Curriculum for M. Tech. Biotechnology Full Time




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M.Tech – Medical Biotechnology syllabus


Dr. M.G.R. University


Dept. of Biotechnology


Curriculum and Syllabus for M.Tech. Medical Biotechnology


Preamble



  1. This course will offer specialization and hands on practical training with a potential for job placement in Medical Biotechnology Industry.

  2. Eligibility: Candidates with an M.Sc. In Biotechnology, Botany, Zoology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or any of Life Science oriented subjects; 4-year professional courses such as B.Tech. Biotechnology, Industrial Biotechnology, B.Pharm. B.V.Sc. or M.B.B.S.

  3. The total credits for this course will be 75.

4 . There will be 5 Theory papers and 2 Lab courses for the first 3 Semesters and the last Semester will be fully project. The students will have to earn 2 credits by Journal Club Presenbtation themselves to an industry for 2 weeks at the end of first year.

8.    The last Semester will be entirely a project which will be marked based on a viva voce and Project report.

9. The same course can also be offered in Part-time mode, where the course will be spread over 6 Semesters.

10. If required students may opt for additional credits from other Dept.   However they will be included as a criteria for passing M.Tech. Biotechnology only if approved by the Board that this is considered part of Biotechnology.


Curriculum for M.Tech. Biotechnology (Full Time)


Credit Distribution


Semester

Credits

I

22

II

22

III

22

IV

9

TOTAL

75



I Semester

S.No.

Code

Course

L

T

P

C

1

MBT 151

Human Physiology and Immunology

3

1

0

4

2

MBT 153

Medical Microbiology

3

1

0

4

3

MBT 155

Recombinant DNA Technology

3

0

0

3

4

MBT 107

Molecular Biology

3

1

0

4

5

MBT 157

Clinical Biochemistry

3

0

0

3




6

MBT 159

Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology Lab

0

0

6

2

7

MBT 161

Medical Microbiology and Recombinant DNA Lab

0

0

6

2







TOTAL

15

3

12

22



II Semester

S.No.

Code

Course

L

T

P

C

9

MBT 152

Pharmacology

3

1

0

4

10

MBT 104

Bioinformatics

3

1

0

4

11

MBT 156

Human Genomics

3

0

0

3

12

MBT 108

Environmental Science and Ecology

3

0

0

3

13

MBT 160

Immunotechnology

3

1

0

4




14

MBT 162

Bioinformatics Lab

0

0

6

2

15

MBT 164

Molecular Diagnostics Lab

0

0

6

2










15

3

12

22



III Semester

S.No.

Code

Course

L

T

P

C

16

MBT 251

Proteomics

3

1

0

4

17

MBT 253

Animal Tissue Culture

3

1

0

4

18

MBT 205

Intellectual Property Rights, Biosafety, Bioethics

3

0

0

3

19

MBT 211

Quantitative Methods

3

1

0

4







Elective

3

0

0

3




20

MBT 207

Tissue culture Lab

0

0

6

2




MBT211

Seminar







6

2

Electives –One will be offered


21

MBTE 219

Phytochemistry

3

0

0

3

MBTE 221

Clinical Research

3

0

0

3

MBTE 223

Stem cells Technology

3

0

0

3

MBTE 225

Cancer Biology

3

0

0

3







Total

15

3

12

22



IV Semester

S.No.

Code

Course

L

T

P

C

22

MBT 202

Project Report and Viva voce

0

0

24

9







TOTAL

0

0

24

9



M.Tech – Medical Biotechnology


I semester


MBT 151 Human Physiology and Immunology 3 1 0 4

Unit 1: INTRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS

Foundations of Physiology – Functional Organization of the cell – Physiology of Membranes – Signal Transduction –Electrophysiology of the Cell Membrane – Electrical Excitability and Action Potentials – Synaptic Transmission and the Neuromuscular Junction – Cellular Physiology of Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth Muscle, Arteries Veins and Microcirculation – Heart pump – regulation of arterial pressure and cardiac output


Unit 2: RESPIRATORY, URINARY AND GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEMS

Organization of Respiratory system –Transport of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in the Blood – Gas Exchange in the Lungs – Ventilation and Perfusion of the lungs, Organization of Urinary System – Glomerular filtration and Renal Blood flow – Transport of salts, organic solutes and acids and bases – Urine Concentration and Dilution – Organisation of Gastrointestinal system – Gastric function – Pacreatic and salivary glands – Nutrient digestion and Absorption.


