Unit-ii respiration, circulation, nervous system and larval




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M.Sc., Zoology


Semester- I


15101 : STRUCTURAL ANATOMY OF INVERTEBRATA & VERTEBRATA


UNIT -1: TAXONOMY & ORGANIZATIONAL COELOME, NUTRITION&

DIGESTION

1.1 Species concept, International code of Zoological nomenclature, Taxonomical

procedures, New trends in taxonomy

1.2 Acoelomata, Pseudocoelomata, Coelomata, Protostomia and Dueterostomia

1.3 Patterns of feeding and digestion in Porifera and coelenterata

1.4 Feeding in Polychaeta, Mollusca & Echinodermata


UNIT-II RESPIRATION, CIRCULATION, NERVOUS SYSTEM AND LARVAL

FORMS

2.1 Structure of Gill, Lungs, Trachea,

2.2 Circulatory system in Annelids, Arthropods & Mollusca

2.3 Advanced nervous system- Annelida, Arthropoda & Mollusca

2.4 Larval forms of Crustaceans and Echinodermata


CHORDATA


UNIT-III VERTEBRATE EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY, CIRCULATION AND

RESPIRATION


3.1 Vertebrate integument and its derivatives: skin structure and functions, glands, scales,

horns, claws, nails, hoofs, feathers and hairs

3.2 Evolution of heart

3.3 Evolution of aortic arches and portal systems

3.4 Comparative account of respiratory organs


UNIT-IV URINOGENITAL SYSTEM AND NERVOUS SYSTEM


4.1 Evolution of Urinogenital system in vertebrate series

4.2 Organs of Olfaction and taste, and lateral line system

4.3 Comparative anatomy of the brain in relation to its functions

4.4 Comparative anatomy of spinal cord and cranial nerves


SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL:


1.Hyman, L.H. The invertebrates. Vol.1. Protozoa through Ctenophora, Mc Graw Hill

Co., New York.

2. Barrington, E.J.W. Invertebrate structure and function. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.,

London.

3. Jagerstein, G. Evolution of Metazoan life cycle, Academic Press, New York & London.

4. Hyman, L.H. The Invertebrates. Vol.8. Mc Graw Hall Co., New York and London.

5. Hyman, L.H. The Invertebrates. Vol.2 Mc Graw Hall Co., New York and London.

6. Barmes, R.D. Invertebrate Zoology, III edition. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

7. Russel-Hunter, W.D. A biology of higher invertebrates, the Macmillan Co. Ltd., London.

8. Hyman, L.H. The Invertebrates smaller coelomate groups, Vol. V. Mc. Graw Hill, Co.,

New York

9. Read, C.P. Animal Parasitism. Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey~! .

10. Sedwick, A. A student text book of Zoology, Vol.II and III. Central Book Depot,

Allahabad.

11. Parker, T.J., Haswell, W.A. Text Book of Zoology, Macmillan Co., London.

12. Alexander, R.M. The Chordata. Cambridge University Press, London

13. Barrington, E.J.W. The Biology of Hemichordata and Protochordata. Oliver and Boyd, Edinbourgh.

14. Bourne, G.H. The structure and functions of nervous tissue. Academic Press, New

York.

15. Carter, G.S. Structure and habit in vertebrate evolution –Sedwick and Jackson, London.

16. Eecles, J.C. The understanding of the brain. McGraw Hill Co., New York and London.

17. Kingsley, J.S.Outlines of Comparative Autonomy of Vertebrates. Central Book Depot, Allahabad.


List of Practicals


1. Museum study of all phylum wise representatives (Protozoa to Echinoderm )

2. Museum study of all class wise representatives ( Cyclostomes & Mammals)

3. Dissection of crab nervous system

4. Dissection of poiceloceros digestive, reproductive and nervous system

5. Dissection of cockroach reproductive and nervous system

6. Dissection of weberian ossicle and brain in Labeo rohilta

7. Dissection of cranial- Nerves of Labeo rohilta

8. Dissection of cranial Nerves of frog/ toad

9. Dissection of circulatory (arterial & venous) system in Calotes

10. Dissection of Urinogenital system in calotes.


15102 : GENETICS & EVOLUTION


UNIT – I

1.1 Principles of Mendelian inheritance

a)Identification of DNA as a genetic material; b)Gene as a unit of expression

1.2 Interaction of genes: Multiple alleles, ABO groups & Rh factor, Epistasis; Incomplete dominance, codominance; Complementary genes, duplicate genes, lethal genes

1.3 Recombination and gene mapping

1.4 Mutations: a) spontaneous and b) induced mutations; c) Molecular basis of mutations


UNIT – II

2.1 a) Numerical and Structural abnormalities of human chromosomes and syndromes

b) Human karyotype and human genome

2.2 Sex linked inheritance, dosage compensation, Lyon’s hypothesis.

2.3 Pedigree analysis

2.4 Eugenics: a) Positive eugenics, Artificial insemination, sperm banks

b) Negative eugenics, Amniocentesis, consanguinity, Genetic counseling


UNIT – III: A Brief account on theories of organic evolution

3.1 Emphasis on Darwinism

3.2 Neo-Darwinism

3.3 Role of isolating mechanisms

3.4 Models of speciation (Allopatric, sympatric and parapatric)


UNIT – IV: Population genetics and Molecular evolution

4.1 A detailed account on destabilizing forces (i) Natural selection (ii) Mutation (iii)

Genetic drift

4.2 Phylogenetic gradualism & punctuated equilibrium

4.3 Micro & Macro evolution

4.4 Gene Evolution and Amino acid sequence and phylogeny


SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL

Genetics – Monrve W. Strickberger. 3rd Ed., May, 2000.

