Андрианова Л. Н., Багрова Н. Ю., Ершова Э. В. Книга для чтения по английскому языку для заочных технических вузов




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TEXTS FOR READING AND TRANSLATION



TEXT 1

ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS



In the early 1940s the electronic computer was made with the mechanical relays replaced by vacuum tubes. These were, however, single-purpose computers designed to aid in the war effort*.

The first general-purpose electronic computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator) tha-+*t was put into operation at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946 – ,000 vacuum tubes and performed 100,000 operation per second (1000 kilohertz, or kHz), 1000 slower than today’s mega hertz (or MHz) chips.

With the invention of transistors in 1948, vacuum tubes that generated a great amount of heat were replaced by small transistors that functioned perfectly as switches** and generated little heat.

By 1953 there were only about 100 computers in the entire world. They were huge** expensive machines. It was hard to imagine that one day machines that were hundreds of times smaller and thousands of times powerful would occupy most homes and offices.




* – для помощи в военных действиях;

** – переключатели;

*** – огромный.


TEXT 2




PERSONAL COMPUTERS



The first integrated circuit for computers was developed in 1958. Only in 1971 was the microprocessor that contains all the basic elements of a computer on a single chip introduced, followed by desk-top computers in the mid-1970s.

Early computers were built as single-purpose machines, that is, they were built for performing a specific task. The first general-purpose ENIAC built in 1946 was programmable, but changing a program required rewiring* the machine!

The micromini computers of the 1970’s and most in the 1980’s followed the same pattern** and required extensive knowledge of common codes and function keys.

Apple Computer’s Macintosh revolutionized the personal computer industry with a new machine. The user no longer has to memorize an operating system command for loading a program or file. Programs, functions, and files are represented by icons or small graphic images that can be selected worth a mouse or other pointing device.




* – перепрошивать;

** – следовали тому же образцу.


TEXT 3


ENGINEERING METALS


Different metals are widely used in the machine-building industry. Metals applied for industrial purposes are called “engineering metals”. There are two types of metals: ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals. Non-ferrous metals are more expensive than ferrous metals. Their main characteristics are: high electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance, non-magnetic qualities, light weight, etc. Some of the basic non-ferrous metals are: copper, tin, zinc, lead, nickel, gold and aluminium. Some metals are light, some are hard and others are soft.

.


TEXT 4


LASER


A laser is a short form of ” light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. It is a device that stimulates the electrons of a light-producing material to vibrate “in step” (simultaneously), giving off the light with tremendous energy. If we turn an infra-red laser light on granite or marble (мрамор), some seconds later they are as soft as sandstone. Laser light is widely applied in modern tunnel construction.


TEXT 5


SILENT METALS


Research into the methods which can minimize vibration in structures is of considerable importance. One of the ways of reducing vibration in an engineering design is to introduce damping into the structure, that is, to introduce some mechanism for absorbing energy within the system.

To apply damping coating is standard practice today. The damping coatings are usually made of plastics and are applied to sheet-metal shells ( наружные части, сделанные из листового металла) such as car bodies. This method is often cheap and has the advantage that the coating can be applied precisely where damping is required.

Metallurgists know that the metals for damping should be strong and tough enough and possess high inherent damping capacity. The scientists want to combine some of the properties that characterize steel with high damping capacity of lead and to produce a material that could be used to minimize noise and vibration. For instance, alloys of manganese and copper can be stronger than ordinary steel, with similar toughness and hardness, yet they have a damping capacity nearly 50 times greater than that of steel.