Unit 3: ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

Organization of Endocrine control – Endocrine regulation and growth – Thyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas and Parathyroid glands – Sexual differentiation – Male and Female Reproductive systems – Fertilization – Pregnancy and Lactation


Unit 4: Molecular Immunology: Cells of immune system; innate and acquired immunity, Development, maturation, activation and differentiation of T-cells and B-cells; TCR; antibodies: structure and functions; antibodies: genes and generation of diversity; antigen-antibody reactions; monoclonal antibodies: principles and applications; antigen presenting cells; major histocompatibility complex; antigen processing and presentation; regulation of T-cell and B-cell responses.


Unit 5 : Infection, Immunity and Transplantation:

Properties of Cytokines, cytokine secretion by Th1 and Th2 subsets, Complement activation, Inflammation, Acute phase response, Immune response to infectious diseases, Hypersensitivity, genetics of transplantation, Autoimmune diseases.

TOTAL : 45


TEXT BOOK
1. Sarada Subramanyam, K.Madhavan Kutty and H.D.Singh – Text book of ‘Human

Physiology’ – S.Chand & Company, 1996.

2. Sujit K.Chaudhuri – Concise Medical Physiology – New Central Book agency, 1997.

3. Kuby- immunology (4th edition) by R.A Goldsby, T.J Kindt, B.A. Osborne

4. Essentials of immunology (6th edition): Ivan Riot- Blakswell scientific publications,

Oxford, 1988.


REFERENCES
1. Arthur.C.Guyton – Textbook of Medical Physiology – Prism Book (p) Ltd. 1996.


2. Cyril A.Keele Eric Neil and Neil Norman Joels Samson Wrigths’ Applied Physiology –

Oxford University Press – 1983.


3. Fundamentals of immunology: Paul W. E. (Eds.) Raven press, New York, 1988

MBT 153 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY 3 1 0 4

Unit I : Host-Pathogen interaction

Normal microbial flora of human body, host-microbe interactions. Infection and infectious process, routes of transmission of microbes in the body. Microbial toxins, Enteric pathogens: Cholera, Shigella, Salmonella and E.coli. Extracellular pathogens: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus.


Unit II : Intracellular Pathogens and Pathogenic anaerobes

Facultative intracellular pathogens –Mycobacterium; Obligate intracellular pathogens –Chlamydia, Rickettsia; Accidental pathogens – Pseudomonas; Chronic pathogens – Helicobacter pylori. Pathogenic anaerobes, Tetanus, Clostridia, Corynebacteria, Spirochaetes.


Unit III: Fungi and Protozoa

Fungal pathogens; Description and pathology of diseases caused by Protozoa: Leishmania donavani, Trypanosoma gambiense, Entamoeba histolytica, Malarial parasites, Helminthes: Ascaris lumbricoides and Filarial parasites.


Unit IV: Biology of Viruses

Classification and Replication, DNA virus Replication strategies, RNA virus replication strategies, Viral genetics, Viruses transmitted via air: Influenza, Rhinovirus, SARS; Respiratory and Adeno Viruses : Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Enteroviruses and other Picornaviruses, Viruses transmitted via food or water: Rotavirus, Polio, Hepatitis A, Coxsackie virus; Oncogenic viruses: Human Papilloma virus, KSHV, HTLV; Viruses transmitted via sex, needles, or blood: Hepatitis C and HIV.


Unit V

Emerging viruses: Chikungunya, Influenza A virus (HIN1), Bioterrorism – Anthrax. Sexually transmitted diseases : Gonorrhea, Syphilis; Zoonoses – Borrelia burgdorferi; Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, Antiviral and anti-parasitic drugs.


Texts/References:

  1. Betty Forbes, Daniel Sahm, Alice Weinfield, Bailey-Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition, Mosby. 2007.

  2. Gerald Collee J, Andrew G Fraser, Barrie P Marmion, Mackie and McCartney's Practical

Medical Microbiology, Elsevier. 2006.

