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The following topics are dealt with: resonant techniques; sine-wave output conversion; quality manufacturing; high-frequency converters and applications; brushless drives and motion control; power sources marketing; control techniques; simulation tools; induction and synchronous motor drives; three-phase linear harmonic control; test and measuring methods; magnetic amplifiers; single-phase power factor correction; circuit modeling and analysis; UPS and battery systems; power semiconductors and packaging; magnetic components; and converter analysis.
 V. G. Agelidis, P. D. Ziogas, and G. Joos, "An efficient full bridge pwm dc-dc converter topology using lossless snubber and simple active energy recovery network," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 146.
The single-phase full-bridge switch mode pulse-width modulated (PWM) DC-DC converter topology discussed minimizes switching losses and resulting stresses through the effective use of one DC bus inductor and two snubber capacitors. The inductor provides zero current turn-on and the capacitors are alternately connected across each switch, thus providing zero voltage turn-off. After turn-off, capacitor energy is transferred to the load through a low loss path. A simple active energy recovery network that increases the overall converter efficiency is also proposed. The authors include a complete circuit analysis and design procedure. Predicted results are verified experimentally on a 5-kW, 10-kHz laboratory prototype.
 J. P. Agrawal and C. Q. Lee, "Effects of resistances and leakage inductances on cross regulation in src," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 65.
The authors analyze the effect of parasitic resistances on the cross regulation performance of multi-output series resonant converter (SRC) topologies. The steady state cross regulation characteristics are derived for the example of a two-output SRC. A comparison is given of the characteristic curves of the SRC with parasitic resistances and the SRC with leakage inductances. The results show that the cross regulation due to parasitic resistances is much less than that due to the leakage inductances. The theoretical results for the parasitic resistance case were verified by computer simulation.
 I. Barbi and H. L. Hey, "A half-bridge zero-voltage switching pulse-width modulated dc-to-dc converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 140.
The authors introduce a half-bridge DC-to-DC converter, regulated by pulsewidth modulation (PWM) at constant switching frequency and featuring commutation at zero-voltage. The principle of operation, the theoretical analysis, the design procedure and an example, and experimental results are provided. It is demonstrated that the proposed converter does not use resonance to transfer power to the load. The devices are not submitted to voltage stresses. The device is driven as a conventional PWM converter. It is suitable for low DC-voltage conversion ratio applications, as long as an isolating transformer is not employed. Two laboratory prototypes, one with isolated output and another with unisolated output, have been successfully implemented. The isolated prototype worked with an input voltage of 300 V, a switching frequency of 100 kHz, and output power of 550 W, and gave an efficiency of 82.5%.
 R. C. Becerra, M. Ehsani, and T. J. E. Miller, "Commutation of sr motors," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 181.
The authors present commutation schemes for most common types of switched reluctance motors (SRMs). These schemes permit the realization of four-quadrant multimode SR motor drive operation with a simple logic control and with position feedback from low-resolution position sensors. A case study of a four-quadrant SR drive with multimode operation for a three-phase motor with six stator and four rotor poles is used to illustrate the method used in deriving the commutation schemes.
 R. C. Becerra, T. M. Jahns, and M. Ehsani, "Four-quadrant sensorless brushless ecm drive," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 202.
A four-quadrant brushless electronically commutated motor (ECM) drive is presented which provides high-quality torque control without discrete current sensors or a rotor position sensor. Rotor position feedback is developed by extracting sufficient information from the motor back-EMF voltage waveforms, and current feedback is provided by current sensors integrated into MOS-gated power switches (MOSFETs or IGBTs). Controller parts count is minimized using a custom VLSI chip which performs the rotor position sensing, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) current regulation, and various protection functions. The interface between the low-power logic and inverter power switches is accomplished using a high-voltage integrated circuit (HVIC) gate driver for each of the three phase legs. Experimental results using a compact prototype ECM drive card are presented which demonstrate the desired four-quadrant performance without discrete sensors.
 L. Bennett and T. Dodenhoeft, "Quality and reliability: A customer's perspective," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 120.
The authors discuss the customer's perspective in the manufacturing and design of power systems that must meet higher customer quality and reliability expectations while reducing production costs. The aspects related to Storage Technology Corporation's activities are discussed.
 D. Berning, "An automated reverse-bias second-breakdown transistor tester," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 339.
An automated instrument for generating curves for the reverse-bias, safe-operating area of transistors nondestructively is described. A technique for detecting second breakdown that makes automation possible is highlighted. Methods to reduce stress to the device under test are discussed, as are several other innovations that enhance automation. Measurements using the tester are described, and limitations on nondestructive testability are discussed.
 A. K. S. Bhat, "Analysis and design of a modified series resonant converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 594.
A modified series resonant converter (SRC) which overcomes the problems of a standard SRC is presented. A state-space approach is used for the analysis. The analysis shows that the converter enters into three different modes. Converter gain and other component stresses are plotted with variation in the load current. Detailed experimental results obtained from a 500-W, MOSFET converter are presented to verify the theory. A narrow variation in switching frequency is required to regulate the output voltage for a wide variation in the load current. The converter can operate with a load open circuit as well as a load short circuit. It is shown that by placing the parallel inductor on the secondary-side, the parasitics of the high-frequency transformer can be used profitably.
 G. Bloom and D. M. Mitchell, "Integrated-magnetic pre-converter networks for switchmode power converter circuits," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 133.