TEXT 6*


WATERJETS


What makes waterjets such a popular cutting option? Waterjets require few secondary operations , produce net-shaped parts with no heat-affected zone, heat distortion or mechanical stresses caused by other cutting methods , can cut with a narrow kerf, and cam provide better usage of raw material since parts can be tightly nested. As a result of the FlowMaster TM PC control system and intuitive operation, waterjets are extremely easy to use. Typically, operators can be trained in hours and are producing high-quality parts in hours. Additionally, waterjets can cut virtually any material, leaving a satin-smooth edge.,


TEXT 7*


UNIQUE FLAT BELT


OTIS Ltd has patented a unique flat belt for elevator systems. It is just 3 mm thick. Yet it is stronger than conventional steel cables. It lasts up to three times longer. And it has enabled OTIS to completely re-invent the elevator. The flat, coated-steel belt totally eliminates the metal-to-metal effect of conventional systems. Coupled with a smooth surface crowned machine sheave, the result is exceptionally quiet operation and superior ride comfort. Furthermore, the flexible flat belt enables a more compact, energy-efficient machine, which can be contained in the hoistway. This enhanced technology reduces building and system operating costs, and frees up valuable space.


TEXT 8 *


GREEN BRAKES


Formula 1 is aiming to lead automotive research in finding hi-tech efficiency gains. One of the keys to this ecological drive is regenerative braking (also know as kinetic energy recovery), which recovers energy generated during deceleration, and stores it as a source of power for a subsequent acceleration.

Regenerative brakes limit the energy loss inherent in traditional braking systems. In most vehicles, conventional brakes comprise pads previously made from asbestos-based composites, but now consisting of compounds of exotic materials, and discs made of ferrous metal. The resulting friction generates heat, which is wasted. Due to the high temperatures generated, brake discs are often made out of ceramics.

The potential for recovering energy also extends to the heat generated by engines and exhaust systems. Heat recovery might offer the added benefit of reducing heat soak (thermal absorption by the chassis) as delicate alloy parts and sensitive non-metallic materials, such as polymers, are susceptible to heat damage.


TEXT 9


AUTOMATED SYSTEM


An automated system can function autonomously, without human control. A manual system requires human control. A Building Management System is a centralized computer system that monitors and controls a wide range of functions in a large building, such as the lights, heating, air-conditioning, smoke detectors, fire-alarms, lifts and security systems.


TEXT 10


APPLICATION OF THERMOSTATS


A thermostat measures and controls the water temperature in a boiler, and there is also sometimes a pressure sensor for safety. A thermostat measures and controls room temperature in a heating system. A refrigerator also has a thermostat to monitor and control the temperature and a light that is activated by the door opening. Washing machines have thermostats to control the temperature of the water inside the machine. The time of the wash cycle is also controlled. The action of the drum is linked to a safety device that prevents the door from being opened while the drum is spinning.


TEST SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION


  1. The engineer succeeded in developing several projects every year.

  2. Mendeleyev having arranged the elements in a table, the existence of yet unknown elements could be predicted.

  3. Let us begin by examining what is done by each student.

  4. With the temperature falling rapidly, we could not proceed with our experiments out of doors.

  5. Much of the data collected will be fed into computers during the coming months.

  6. The instrument designed by this engineer was tested at out shop.

  7. Having been tested, the new apparatus was recommended for work in all the laboratories.

  8. Electrons forming an atom are in motion.

  9. By testing the metal we can define its mechanical properties.

  10. The deformation test of a metal property is performed in a laboratory.

  11. Bronze is an alloy containing primarily copper and tin, but other elements may be added to the alloy to increase its properties.

  12. Copper is made for making electrical contacts and wires, pipes, telephone cables, water heater, etc.

  13. Tin is hardly used in pure form, but is employed as an alloying element.

  14. Phosphorous bronze may be made by adding a little phosphorus to the mixture.

  15. Much could be written about the application of engineering metals.

  16. This discovery followed by many experiments was of great use to scientists.

  17. The work done at the laboratory was of great importance.

  18. The temperature having been raised, the vapour began forming again.

  19. With the experiments having been carried out, we started new investigations.

  20. Any element when combining with oxygen forms an oxide.

  21. Some of the metals are characterized by being unusually strong.

  22. The expansive force of water in freezing is enormous.

  23. Heat-resistant steel is made by adding some tungsten and molybdenum.

  24. Some alloying elements make steel rust-resistant.

  25. High carbon steel should be hardened by heating it to a certain temperature and then quickly cooling in water.

  26. There are many applications of non-ferrous metals in the unalloyed state, but in most cases, some alloying element is added.

