Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness




Скачать 324.64 Kb.
НазваниеMicerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness
страница3/13
Дата18.10.2012
Размер324.64 Kb.
ТипДокументы
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   13

Stages of a Crisis



One of the primary methods used, by disaster and crisis managers to prepare for and respond to events, is developmental approaches. Developmental approaches outline how crises and emergencies will develop over time and suggest the kinds of communication activities that should be undertaken at various stages. While it is important to keep in mind that crises rarely develop as expected and generally do not conform exactly to the various stages of development, these approaches do provide a rough outline of how most events will evolve. Moreover, it is important to remember that it is not uncommon to have more than one crisis develop at the same time. Make sure your organization is prepared to handle this complexity. This is particularly true in the event of emerging public health threats or terrorism incidents. Be ready to respond to more than one event. Expect that it can and does happen.


It is also important to keep in mind the specific features of a crisis or anticipated crisis when working with developmental models. Specific kinds of threats develop in specific ways. An outbreak of E.coli or Listeria poisoning, for example, will develop very rapidly, while West Nile virus and Lyme disease are regularly occurring threats that develop each spring and continue on through the fall.


The developmental model presented below was initially designed by the CDC and is part of their Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication training. Some additions and modifications have been made. This CERC model incorporates the kinds of activities typically thought of as risk communication and those more often associated with crisis communication.


Pre-Crisis: For example, during the pre-crisis stage, typical health promotion and risk communication activities are recommended. In the case of West Nile virus, local health departments might mount education campaigns, issue press releases, and provide flyers to schools and campgrounds regarding how to avoid mosquito bites. These activities are designed to inform the general public and special populations about the risk and encourage behaviors that reduce the chances of exposure. The Ready.gov advertising campaign featuring the secretary of homeland security, Tom Ridge, is another example of this pre-event communication. It is designed to promote broader understanding of the risks and encourage people to prepare for the possibility of a terrorist attack by taking simple actions. The pre-event stage is also a point where alliances can be developed with first responder and community groups. For example, formal and informal relationships can be cultivated with hospitals, religious organizations, schools, businesses and the media. During an actual crisis, these relationships may be invaluable in mounting an effective and timely response.


Initial Event: If a threat reaches the level of a crisis or if a specific event occurs that signals the beginning of a crisis, the need for communication is much more immediate and intense. In this case, features of crisis communication, such as designated spokespersons and established channels of communication as well general descriptions of the event and expected harm are necessary. Most often, these messages will be carried through the media and will require press conferences as well as press releases. During the crisis stage, time becomes very important and information may need to be communicated very quickly to avoid harm. In the cases of some foodborne illness, such as the Michigan case of hepatitis A contaminated strawberries in school lunches, immediate dissemination of warnings can reduce harm.


Maintenance: The third stage of a crisis, according to the CERC model, occurs after the immediacy and initial intensity of the crisis subsides. Ongoing public communication should continue during this stage to update the public about the crisis and to correct any rumors or misunderstandings. It is also possible to begin a return to traditional health promotion and risk communication efforts.


Resolution: These communication activities continue in the next stage, resolution. This stage is also the point where criticism of earlier activities may develop. In general, you should expect at least some questioning of earlier decisions and actions in this stage of a crisis. The crisis stage may also provide an opportunity to reiterate the importance of public health. Do not be afraid to collect positive press clippings, or talk about your successes to the media.


Evaluation: Finally, the evaluation stage is a point where it is appropriate to assess the effectiveness of the communication activities. For example, it may be appropriate to review media coverage to see how effectively core messages were communicated to the public. It is also very helpful to reexamine the crisis communication plan for any deficiencies or areas that need development.


This model gives the professional health communicator a sense of what to expect as a crisis develops. It also specifies some of the communication activities that may be appropriate at different points in a crisis.


It is also important to recognize that the CERC developmental model is a general model of crisis development. It is important to remember that stages of a crisis are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Crises rarely develop exactly as expected. They may skip stages or actually move back to earlier stages. New events emerge. Interactions that were not anticipated create unanticipated harm. Cross contamination of mail from anthrax-laced letters, for example, was not anticipated. Guidelines had to be developed quickly for postal workers. Unexpected needs develop. In the Northeast corridor power outage public health rushed to provide local media with guidelines for water and food safety and information on heat exhaustion. It is best to use the CERC model as a general framework for crisis communication but recognize that the event is dynamic. Specific needs and conditions cannot be predicted precisely.


