Article 13. 1 Drug effects on the nervous system




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Article 17.3 T cells and HIV

T cells are one of the body's best defenses against invading viruses and bacteria. However, when they encounter HIV, some of these immune system cells become targets for infection. Once infected, T cells begin producing HIV. New research at the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology is showing how the virus causes T cells to become efficient virus factories.


As cells normally move through the cell cycle, they arrive at S phase during which DNA is synthesized to duplicate the chromosomes in preparation for cell division. Prior to cell division, the cells will enter the G2 phase when the cell checks its internal systems to see if it is ready to divide. These recent studies reveal that infected cells do not divide but instead are paused in the G2 phase, a state more favorable for HIV replication.


____ 24. Use Article 17.3 to answer the following question.


The number of chromosomes found in the nucleus of a human helper T cell is

A.

23

B.

46

C.

69

D.

92



____ 25. Use Article 17.3 to answer the following question.


The phase of the cell cycle that the helper T cells remain in while producing HIV is

A.

interphase

B.

prophase

C.

metaphase

D.

anaphase



____ 26. Use Article 17.3 to answer the following question.


A protein produced by the HIV virus prevents the formation of microtubules. These microtubules are responsible for

A.

condensing of chromosomes

B.

dissolving the nuclear membrane

C.

forming spindle fibers

D.

replicating chromosomes



Article 18.2 Gene Therapy

A team of scientists says it has detected a gene that is associated with prostate cancer. This finding may make possible a diagnostic test to help decide which patients are the best candidates for aggressive treatment.


The gene is a recessive trait carried by about 13 percent of men of European ancestry. It raises the risk of getting prostate cancer by 60 percent, compared with men who are not carriers, and accounts for about 8 percent of all cases, according to the scientists, led by Laufey T. Amundadottir of DeCode Genetics - a gene finding company in Iceland.


____ 27. Use Article 18.2 to answer the following question.


The gene located by the scientists at DeCode expresses itself when the genotype is

A.

homozygous dominant

B.

homozygous recessive

C.

heterozygous

D.

a phenotype



____ 28. Use Article 18.2 to answer the following question.


Determine the probability of a man who is not at risk of developing prostate cancer but whose father died of it, and a woman who is a carrier for the trait having a child that would be at risk.

A.

100%

B.

50%

C.

25%

D.

0%



____ 29. Use Article 18.2 to answer the following question.


The expression of this gene is controlled by another gene on a different chromosome. This gene prevents the expression of the prostate cancer gene in its dominant form. If an individual is heterozygous for both sets of genes, the probability of them being susceptible to prostate cancer is

A.

100%

B.

50%

C.

25%

D.

0%



Article 18.1 Miniature humans

Miniature humans, whose prehistoric remains were recently unearthed on an Indonesian island, may have had a genetic disease known as Laron syndrome.


The 2004 discovery of Homo floresiensis suggested that this apparently close relative of Homo sapiens may have coexisted with modern humans as recently as 12,000 years ago. The most complete skeleton belonged to a woman who stood about a meter tall.


But the newfound specimens don't represent a distinct species at all, contends Zvi Laron of Tel Aviv University in Israel. Various genetic mutations can produce Laron syndrome, in which the body is unresponsive to growth hormone.


____ 30. Use Article 18.1 to answer the following question.


Laron syndrome is an autosomal recessive trait. A child is born to parents who do not have Laron syndrome. The possible genotypes of the parents are

A.

LL ´ LL

B.

LL ´ Ll

C.

LL ´ ll

D.

Ll ´ Ll



____ 31. Use Article 18.1 to answer the following question.


DNA testing was performed on a group of fossil remains from the Indonesian island. It was found that these individuals were brothers and sisters. Three individuals were of short stature and three were of normal size. Predict the genotypes of their parents.

A.

LL ´ LL

B.

LL ´ Ll

C.

LL ´ ll

D.

Ll ´ ll



____ 32. Two parents who are carriers for Laron syndrome have a child with the disorder. What is the probability that their next child will express the miniature trait?

A.

100%

B.

50%

C.

25%

D.