  27. The atmosphere contains about 0.03% carbon dioxide.

  28. The increased concentration of the ions of water increases the effects caused by these ions.

  29. Lead, which is one of the metals mentioned in the Bible, was used in Rome in making water pipes.

  30. In medieval (средневековый) alchemy gold, silver, copper, tin, iron, lead, and mercury were known as “The Seven Metals”.

  31. No unexpected difficulties have been met with during these experiments.

  32. The discovery of electricity was followed by its wide application in all branches of industry.

  33. The new substance was allowed to stand overnight in a closed vessel.

  34. The scientists had to create synthetic substances possessing better properties.

  35. The higher the temperature, the quicker is the decomposition of a substance into its components.

  36. When sodium hydroxide was allowed to dissolve in water, much heat was liberated.

  37. It is to be remembered that the atmosphere is a mixture and not a chemical compound.

  38. In shape, this input device is similar to an ordinary pen.

  39. PostScript is a computer language that describes how to print text objects to different devices.

  40. Multimedia is the integration of text, sound, graphics, animation and movies on the computer screen.

  41. A database is used for storing, organizing and retrieving a large collection of related information.

  42. “Updating” a file means making changes, adding new records or deleting old ones.

  43. “Multitasking” means that several tasks are performed at the same time.

  44. The processed water must be specially conditioned for obtaining high quality paper.

  45. Chemicals produce a purifying effect on cellulose.

  46. Scientists succeeded in developing means of obtaining a synthetic rubber with properties similar to those of natural rubber.

  47. Gold is not the only metal that does not corrode.

  48. Nearly in every machine shop you may find many machines for working metals: they are generally called “Machine-tools” and are extensively used in many branches of engineering.

  49. Rust formed in iron is different from metallic iron.

  50. According the plan, the blast furnaces will be converted to gas heating and oxygen blowing.



TEST YOURSELF:


  1. the verbs:




  1. to apply

  1. загружать

  1. to call

  1. вводить

  1. to differ

  1. производить, получать

  1. to combine

  1. требовать

  1. to drive

  1. применять. использовать

  1. to produce

  1. называть

  1. to melt

  1. соединять

  1. to process

  1. отличаться

  1. to cast

  1. плавить

  1. to perform

  1. отливать

  1. to require

  1. приводить в действие

  1. to load

  1. составлять

  1. to employ

  1. вводить

  1. to make up

  1. содержать

  1. to contain

  1. получать

  1. to input

  1. обрабатывать

  1. to generate

  1. применять

  1. to test

  1. занимать

  1. to design

  1. проверять, испытывать

20) to occupy


b) the nouns


  1. alloy

  2. mixture

  3. liquid

  4. percentage

  5. hardness

  6. weight

  7. toughness

  8. casting

  9. industry

  10. content

  11. furnace

  12. fuel

  13. coke

  14. coal

  15. foundry

  16. fibre

  17. volume

  18. pressure

  19. application

  20. beamer

  21. memory

  22. device

  23. tube

  24. storage

  25. treatment

  26. record

  27. grey iron

  28. lead

  29. tin

  30. rust

  1. конструировать




  1. промышленность

  2. содержание

  3. обработка

  4. отливка

  5. вес

  6. прочность

  7. сплав

  8. смесь

  9. жидкость

  10. трубка

  11. хранение

  12. устройство

  13. память

  14. проектор

  15. волокно

  16. литейный цех

  17. твердость

  18. топливо

  19. кокс

  20. уголь

  21. процентный состав

  22. давление

  23. применение

  24. давление

  25. объем

  26. свинец

  27. олово

  28. ржавчина

  29. серый чугун

  30. запись






Иванова Наталья Кирилловна


ОБУЧЕНИЕ ЧТЕНИЮ НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ


Учебное пособие
для студентов I курса технических специальностей (английский язык)

Часть 2.


Технический редактор: Г.В. Куликова


Лицензия Л.Р. № 020459 от 10.04.97.

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153460, г. Иваново, пр. Ф. Энгельса, 7.

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