2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7




Скачать 428.32 Kb.
Название2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7
страница1/33
Дата15.10.2012
Размер428.32 Kb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   33




1. Introduction 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Renewable energy 5

1.3 Report outline 5

2. New renewables in the grid 7

2.1 Evaluating energy sources 7

2.2 Operating the new renewables 8

2.3 Geographical dispersion 9

2.4 Mitigation by numbers 10

2.5 Source diversification 10

3. Wind energy 12

3.1 Introduction 12

3.2 The wind resource 12

3.3 Technology 12

3.4 Wind farms 14

3.5 Energy and power flux 16

3.6 Case study: Wind power at the west coast of USA 17

3.7 Discussion of the case study 19

4. Wave energy 21

4.1 Introduction 21

4.2 Ocean waves 22

4.3 The point absorber concept of Uppsala University 23

4.4 Wave parks 26

4.5 Energy and power flux 26

4.6 Case study: Wave power at the west coast of USA 28

4.7 Discussion of the case study 30

5. Energy from marine currents 32

5.1 Introduction 32

5.2 The marine current resource 33

5.3 Technology 33

5.4 Energy and power flux 35

5.5 Case study: Energy from marine currents at the west coast of USA 37

5.6 Discussion of the case study 38

6. Solar power 40

6.1 Introduction 40

6.2 Solar radiation 41

6.3 Solar thermal technology for electricity production 42

6.4 Solar photovoltaic technology 43

6.5 Energy and power flux 45

6.6 Case study: Energy from solar photovoltaics at the west coast of USA 45

6.7 Discussion of the case study 46

7. Summary of the case studies 48

7.1 Summary of the case studies 48

7.2 Discussion of the case studies 49

7.3 Conclusions of the case studies 49

8. Optimization of the renewable portfolio 51

8.1 Setup of the optimizations 51

8.2 Unconstrained optimizations 52

8.3 Discussion of the unconstrained optimizations 53

8.4 Optimizations with forced wind power influence 57

8.5 Optimizations with limited wave power availability 58

8.6 Discussion of the constrained optimizations 59

8.7 Summary of the optimizations 60

8.8 Conclusions of the optimizations 60

9. References 62

9.1 References 62

9.2 Figure sources 67

Appendix A – The data collecting buoys 69

Appendix B – Results from the optimizations 71

B.1 System characteristics of the renewables 71

B.2 Unconstrained optimization of the renewable portfolio 71

B.3 Portfolio optimization with forced wind power influence 72

B.4 Portfolio optimization with limited wave power availability 73

B.5 Changes in intra-hourly output 75

Appendix C – The Nordic electricity market 76

Appendix D – The electricity distribution network 78

D.1 Bottlenecks 78

D.2 Transmission losses 78

D.3 Distributed generation 79

D.4 Demand variations 80

D.5 The frequency of the grid 81

D.6 Frequency control 82

Appendix E –The photovoltaic effect 83
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   33

Похожие:

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconThe government of India is promoting nuclear energy as a solution to the country’s future energy needs and is embarking on a massive nuclear energy expansion

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconEnergy conversion means that energy can change form. For example, wind energy can be converted to electrical energy to run a motor and then into mechanical
«конверсия» или «трансформация» энергии. Например, энергия ветра может быть превращеня в электрическую энергию, используемую для...
2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconInvestigation and design of a self-sustained energy mini-Scale Energy Generation System

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconEnergy se r vices providing Effective Rural Energy Services to the Poor

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconEnergy/Resources Long timeframe to solving energy needs

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconКонспект лекций по курсу
Линейные управляемые источники, задаваемые преобразованиями Лапласа (Laplace Sources) и z-преобразованиями (z transform Sources)...
2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconPerpetual Motion vs. “Working Machines Creating Energy from Nothing” With a Discussion of Perpetual Extraction and Emission of Real em energy from the Vacuum

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconBest practices for evaluating a new electronic resource

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconEvaluating the ambitions of AmsterdamÕs Digital City

2. 1 Evaluating energy sources 7 iconAnnex 1: Suggested Indicators for Evaluating pa governance 69

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
Библиотека


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Библиотека
Главная страница