The Crisis Development Process


Pre –Crisis (Risk Messages; Warnings; Preparations)

Communication and education campaigns targeted to both the public and the response community to facilitate:

        • Monitoring and recognition of emerging risks

        • General public understanding of risk

  • Public preparation for the possibility of an adverse event

  • Changes in behavior to reduce the likelihood of harm (self-efficacy)

  • Specific warning messages regarding some eminent threat

  • Alliances and cooperation with agencies, organizations, and groups

  • Development of consensual recommendations by experts and first responders

  • Message development and testing for subsequent stages


Initial Event (Uncertainty Reduction; Self-Efficacy; Reassurance)

Rapid communication to the general public and to affected groups seeking to establish:

  • Empathy, reassurance, and reduction in emotional turmoil

  • Designated crisis/agency spokespersons, formal channels and methods of communication

  • General and broad-based understanding of the crisis circumstances, consequences, and anticipated outcomes based on available information

  • Reduction of crisis related uncertainty

  • Specific understanding of emergency management and medical community responses

  • Understanding of self-efficacy and personal response activities (how/where to get more information)


Maintenance (Ongoing Uncertainty Reduction; Self-Efficacy; Reassurance)

Communication to the general public and to affected groups seeking to facilitate:

  • More accurate public understandings of ongoing risks

  • Understanding of background factors and issues

  • Broad based support and cooperation with response and recovery efforts

  • Feedback from affected publics and correction of any misunderstandings/rumors

  • Ongoing explanation and reiteration of self-efficacy and personal response activities (how/where to get more information) begun in Stage II

  • Informed decision-making by the public based on understanding of risks/benefits


Resolution (Updates Regarding Resolution; Discussions about Cause and

New Risks/New Understandings of Risk)

Public communication and campaigns directed toward the general public and affected groups seeking to:

  • Inform and persuade about ongoing clean-up, remediation, recovery, and rebuilding efforts

  • Facilitate broad-based, honest, and open discussion and resolution of issues regarding cause, blame, responsibility, and adequacy of response

  • Improve/create public understanding of new risks and new understandings of risk as well as new risk avoidance behaviors and response procedures

  • Promote the activities and capabilities of agencies and organizations to reinforce positive identity and image


Evaluation (Discussions of Adequacy of Response; Consensus about Lessons and New Understandings of Risks)

Communication directed toward agencies and the response community to:

  • Evaluate and assess responses, including communication effectiveness

  • Document, formalize, and communicate lessons learned

  • Determine specific actions to improve crisis communication and crisis response

Capability

  • Create linkages to pre-crisis activities (Stage I)



Adopted from Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication, Barbara Reynolds, 2002 and from Barbara Reynolds and Matthew Seeger “Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication as an Integrative Model.” Working Paper
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   13

Похожие:

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconPublic health response to a radiological accident: a guide for state and local public health departments

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconDeveloping a Methodological Framework for Developing Local and Regional Plans for Social Inclusion

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconAged Care Assessment Service (acas) and Office of the Public Advocate (opa) protocol. Incorporating health professionals undertaking assessment and placement within health networks

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconCrisis Webinar Public Chat

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconSearch public Yahoo Groups for Health and Wellness public messages

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconThis Instructor Manual is a resource for instructors using the materials for Component 1: Introduction to Health Care and Public Health in the us. Each

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconVector-borne disease; Dengue fever; Public intervention; Interdisciplinary approach; Public health; Diagnosis. Mots-clés référencement

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconAbstract: The Office of Research on Women's Health (orwh) at the National Institutes of Health (nth) was created in 1990 to carry out three major mandates: (1)

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconProof of Concept: Public Healthcare Preparedness Portal for the New York Academy of Medicine (nyam) Featuring the Common Alerting Protocol)

Micerc a guide for Developing Crisis Communication Plans Office of Public Health Preparedness iconThe Ideal Communication Office

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
Библиотека


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Библиотека
Главная страница