  1. Elmer W Koneman et al., Koneman's, Color Atlas and Text Book of Diagnostic Microbiology, 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005.

  2. Textbook of Microbiology sixth Edition-R Ananthanarayan,C.K.J Paniker.

  3. Medical Microbiology by Geo.F.Brooks, Karen C.carroll, janet.S, Stephen A.Mose 24 Edition.




MBT 155 Recombinant DNA Technology 3 0 0 3

Unit 1: Basic concepts in Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction Endonucleases, Klenow enzyme, T4 DNA polymerase, Polynucleotide kinase, Cohesive and blunt end ligation, linkers and adaptors, homopolymer tailing, alkaline phosphatase, double digestion, TA cloning, labeling of DNA probes: Nick translation, Random priming, Radioactive and non-radioactive probes. Hybridization techniques: Northern, Southern and Colony Hybridization (8 hrs)


Unit 2: Properties of Cloning Vectors: Plasmid Vectors : PBR 322, PUC19 vectors, Methods for introducing DNA into cells, Transformation, Selection of recombinants, alpha complementation, replica plating. Bacteriophage vectors : Insertion and replacement vectors, Cosmids, M13 Vectors, yeast vectors, shuttle vectors, Artificial chromosome vectors: YAC and BAC, Constitutive and Inducible Promoters, Expression vectors, GST vector, Animal Virus derived vectors-SV-40; vaccinia/baculo & retroviral vectors. (12 hrs)

Unit 3: Genomic and cDNA Library construction: Construction of Genomic and cDNA Libraries, preparation of mRNA, cDNA, Screening of libraries - gene probes, with antibodies, characterization of plasmid clones, Yeast two hybrid system, Phage display. (8 hrs)


Unit 4: PCR and Sequencing: Primer design; Fidelity of thermostable enzymes; DNA polymerases; Types of PCR – multiplex, nested, reverse transcriptase, real time PCR, touchdown PCR, hot start PCR, colony PCR, cloning of PCR products. Principles of DNA Sequencing: Sanger’s method, Maxam and Gilbert method, Automated DNA sequencing, shotgun sequencing, pyro sequencing, whole genome sequencing, (9 hrs)


Unit 5: Recombinant Protein Expression, Insulin, Human Growth Hormone, Hepaptitis B viral vaccine, Use of Fusion Proteins to aid in Recombinant Protein Purification, Site specific Mutagenesis Methods.

(8 hrs)


Text Books/References:

  1. Gene Cloning by T.A. Brown

  2. S.B. Primrose, R.M. Twyman and R.W.Old; Principles of Gene Manipulation.

6th Edition, S.B.University Press, 2001.

  1. Molecular cloning by Sambrook et al.

  2. Recombinant DNA, Third Edition, Watson, Caudy, Myers, Witowski.



MBT 107 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 3 1 0 4


UNIT 1: Genome Organization and DNA Replication (9 hrs)

Structure of DNA - A-,B-, Z- and triplex DNA , Organization of the bacterial genome, organization of eukaryotic chromosome, Role of nuclear matrix in chromosome organization, DNA reassociation kinetics (Cot curve analysis), Replication initiation, elongation and termination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Enzymes and accessory proteins; End replication problem, Role of telomerase


UNIT 2.Mutation, repair and recombination: (9hrs)

Replication errors and their repair, proofreading, mismatch repair, Mutagens, repair of DNA damage – photoreactivation, base excision repair, SOS repair, homologous recombination, holliday model, recBCD pathway, roleof recA, homologous recombination in eukaryotes, site specific recombination.

UNIT 3. Transcription: (9hrs)

Prokaryotic Transcription; Transcription unit; Promoters-Constitutive and Inducible; Operators; Regulatory elements; Initiation; Attenuation; Termination-Rho-dependent and independent; Anti-termination; Transcriptional regulation-Positive and negative; Operon concept- lac, trp, ara, and gal operons; Processing of tRNA and rRNA. Eucaryotic transcription and regulation; RNA polymerase structure and assembly; RNA polymerase I, II, III; Eukaryotic promoters and enhancers; General Transcription factors; TATA binding proteins (TBP) and TBP associated factors (TAF); Activators and repressors. Inhibitors of transcription


Unit 4. Post Transcriptional modifications, Translation and Transport (10 hrs)

Processing of hnRNA, tRNA, rRNA; 5'-Cap formation; 3'-end processing and polyadenylation; Mechanism of splicing, spliceosome, self-splicing, alternative splicing, exon shuffling, RNAediting, mRNAtransport, Catalytic RNA.

