2. Radical Revisionism, Militant Challenges and Utopian Projects




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1Though Islam had not been without its own reformers since the 19th century, e.g. Qasim Amin, 1863-1908 in his works The Emancipation of Women and The New Woman 'denounced the subjugation of Muslim women as un-Islamic', Esposito, John The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992, p58.

2 See, for example "Declaration of Jihad, August 23, 1996" in MARLIN, Robert O (IV) (ed.) What Does Al-Qaeda Want?: Unedited Communiques, Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, 2004, p3. For Osama bin Laden, the UN is 'nothing but a tool of crime', "Bin Laden Rails Against Crusaders and UN (BBC News Online, November 3, 2001)", MARLIN, Robert O (IV) (ed.) What Does Al-Qaeda Want?: Unedited Communiques, Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, 2004, p37.

3 In November 2001, Osama bin Laden considered only Afghanistan as an Islamic state, which was not the case for Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, "Osama Claims He Has Nukes: If the U.S. Uses N-Arms It Will Get the Same Response (Dawn Internet Edition, November 9, 2001, by Hamid Mir)", MARLIN, Robert O (IV) (ed.) What Does Al-Qaeda Want?: Unedited Communiques, Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, 2004, p43.

4 Transnational linkages often work across borders into adjacent states, either operating on a regional basis, as in JI 'cells' in Southeast Asia, or seeking to revise existing borders as illegitimate, as in the Jammu-Kashmir dispute.

5 For a reformulation of democracy 'not as a human invention, but divine intention', see KHORASANI, Rajaei "Democracy in an Islamic System", Echo of Islam (Tehran), No. 118, April 1994, pp24-26. On the 'Pious Sultan theory', see OLESEN, Asta Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, Richmond, Curzon Press, 1995, p9.

6 On the desperate need for such a political space, see ALI, Tariq The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, London, Verso, 2002.

7 Adapting the account in AHMED, Nazeer Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First World War, 2 vols., Concord, American Institute of Islamic History and Culture, 2000, Vol. I, p274.

8 Declaration of Jihad (Holy War) Against the Country's Tyrants: Military Series (Al Qaeda Training Manual), UK translated document posted on United States Department of Justice Website, Accessed 2005, p7 [Internet Access via http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/trainingmanual.htm]. The document was found by Manchester police in 2000, and thus is also known as the Manchester Document but copies have also apparently been found in Afghanistan, and was used in a 2001 U.S. trial of terrorists (MILES, Donna "Al Qaeda Manual Drives Detainee Behaviour at Guantanamo Bay", American Forces Information Service, 29 June 2005 [Internet Access at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2005/20050629_1901.html). The presence of this manual on a hard disc itself seems to be a breach of the kind of security precautions it outlines, while the technologies in the document itself seem somewhat dated, e.g. facsimile and wireless are discussed but not email, computers, or mobile phones, e.g. see pp29-31. The material seems to reflect lessons learned in the 1970s and 1980s, and may reflect experience from the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan, with the manual mentioning travel security when going for training in Afghanistan via Pakistan, pp58-59.

9 "Declaration of Jihad, August 23, 1996" in MARLIN, Robert O (IV) (ed.) What Does Al-Qaeda Want?: Unedited Communiques, Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, 2004, p9.

10 KHAN, Mohsin S. & MIRAKHOR, Abbas "Islamic Banking: Experiences in the Islamic Republic of Iran and in Pakistan", Economic Development and Cultural Change, 38, January 1990, p355; IQBAL, Zubair & MIRAKHOR, Abbas Islamic Banking, Occasional Paper No. 49, Washington DC, IMF, March 1987, pp3-4; PRESLEY, John R. & SESSIONS, John G. "Islamic Economics: The Emergence of a New Paradigm", The Economic Journal, 104, May 1994, p587; WARREN, Peter M. "With a Scholarly Touch, Citicorp Makes Its Pitch for Islamic Investors; Finance: Bank Counts on 'Guardians of the Faith' to Make Sure Money is Handled in Accordance with Laws of the Koran", Los Angeles Times, 11 August 1996, (Orange Country Edition, pD-9) [Electric Library, Internet Access]; NIENHAUS, Volker "Islamic Economics, Finance and Banking - Theory and Practice", in EL HELW, Mahmoud (Chairman) Islamic Banking and Finance, London, Butterworths, 1986, pp9-10; ALTAMIMI, Younes "The Experience of Islamic Banks in the Middle East", in EL HELW, Mahmoud (Chairman) Islamic Banking and Finance, London, Butterworths, 1986, p33; ALLAWI, Luay "Leasing: An Islamic Financial Instrument", in EL HELW, Mahmoud (Chairman) Islamic Banking and Finance, London, Butterworths, 1986, pp120-127. At least until 1990, it has been argued that many Islamic banks often in fact rely on short-term trade financing, since mudaraba and musharaka involve 'an unusually close and trusting association between the bank and the borrower', MOORE, Clement Henry "Islamic Banks and Competitive Politics in the Arab World and Turkey", Middle East Journal, 44 no. 2, Spring 1990, pp234-235. For other permitted types of loan and investment structures, see KHAN, Mohsin S. & MIRAKHOR, Abbas "Islamic Banking: Experiences in the Islamic Republic of Iran and in Pakistan", Economic Development and Cultural Change, 38, January 1990, pp355-356. Islamic Banks have also used Profit-and-Loss-Sharing (PLS) investment schemes to some extend, though this does expose the bank to greater risk, NIENHAUS, Volker "Islamic Economics, Finance and Banking - Theory and Practice", in EL HELW, Mahmoud (Chairman) Islamic Banking and Finance, London, Butterworths, 1986, pp9-11.

11 WARREN, Peter M. "With a Scholarly Touch, Citicorp Makes Its Pitch for Islamic Investors; Finance: Bank Counts on 'Guardians of the Faith' to Make Sure Money is Handled in Accordance with Laws of the Koran", Los Angeles Times, 11 August 1996, (Orange Country Edition, pD-9) [Electric Library, Internet Access]. In fact major Western banks have been helping channel excess liquidity from Islamic banks into non-interest based investment for some years, with an estimated 10% of Islamic funds being channelled into major Western banks, KHALAF, Roula "Banking the Islamic Way", World Press Review, January 1995, p35.

12 Both religions were originally deeply opposed to interest on loans, e.g. in the Middle Ages Christians were not supposed to be involved in money lending. However, by the early modern period, justifications were found to step around this regulation, HAQUE, Ziaul Riba: The Moral Economy of Usury, Interest and Profit, Kuala Lumpur, Ikraq, 1995, p169. The ability to raise and use capital, of course, was one of the pre-requisites for the capitalist age, and for the great trading expeditions that spread around the world from the 16th century onwards. Put another way, the West decided to legally regulate interest on loans, rather than ban it.

13 The IFSB describes itself as ' The Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) , which is based in Kuala Lumpur, was officially inaugurated on 3rd November 2002 and started operations on 10th March 2003. It serves as an international-standard setting body of regulatory and supervisory agencies that have vested interest in ensuring the soundness and stability of the Islamic financial services industry, which is defined broadly to include banking, capital market and insurance. In advancing this mission, the IFSB promotes the development of a prudent and transparent Islamic financial services industry through introducing new, or adapting existing international standards consistent with Islamic Shari'ah principles, and recommend them for adoption. To this end, the work of the IFSB complements that of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, International Organization of Securities Commissions and the International Association of Insurance Supervisors'[ http://www.ifsb.org/index.php?ch=2&pg=1&ac=1].



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