The evolution details and design issues of novel preconverter approaches are presented, whereby the input voltage range capability of buck or buck-boost-derived DC-to-DC converters can be greatly extended. The integrated-magnetic forms of the concept use three passive circuit components and two diodes, and do not require any active switch elements. The preconverters also naturally translate the normally pulsating currents drawn by user power converters into nonpulsating forms whose AC ripple current magnitudes can be reduced to near-zero values by proper magnetics design. Small-signal modeling methods for examining the effects of the presence of preconverters on user converter circuits are presented.
 S. Bolognani, E. Ognibeni, and M. Zigliotto, "Sliding mode control of the energy recovery chopper in a c-dump switched reluctance motor drive," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 188.
The authors propose a novel control strategy of the energy recovery chopper in a C-dump switched reluctance motor drive. The control is based on the sliding mode theory and allows continuous output current operation of the chopper to be attained with low semiconductor current peaks and capacitor voltage fluctuations. The dynamic equations of the chopper are at first formulated, from the capacitor voltage control point of view. It is shown that the chopper operates as a boost DC-to-DC converter in a regenerative mode. The sliding mode control is then designed, and the effects of converter and control parameters on the chopper performance are pointed out. Experimental results are presented and discussed.
 C. P. Bottura, J. L. Silvino, and P. Resende, "A flux observer for induction machines based on a time-variant discrete model," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 302.
The authors present an approach to obtain a discrete-time counterpart of the two-axis continuous model of induction machine. The discrete time-variant equations are derived from a partial discretization of the continuous state equation. A discrete time-variant reduced order flux observer is then proposed by using the discrete model. Computer simulation results show better performance of the proposed model in terms of accuracy and stability compared with those obtained from the classical Euler method. Although apparently complex in its formulation, only sums of 2 × 2 matrices and repetitive scalar multiplications are required.
 C. A. Canesin and I. Barbi, "A unity power factor multiple isolated outputs switching mode power supply using a single switch," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 430.
The authors present an offline switching power supply with multiple isolated outputs and unity power factor with the use of only one power processing stage, based on the DC-DC SEPIC (single ended primary inductance converter) modulated by variable hysteresis current control. The principle of operation, the theoretical analysis, the design procedure, an example, and simulation results are presented. A laboratory prototype, rated at 160 W, operating at a maximum switching frequency of 100 kHz, with isolated outputs rated at +5 V/15 A -5 V/1 A, +12 V/6 A and -12 V/1 A, has been built given an input power factor near unity.
 S. M. Cash, "Evaluation and selection of forward rectifiers for mag amp secondary post regulators," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 373.
The selection of forward rectifiers for a magnetic amplifier used in post-secondary voltage regulation plays a key role in the effective control of the saturable reactor switches. The author examines four types of rectifiers which could be employed in a design and discusses the limiting factors for each type. The rectifiers evaluated are the ultra-fast, fast, Schottky, and power MOSFET synchronous switch rectifiers. It is shown that devices with the lowest forward or reverse capacitance minimize the reset interval disturbance. Diode capacitance is shown to be an important parameter in the design of magamp regulators that employ cores for which the loop is highly square.
 W. T. Cowan, "Esd damage: What it is and what we can do about it," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 117.
The author discusses electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage that is inflicted upon electronic components and assemblies. During manufacture or transit, various materials and compounds rub against each other or separate one from another. This creation of a net charge imbalance on two or more objects by rubbing and separating is called triboelectric charging, and is a primary source for concern in ESD damage prevention. The first damage prevention strategy is to apply design techniques to make sensitive devices less sensitive. The second strategy is to implement an ESD-damage-prevention program for all manufacturing, handling, and storage areas. Such a program should include static safe work areas, appropriate employee and equipment grounding, and the use of conductive shielding containers for all sensitive items whenever they are not at static safe workstations.
 R. W. Cox, "Test equipment--a call for standardization," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 125.
The topics discussed are the current status of testing, testing application areas, test specification standardization for power supply consumers and manufacturers, and the standards solution. The author addresses two specific areas. The first area explores test equipment as it exists today and in the near future. The second area identifies the problems associated with, and the need for, the standardization of power supply test.
 K. Dalal, "Substrate and metallization selection for high power hybrid circuits based on thermal resistance and temperature cycling reliability," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 347.
Thermal resistance literature for materials systems used in high-power hybrid modules is reviewed. Based on the review, beryllia appears to be the best choice for a ceramic substrate material followed by aluminum nitride. Thick-film metallization and other copper metallization systems for beryllia substrates have been evaluated for aged adhesion and temperature cycling reliability. Results indicate that beryllia substrates with directly bonded copper metallization present the best choice of materials system to address thermal resistance and thermal aging as well as temperature cycling reliability issues in the high-power hybrid circuits.
 R. W. De Doncker and J. P. Lyons, "Control of three phase power supplies for ultra low thd," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exhibition, 1991, pp. 622.
Current regulators are proposed and investigated for high-power three-phase power supplies with ultra-low total harmonic distortion (THD) (less than 0.5%). Two valid approaches to realize three-phase power supplies can be proposed. In the first approach, current regulated pulse-width-modulated (PWM) inverters along with high bandwidth voltage control loops are proposed. In the second approach, an internal voltage synthesizer under closed loop current control is used. Both approaches have mechanisms to decouple the LC filter interactions and to lower the THD. The tradeoffs of these two basic approaches are investigated. The influence of different current regulators, in case of the current-regulated PWM (CRPWM) converter is investigated as well as different approaches to control the voltage synthesizer under current control. The study compares the effectiveness of these current regulator in soft-switching PWM inverters and describes a method to measure accurately ultra-low THDs.
 E. J. Dede, J. Jordan, J. V. Gonzalez, J. Linares, V. Esteve, and E. Maset, "Conception and design of a parallel resonant converter for induction heating," in
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