0%



Scenario 19.1 Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition caused by a single gene whose code is changed. The defect causes a disruption between the sending and receiving of messages required for proper brain development and functioning. When this gene is altered, it can cause developmental delays and mild to severe learning disabilities, including mental retardation.


____ 33. Use Scenario 19.1 to answer the following question.


Fragile X syndrome is most commonly found in

A.

females because they possess 2 X chromosomes

B.

females because they possess an X and Y chromosome

C.

males because they possess 2 X chromosomes

D.

males because they have an X and a Y chromosome



____ 34. Use Scenario 19.1 to answer the following question.


If a normal woman whose father had fragile X syndrome has children with a man who does not have the disease, what is the probability that their child will develop fragile X symptoms?

A.

100%

B.

50%

C.

25%

D.

0%



____ 35. Use Scenario 19.1 to answer the following question.


Normally, the gene that causes fragile X syndrome contains between 6 and 55 repeats of the CGG codon. In people with the fragile X syndrome, the allele has over 230 repeats of this codon. The end of the fragile X gene contains the codons ATTCGGCGG. The complimentary strand of DNA is

A.

ATTCGGCGG

B.

TAAGCCGCC

C.

CAAGTTGTT

D.

GCCTAATAA



Scenario 19.2 Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Stem cells have helped dogs with muscular dystrophy to walk again. Doctors hope a similar approach in humans could lead to more complete improvement than the other leading contender for a cure--an RNA-blocking drug now in clinical trials.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) strikes about one in 35 000 children, almost always boys, and is usually fatal by the age of 30. It is caused by mutations in the gene for the muscle protein dystrophin. Without it, muscle contractions shear and kill muscle cells, and victims become progressively weaker, often dying when their breathing muscles fail.


____ 36. Use Scenario 19.2 to answer the following question.


Muscular dystrophy is an example of a disease inherited by

A.

sex linked dominant

B.

sex linked recessive

C.

autosomal dominant

D.

autosomal recessive



____ 37. Use Scenario 19.2 to answer the following question.


A mother whose father died of muscular dystrophy passes the trait to 2 of her sons but none of her daughters. This indicates that the muscular dystrophy gene is

A.

dominant and located on the X chromosome

B.

recessive and located on the X chromosome

C.

dominant and located on the Y chromosome

D.

recessive and located on the Y chromosome



____ 38. Use Scenario 19.2 to answer the following question.


A mother who carries the gene for muscular dystrophy and a father who carries the gene but does not yet show symptoms have a male child. What is the probability that the child has the disease?

A.

100%

B.

50%

C.

25%

D.

0%



Scenario 20.1 Fossil DNA

The extraction and sequencing of fossil DNA promises a wealth of information on extinct species. Yet little has been recovered from the most easily accessible sources, those in museum collections. To see why, Eva-Maria Geigl of the Jacques Monod Institute in Paris and colleagues compared DNA recovery from museum samples with those from freshly excavated fossils stored under conditions similar to natural burial. The fresh samples yielded six times as much DNA and twice the number of valid sequences as those from a museum


____ 39. Use Scenario 20.1 to answer the following question.


The DNA found in fossils is composed of the same basic subunits as DNA found in organisms alive today. These subunits are known as

A.

nucleotides

B.

ribosomes

C.

chromosomes

D.

mitochondria



____ 40. Use Scenario 20.1 to answer the following question.


During sampling of fossil DNA, technologists must pair the DNA found in the fossil in a base pair fashion in order to analyze it. The sequence below is a sample of DNA found in a piece of early hominid bone.


ATTACCGAT


What would be the complimentary strand of DNA used by the technologists to pair with this sequence?

A.

ATTACCGAT

B.

TAATGGCTA

C.

GCCGTTAGC

D.

TAATCCGAT



____ 41. Use Scenario 20.1 to answer the following question.


Once DNA has been sequenced, it can be replicated many times for use by researchers to analyze the genes found on the chromosomes. The enzyme used to join together the fragments of DNA into a completed strand is

A.

DNA polymerase

B.

DNA ligase

C.

gyrase

D.

helicase


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