Genetics – K.B. Ahluwallia – 1985.

Principles of Genetics – E.J. Gardner. M.J. Simmons & D.P. Snustad.

Molecular Biology of genes – Watson, J.D., N.H. Hopkins, J.W. Roberts, J.A. Steitz &A.M. Weiner. The Benjamin Cummings publishing company. Inc. Tokyo.

Basic Human Genetics – E.J. Mange, Arthur P. Mange. Indian Print, 1997.

Genetic disorders of Man by M.R. Goodman.

An introduction to modern genetics by Ch. Waddinsgton.

Dobzhansky, Th. Genetics and origin of species, Columbia University press.

Dobzhansky, Th., F.J. Ayala, G.L. Stebbins and J.M. Valentine EVOLUTION: Surjeet publications, New Delhi latest edition.

P.A. Moody Introduction to Evolution II ed/latest: Kalyani publishers, New Delhi.

Hartl, D.L. A primer of population genetics, Sinauer Associatesm Inc., Massachusetts.

Peter Volpe E. Understanding Evolution, University Book stall, New Delhi.

An introduction to genetic analysis. Griffiths, A.J.F., J.H. Miller, D.T. Suzuki, R.C. Lewontin & W.M. Gelbark, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.


List of Practicals


1. Blood grouping

2. Rh factor demonstration

3. Mendelian ratios and its related problems

4. Karyotyping

5. Syndrome charts – demonstration

6. Demonstration of Barr bodies


15103 : METABOLIC REGULATION & CELL FUNCTION


UNIT – I: Introduction

1.1 Chemical bonds (Covalent, Hydrogen bonds, Ionic bonds, Vanderwall’s interactions)

1.2 Thermodynamic principles in biology

1.3 Outline classification of organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids)

1.4 Orders of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary)


UNIT – II: Intermediary metabolism -I

2.1 Glycolysis, TCA cycle and their biomedical importance

2.2 Pentosephosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis

2.3 Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis and TCA cycle)

2.4 Redox Potentials, Mitochondrial electron transport system, Oxidative phosphorylation


UNIT – III: Intermediary metabolism - II

3.1 Beta-oxidation of palmitic acid; Biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids (Palmitic acid)

3.2 Oxidative deaminaiton, decarboxylation and transamination of amino acids.

3.3 Biosynthesis of Urea and detoxification of ammonia

3.4 Biosynthesis of polyamines


UNIT – IV: Metabolism of Nucleotides

4.1 Nucleotides and types

4.2 Biosynthesis of Nucleotides

4.3 Degradation of Nucleotides

4.4 Clinical disorders of purine metabolism


SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL

Robert K.Murrey, D.K. Granner, P.A. Mayes and V.W. Rodwell; Harper’s Biochemistry McGraw Hill Publishers.

Biochemistry by A.L.Lehninger, Kalyani publishers, New Delhi.

D. Voet and J.G. Voet, Biochemistry, J. Wiley & Sons.

David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox, Lehninger; Principles of Biochemistry, McMillan Worth Publications.


List of Practicals


  1. Estimation of glucose,

  2. Estimation of soluble and structural proteins

  3. Estimation of carbohydrates

  4. Estimation of amino acids

  5. Active transport of Glucose

  6. Estimation of Blood glucose

  7. Estimation of Lipids

  8. Estimation of Triglycerides

15104 : TECHNIQUES & TOOLS IN BIOLOGY


UNIT-I: Principles and applications

1.1 Microscopy: Types of microscopes – Phase contrast microscope, Fluorescence microscope; Electron microscope – TEM and SEM

1.2 Ultracentrifugation – Principles of sedimentation, types of centrifuges, Preparative ultra centrifugation – differential gradient centrifugation – density gradient centrifugation

1.3 Principles of spectroscopy, Laws of Light absorption, applications of Colorimetry, Spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry

1.4 Measurement of pH and biochemical Buffers


UNIT-II: Principles and Applications

2.1 Chromotography – paper chromatography – thin layer chromatography

2.2 Ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography

2.3 Gas liquid chromatography and HPLC

2.4 Radio isotope techniques – types of radio isotopes, detection and measurement of radiaoactivity – GM counter, Scintillation counter, auto radiography, applications of radio isotopes in biological sciences


UNIT-III: Principles and Applications

3.1 Microtomy and staining procedures – types of microtomes, types stains, staining procedures of biological materials

3.2 Electrophoresis: types of electrophoresis – SDS-PAGE, Agarose gel electrophoresis, Iso electric focusing

3.3 Kymography principles and applications

3.4 Radio immuno assays (RIA) and ELISA

UNIT-IV Cell & tissue Culture

4.1 Design and functioning of tissue culture laboratory

4.2 Culture media preparation

4.3 Cell proliferation measurements

4.4 Cell viability testing and cell harvesting methods


SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL ( ALL LATEST EDITIONS)