Translation & Transport

Translation machinery; Ribosomes; Composition and assembly; Universal genetic code; Degeneracy of genetic code; Termination codons; Wobble hypothesis; Mechanism of initiation, elongation and termination; Co- and post-translational modifications;


UNIT 5. Gene Regulation: (8 hrs)

Prokaryotes – activators and repressors, DNA looping, Eukaryotes – Homeodomain proteins, Zn containing DNA-binding domains, leucine zipper motifs, helix – loop helix proteins, gene silencing - DNAmethylation, histone modifications, mechanism of siRNA and microRNAs.


TOTAL HOURS: 45


Text Book / Reference books


1. Molecular Biology of the Gene, 5th Edition, Watson et al., Pearson Education.

2. Molecular biology by David Freifelder

3. Molecular biology- Lodish and Baltimore

4. Genes VIII – Lewin

5. Alberts et al; Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, Garland, 2002.



MBT 157 Clinical Biochemistry 3 0 0 3


UNIT I

Collection, prepservation of biological specimens such as blood, urine, CSF, bile, saliva and faeces, automation in clinical biochemistry, Disorders of blood – blood dyscrasias, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobin, hematuria, hemoglobinopathies, homeostasis and thrombosis, extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of blood clotting mechanism and disorders. Laboratory test and measure coagulation and anticoagulants.


UNIT II

Prenatal detection of in born – disorders of metabolism and in the fetus and heterozygous carriers by enzyme assays in amniotic fluid plasma cells and biopsy samples, phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, phenylalaninemia, homocystinuria and tyrosinemia and related disorders of amino acids, Hartnup’s disease, Hypo and hyper uricemia and gout.


UNIT III

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism – blood sugar level, diabetes mellitus, metabolic complications. Various types of glucose tolerance test, assay of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, lactose intolerance, fructosuria, pentosuria, mucopolysaccharidosis, ketone bodies, plasma lipids, lipoproteins, abnormalities, hypo and hyper cholesterolemia, lipidosis. Clinical inter-relationship of lipids (sphingolipidosis, multiple sclerosis), lipoproteins and apo lipoproteins. Diagnostic tests of lipoprotein. HDL – cholesterol, LDL – cholesterol and triglyceride disorders.


UNIT IV

Clinical enzymology – plasma enzymes in diagnosis and prognosis – amino transferases, aldolase, amylase, phosphatases, lipase, elastase,  – glutamyl transferase, 5’ nucleotidase. Iso enzymes of ALP and LDH, clinical application of plasma enzyme assays in myocardial infarction, liver diseases and muscle contraction.


UNIT V

Evaluation of organ function test – assessment and clinical manifestation of renal (clearance and tubular function tests), hepatic (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, pigment metabolism, detoxification, excretion), pancreatic, gastric (FTM, pentagastrin test, insulin stimulation tests) and intestinal functions (malabsorption syndrome, disaccharidoses deficiency)


References/Text books


  1. Practical Biochemistry by Varley

  2. Clinical biochemistry by Ramakrishnan




MBT 159 Clinical biochemistry and Immunology lab 0 0 6 2




  1. Estimation of common parameters in urine

  2. Liver profile analysis

  3. Kidney profile analysis

  4. Cholesterol (HDL, LDL) analysis

  5. Detection of C-reactive protein and HBsAg using latex slide test

  6. Peripheral smear staining by Leishman’s stain. Interpretation of peripheral

smear. Differential count.

