electronic Research laboratory, he was able to concentrate on his system and to improve it. Zworykin’s “storage principle” is the basis of modern TV.

Meanwhile, in Japan, Kenjiro Takayanagi was developing electronic television, too. He was ahead of Zworykin, but better publicity gave Zworykin the nickname “father of television”. Takayanagi transmitted an image electronically in 1926, with a 40-line resolution and film running at 14 frames per second.

In 1932 the BBC launched the first regularly broadcast programs using Baird’s mechanical equipment. The first special-purpose television was built in Germany in 1935 in preparation for the Berlin Olympic Games the following year. That Olympic year, NBC experimented with electronic broadcast from the top of the Empire State Building. In 1937 BBC began the first regular, high quality broadcasting service using an electronic system.




Exercise 1.

FALSEаlse or trueTRUE?


  1. J.L. Baird is the father of television.

  2. Vladimir Zworykin was the famous Russian scientist.

  3. Zworykin’s kinescope was a cathode-ray tube.

  4. J.L. Baird worked with several American broadcasting corporations.

  5. The first special-purpose television station was built in America.

  6. The first regular, high quality broadcasting service using an electronic system was started by NBC.


Use the expressions: quite right, you are wrong, I can’t agree with you.


TEXT C


Some Interesting Facts on Albert Einstein.


Listen to the dialogue with a historian talking about Einstein. Then complete each sentence with a word or short phrase.




a) Interviewer: Hello once again to all our listeners! My name is Bary Duke and our guest tonight on the Lives of Famous Scientists programme is Dr Emma Steed, the world famous expert on Albert Eistein. She’s going to share some little-known facts about great physicist with us. Welcome, Dr Steed. It’s a pleasure to have you on our show.

Dr Steed: Thank you, Mr Duke. It’a a pleasure to be here.

I.: So, Doctor, what interesting things are you going to tell us about tonight?

Dr.S.: Well, I thought I’d start with Einstein’s childhood. Did you know that Einstein started making discoveries when he was five?

I.: Five? No. I didn’t. What did he discover?

Dr S. Well, his father had given him a magnetic compass – you know, the kind we use to show us direction. Well, Einstein realized that something was causing the needle on the compass to move in a certain way, and he began to take an interest in the physical world.

I.: That’s amazing!

Dr S.: Yes, but that’s not all. The Einstein hobby was building models and mechanical devices, much to the amazement to his parents and elders. And if it wasn’t enough, when he was twelve years old, he was given a book of Euclidean geometry. He quickly became fascinated by it and taught it to himself. Once he’d learned it, he started to teach him calculus.

. I.: Wow! All of us who have struggled to learn those subjects are really impressed by that!

Dr S.: Well, that wasn’t all. When he was sixteen, he did a thought experiment called “Albert Einstein’s Mirror”. While he was looking into a mirror, he tried to imagine what would happen to his image if he were moving at the speed of light – he actually drew some important conclusions about that which would later be an important element of his theory of special relativity.

I.: Tell me, Doctor, is it true that Einstein had some kind of learning difficulty which caused him problems at school?

Dr S.: I know it’s a common tale, but recent research has shown that there is no truth to it.

……………………………………………………………………………


b) Complete the sentences:


1) Einstein made his first scientific discovery when he was……….. …………….. years old.

2) . He realized that something was causing the needle of the compass ……….………… in  a certain way.

3) . He taught himself …………………….. at the age of twelve.

4) . Einstein tried to get information about the speed of…………………… …………….. by looking into a ………………. …………….. .

5) . Recent research shows that there is no ……………. …………in the belief that that Einstein had a learning difficulty.


UNIT 2


GRAMMAR: Passive Voice and Modal Verbs (revision), Participles.

TEXTS: Computer system. IWB. Norbert Wiener



TEXTS: Computer System. IWB. N.Wiener.

TEXT A



COMPUTER SYSTEM




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