Studies on dietary supplements for the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)




НазваниеStudies on dietary supplements for the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)
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Studies on dietary supplements for the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)


Elijah J. Nya


A thesis submitted for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK

August 2009


The copyright in this thesis is owned by the author. Any quotation from the thesis or use of any of the information contained in it must acknowledge this thesis as the source of the quotation or information."


Abstract

Three compounds, garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were selected from an examination of ten dietary supplements based on their performance in enhancing protection and immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) fingerlings, after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. Thus, dietary garlic at doses of 0.5 g and 1.0 g/100 g of feed resulted in mortalities of 4% (relative percent survival [RPS] = 91.75%), compared with 80% mortalities in the controls. Use of dietary ginger and LPS led to 0% mortality (RPS = 100%), compared with 85% in the controls. Growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were enhanced in all the experimental groups. The mode of action involved stimulation of non-specific immunity by proliferation of immune cells, enhancement of phagocytic, oxidative burst, lysozyme, antiprotease and bacteriocidal activities, and modulation of digestive enzymes.


Dedication


To my daughter Edikan E. Nya of blessed memory


Acknowledgements

I would like to thank God for his mercies upon my life and indeed, for sustaining me throughout the period of this study. More importantly, my gratitude goes to my supervisors, Prof. B. Austin and Dr. Alastair Lyndon, for their useful advice, support and encouragement in editing and proof-reading this thesis. I appreciate greatly Dr. Dawn Austin and Mrs Margaret Stobie for expertise and guidance during my laboratory work and their motherly advice in time of need. Also members of our research group Dr. Peter Morris, Dr. Susan, Dr Rahman, Sharif, John, Callum, Elham, Maite and Yan. I acknowledge Dr M. Barker for her advice and help on DNA sequencing, and Sean McMenamy for expertise on electrolyte analysis with flame emission photometry. Also, I am grateful to Gina, Rob Young the computer technician, Elaine Legget and Mags Munro of the School office and all others in the School of Life Sciences, who have in no small measure, helped me in this course of study. Finally, I acknowledged the patience of my wife Mrs Agnes Nya, for my absence from home all this time, and acknowledge my sponsor Akwa Ibom State University of Technology Uyo, Nigeria, for funding the entire program.


ACADEMIC REGISTRY

Research Thesis Submission



Name:

Elijah J Nya

School/PGI:

Life Sciences

Version: (i.e. First, Resubmission, Final)

Final

Degree Sought (Award and Subject area)

Ph.D.



Declaration


In accordance with the appropriate regulations I hereby submit my thesis and I declare that:


1) the thesis embodies the results of my own work and has been composed by myself

2) where appropriate, I have made acknowledgement of the work of others and have made reference to work carried out in collaboration with other persons

3) the thesis is the correct version of the thesis for submission and is the same version as any electronic versions submitted*.

4) my thesis for the award referred to, deposited in the Heriot-Watt University Library, should be made available for loan or photocopying and be available via the Institutional Repository, subject to such conditions as the Librarian may require

5) I understand that as a student of the University I am required to abide by the Regulations of the University and to conform to its discipline.


* Please note that it is the responsibility of the candidate to ensure that the correct version of the thesis is submitted.


Signature of Candidate:




Date:

31.08.09



Submission


Submitted By (name in capitals):

ELIJAH J NYA


Signature of Individual Submitting:




Date Submitted:


31.08.09
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