Article 13. 1 Drug effects on the nervous system




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Scenario 20.2 Cardiac Protein

The over-expression of a protein produced naturally in the human body inhibits cardiac hypertrophy and ultimately heart failure in transgenic mice, according to a study conducted by researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.


This finding could potentially lead to the development of novel therapies to prevent heart disease in humans, said Dr. R. Sanders Williams, chief of cardiology and lead author of the study.


____ 42. Use Scenario 20.2 to answer the following question.


The protein produced during this study is created when DNA is

A.

replicated into complimentary DNA

B.

transcribed into proteins

C.

translated into protein

D.

replicated into protein



____ 43. Use Scenario 20.2 to answer the following question.


Transcription of the DNA sequence occurs when

A.

DNA is converted into mRNA

B.

DNA is converted into tRNA

C.

mRNA is converted into protein

D.

tRNA is converted into protein



____ 44. Use Scenario 20.2 to answer the following question.


A short segment of DNA is translated into an amino acid sequence. The DNA segment translated is


ACC TAG CAT


The amino acid sequence created is

A.

Trp - Ile - Val

B.

Thr - STOP - His

C.

Trp - Val - Ile

D.

Thr - Met - Leu



____ 45. Use Scenario 20.2 to answer the following question.


Identify the step in transcription that would be affected in the production of this protein if RNA polymerase failed to recognize the promoter.

A.

initiation

B.

elongation

C.

termination

D.

translation



Scenario 21.1 Hardy-Weinberg Principle

“Known as the Hardy-Weinberg Principle, this mathematical relationship shows that allele frequencies will not change from generation to generation, as long as certain conditions are met.” (from, Nelson, Biology 30, p 718)


____ 46. Use Scenario 21.1 to answer the following question.


According to this Principle, if the allele for a recessive trait is found in 8% of the population, two generations later, the frequency of the dominant allele for the same gene should be

A.

8%

B.

92%

C.

gradually increasing

D.

gradually decreasing.



____ 47. Use Scenario 21.1 to answer the following question.


In a population of field mice, it is noticed that the frequency of an allele that provides natural camouflage is gradually increasing. Which of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions can be used to best explain this result?

A.

mutations are occurring

B.

camouflaged mice are immigrating

C.

natural selection is occurring

D.

the mouse population is small



____ 48. Use Scenario 21.1 to answer the following question.


If p represents the frequency of an allele and q represents the frequency of another allele of the same gene, then

A.




B.




C.




D.






Scenario 22.1 Population Characteristics

To study populations, scientists measure such characteristics as population size, or the estimated total number of organisms, as well as the density and dispersion of organisms within their habitat. (from Nelson, Biology 30, p 738)


____ 49. Use Scenario 22.1 to answer the following question.


The number of individuals occupying a given habitat, expressed in terms of the space available per organism is known as

A.

population size.

B.

population density.

C.

population dispersion.

D.

population growth rate.



____ 50. Use Scenario 22.1 to answer the following question.


Tree farms are often identified by the regular spacing of the trees, as well as the lack of variety. The dispersion pattern in a tree farm is classified as

A.

clumped dispersion

B.

uniform dispersion

C.

random dispersion.

D.

ecological density.



Scenario 22.2 Factors Affecting Growth

A variety of factors influences how rapidly populations can grow before they meet or exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. (from Nelson, Biology 30, p742)


____ 51. Use Scenario 22.2 to answer the following question.


Two factors that can increase the size of a population are

A.

immigration and mortality.

B.

emigration and natality.

C.

immigration and natality.

D.

emigration and mortality.



____ 52. Use Scenario 22.2 to answer the following question.


Some populations are classified as “closed”. When studying a closed population

A.




B.




C.




D.






Scenario 23.1 Interactions Between Species

“Although species interact in various ways, interactions between two species and their effects on the population density can be classified into five categories.” (from Nelson, Biology 30, p764)


____ 53. Use Scenario 23.1 to answer the following.


Which of the following interactions does not fall into the category of symbiosis?

A.

predation

B.

parasitism

C.

mutualism

D.

commensalism



____ 54. Use Scenario 23.1 to answer the following.


Often, two species physically fight over a resource. This was thought to be that case in Africa when lions and hyenas were observed fighting over a carcass. This type of competition is described as

A.

interference competition.

B.

exploitative competition.

C.

competitive exclusion.

D.

resource partitioning.



Scenario 23.2 Succession

“Succession describes the gradual changes in the vegetation of an area as it develops toward a final stable community.” (from Nelson, Biology 30, p772)


____ 55. Consider Scenario 23.2 when answering the following question.

The major difference between primary and secondary succession is that

A.

Primary succession develops a climax community faster.

B.

Secondary succession does not require the formation of soil.

C.

Primary succession has a pioneer community consisting of small grasses.

D.

Secondary succession only takes place where people have practiced agriculture.



Scenario 23.3 Defence Mechanisms

“Predator-prey interactions have resulted in the evolution of various defence mechanisms in plant and animal species, through repeated encounters with predators over time.” (from Nelson, Biology 30, p768)


____ 56. Consider Scenario 23.3 when answering the following question.


Herds of musk ox, found in the Tundra biome, often arrange themselves in a circle with the males facing outward and the females and offspring in the middle of the circle. This would be characterized as

A.

morphological defence.

B.

chemical defence.

C.

passive defence.

D.

active defence.



Numeric Response


Article 17.2 Cloned Mules

It was nature vs. nurture when the University of Idaho's two mule clones Idaho Gem and Idaho Star took to the racetrack at Winnemucca, Nevada for the first leg of mule racing's triple crown. The mules became the first cloned athletes to participate in any sport.


The mules were cloned from mule fetal skin cells, so there is no adult animal with which to compare them. They will provide a unique test of whether genetics or environment, nature or nurture, is most important.


The mules' genetic heritage is from a racing line.


1. Use Article 17.2 with the information below to answer the following question.


Events Involved in the Cloning of a Mule


1. Nucleus from donor cell is implanted into unfertilized egg.

2. Cell mass is implanted into recipient mother.

3. Body cell nucleus is removed from donor mule.

4. Unfertilized egg cell is enucleated.


Put the events into the order in which they would have occurred in order to produce the mules described in this study.


__________ __________ __________ __________


Article 18.2 Gene Therapy

A team of scientists says it has detected a gene that is associated with prostate cancer. This finding may make possible a diagnostic test to help decide which patients are the best candidates for aggressive treatment.


The gene is a recessive trait carried by about 13 percent of men of European ancestry. It raises the risk of getting prostate cancer by 60 percent, compared with men who are not carriers, and accounts for about 8 percent of all cases, according to the scientists, led by Laufey T. Amundadottir of DeCode Genetics - a gene finding company in Iceland.


2. Use Article 18.2 to answer the following question.


What is the probability that a parent who is heterozygous for the prostate cancer gene and a parent who is homozygous recessive for the trait will have a child who will not be at risk of developing prostate cancer?


__________ __________ __________ __________

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