  1. Animal Cell Culture – A practical approach, Ed.John. R.W.Masters, IRL Press.

  2. Introduction TO Instrumental analysis, Ronert Braun. McGraw Hill International Edition.

  3. A Biologists Guide to Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry, K. Wilson & K.W. Goulding, ELBS Edn.

  4. Advanced Micripipette Techniques for cell physiology. K.T. Brown and D.G. Flamming IBRO, Hand Book Series. A Wiley Interscience publications, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  5. Neuro anatomical Techniques, N.J. Stransfed and T.A. Miller Springer Verlag, New York Heidelberg, Berlin, 1980.

  6. Principles of Neuropsychopharmacology by Robert S. Feldman, Jerrold S. Meyer and Unida quenzer. Sinancer Associates Inc. Publishers. Sunderland, Massachusetts, 1997.

  7. General Zoological Microtechniques – F.M. Weesner.


List of Practicals


1.Demonstration of paper chromatography

2. Preparation of Buffers and Measurement of pH

3. Demonstration of TLC

4. Absorption spectra of proteins and nucleotides

5. Separation of mitochondria and differential centrifugation

6. Separation of biomolecules using HPLC

7. Preparation of cell culture media

8. Separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE


Semester- II


15201: CELL BIOLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY

UNIT – I

1.1 The Cytoskeleton - The Cytoskeletal elements, Microtubules, shaping of the cell and mechanical support, Microfilaments intermediate filaments, cytoskeletal architecture (Red blood cells, platelets, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells)

1.2 Mitochondria and Cell energetics - Enzyme distribution in mitochondria, Bioenergetics: Molecular organization, biogenesis and functions of mitochondria, Oxidative phosphorylation, the chemical-conformational Hypothesis.

1.3 Cell Cycle- Overview of eukaryotic cell cycle, regulation of cell cycle by cell growth and extra cellular signals, Cell cycle check points, Regulation of cell cycle progression – MPF, cyclins and cyclin –dependent kinases. Cell differentiation

1.4 Cell death and proliferation – Apoptosis: definition, morphological and biochemical differences between apoptosis and necrosis, mechanism ( internal and external signals) and significance. Brief account of biology of cancer.


UNIT – II

2.1 Cell signaling: Models of cell-cell signaling (steroid receptors, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide)

2.2 Functions of cell surface receptors (G-protein coupled receptors, Tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, receptors linked to other enzymatic activities), Pathways of intracellular signal transduction (cAmp pathways, cyclic cGMP, phospholipids and Ca2+, Ras, Raf and MAP kinases), Signaling in development and differentiation (the receptor tyrosine kinase, Ras, MAP kinase pathway in Drosophila, notch signaling)


UNIT – III Cells and organs of the immune system

3.1 Cells of the immune system: Lymphoid cells, Mononuclear cells, granulocytic cells, Mast cells

3.2 Organs of the immune system – primary and secondary lymphoid organs, lymphatic system

3.3 Antigens: Antigenic determinants or epitopes, immunogenicity, Haptens

3.4 Innate (Non-specific immunity): Anatomical barriers, phagocytosis, NK cells, Interferons


UNIT – IV Acquired immunity

4.1 Humoral immunity: Immunoglobulins (fine structure of immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin classes); the complement system, Classical and alternate pathway, inflammation

4.2 Cell mediated immunity: Mechanism of cell mediated immunity; Brief account on Antigen presentation, Major histocompatability complex

4.3 Antigen – Antibody interactions: Affinity, Avidity, Cross – reactivity, precipitation reactions, and Agglutination reactions.

4.4 Brief account on immunological disorders:

a) Tolerance and Autoimmunity

b) Transplantation

c) Immunodeficiency diseases

d) Immunization (Active and passive immunity)


SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL


1.Cell Biology (Fundamentals and Applications) By Gupta / Jangir, 2001; Agrobios, India.

2. Cell and Molecular Biology by EDR De Robertis and EMR De Robertis Jr, Indian

Edition, B.I. Publicaitons, Pvt. Ltd.

3. The Cell (A Molecular Approach) by Geoffrey M. Cooper, 2nd Edn. 2000, ISBN.

4. Kuby, J. (1998) Immunology, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

5. Roitt, I.,Brostoff, J. Male, D. (1999/2000) Immunology, 4th Edition. Harcourt Brace and

Company Asia, Pte. Ltd., Singapore.

6. Harpers Review of Biochemistry, Murray, Granier, Mayes and Rodwell, Lange Medical

Publicaitons, 25th Ed.

7. Human Physiology by Stuart Era Fox, W.M.C. Brown Publishers, USA 1984 or Recent

Edition.

8. An introduction to Immunology by C.V. Rao, Narosa publishing house, 2002.

9. Immunology introductory textbook by Nandini Shetty, Wiley Eastern Ltd.


List of Practicals

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