  1. Antibody assays a) Immunodiffusion b) Immunoelectrophoresis

  2. Detection of syphilis using VDRL test

  3. Detection of HIV

  4. Sandwich ELISA

  5. Western blotting

  6. Flowcytometer : Analysis of cell surface antigens (demonstration)




MBT 161 Medical Microbiology and Recombinant DNA lab 0 0 6 2




  1. Gram staining, spore staining, capsule staining

  2. Hanging drop method-motility

  3. Acid fast staining

  4. Biochemical Test-A. Indole test, MR-VP test, Citrate test, TSI test.

B. Catalase ,Oxidase,Coagulase test.

  1. LPCP mount

  2. Plaque assay using bacteriophage.

  3. Haemagglutination test.

  4. Preparation of Competent cells

  5. Transformation

  6. TA cloning

  7. Plasmid mini preps, Plasmid large scale preparation

  8. Restriction mapping

  9. Mutagenesis by chemical agents or UV



II semester


MBT 152 Pharmacology 3 1 0 4


Unit 1: General pharmacology 9hrs

Introduction to pharmacology, Routes of administration of drugs, their advantages and disadvantages. Various processes of absorption of drugs and the factors affecting them. Metabolism, distribution and excretion of drugs. General mechanism of drugs action and their factors which modify drugs action.


Unit 2: Drugs acting on the central Nervous system: 9hrs
General anaesthetics- adjunction to anaesthesia, intravenous anaesthetics. Analgesic antipyretics and non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs- Narcotic analgesics.Local anesthetics. Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system. Cholinergic drugs, Anticholinergic drugs, anticholinesterase drugs. Adrenergic drugs and adrenergic receptor blockers. Neurone blockers and ganglion blockers. Neuromuscular blockers,


Unit 3: Drugs acting on respiratory system 9hrs
Respiratory stimulants, Bronchodilators, Nasal decongestants, Expectorants and Antitussive agents. Autocoids: physiological role of histamine and serotonin, Histamine and Antihistamines, prostaglandins.


Unit 4: Cardio vascular drugs and drugs acting on digestive system 9hrs
Cardiotonics, Antiarrhythmic agents, Anti-anginal agents, Antihypertensive agents, peripheral Vasodilators and drugs used in atherosclerosis. Diuretics and anti-diuretics. Drugs acting on digestive system-carminatives, digestants, Bitters, Antacids and drugs used in peptic ulcer, purgatives ,and laxatives, Antidiarrohoeals, Emetics, Anti-emetics, Antispasmodics.

Unit 5: Chemotherapy of microbial diseases: 9hrs
Antibacterials, Antifungal agents, antiviral drugs, Chemotherapy of protozoal diseases, Anthelmintic drugs.Chemotherapy of cancer.

Total hrs 45


Text Book

  1. B.S sathoskar Pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics Nineteenth ed popular prakasam 2005.

References

  1. Gareth Thomas. Medicinal Chemistry. An introduction. John Wiley. 2000.



MBT 104 Bioinformatics 3 1 0 4


Unit I:

Sequence Databases and Information Retrieval: Nucleotide Sequence Databases; GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ, all as part of INSDC; accession numbers & annotations, Medical Databases


Unit II.

Pairwise Sequence Comparisons: biology of homology, PAM & BLOSSUM scoring matrices, global & local alignment algorithms, statisical significance of pairwise alignments.


Unit III.

BLAST, FASTA and Advanced BLAST: Database searching, FASTA algorithm, BLAST

ALGORITHM, PSI BLAST, STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DATABASE SEARCHES


Unit IV:

Protein Sequence and Structure Analyses : 4 essential perspectives on proteins: (1) domains

and motifs, (2) physical properties, (3) protein localization, (4) protein function. Gene Ontology for these perspectives in action; proteomics - methods, practices, databases introduction to protein structure and structural genomics; principles of protein structure & protein folding - X-ray crystallography and NMR - the PDB, RCSB, SCOP, CATH, DALI, FSSP & others.


Unit V.

MSA's or Multiple Sequence Alignments: Hierarchical and non-hierarchical Methods -

MSAs by PSI-BLAST , Tools for MSAs, 3D-PSSM Protein Fold Recognition (Threading) Server: Introduction to Molecular Evolution, Tree nomenclature and structure; the 4 stages of Phylogenetic Analysis, tree-building methods, NJ, MP, ML, tree-evaluation methods, the Bootstrap, Phylogenetics: Introduction to the basics, Models, Assumptions, & Interpretations, How to construct a Tree in 4 steps; the differences, between Parsimony, Distance, and Likelihood.
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